Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) cause widespread respiratory infections, with no vaccines or effective treatments. We show that the molecular determinants for HPIV3 growth in vitro are fundamentally different from those required in vivo and that these differences impact inhibitor susceptibility. HPIV infects its target cells by coordinated action of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase receptor-binding protein (HN) and the fusion envelope glycoprotein (F), which together comprise the molecular fusion machinery; upon receptor engagement by HN, the prefusion F undergoes a structural transition, extending and inserting into the target cell membrane and then refolding into a postfusion structure that fuses the viral and cell membranes. Peptides derived from key regions of F can potently inhibit HPIV infection at the entry stage, by interfering with the structural transition of F. We show that clinically circulating viruses have fusion machinery that is more stable and less readily activated than viruses adapted to growth in culture. Fusion machinery that is advantageous for growth in human airway epithelia and in vivo confers susceptibility to peptide fusion inhibitors in the host lung tissue or animal, but the same fusion inhibitors have no effect on viruses whose fusion glycoproteins are suited for growth in vitro. We propose that for potential clinical efficacy, antivirals should be evaluated using clinical isolates in natural host tissue rather than lab strains of virus in cultured cells. The unique susceptibility of clinical strains in human tissues reflects viral inhibition in vivo.
The paramyxoviruses human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) are responsible for the majority of pediatric respiratory diseases and inflict significant economic loss, health care costs, and emotional burdens. Despite major efforts, there are no vaccines available for these viruses. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at positions guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2'-O. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant hMPVs carrying mutations in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2'-O methylation but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of cotton rats. Importantly, vaccination of cotton rats with these recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) with defective MTases triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody, and the rats were completely protected from challenge with wild-type rhMPV. Collectively, our results indicate that (i) amino acid residues in the SAM binding site in the hMPV L protein are essential for 2'-O methylation and (ii) inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for hMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses, such as hRSV and hPIV3.
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive CD4+/CD25+ T-cell malignancy caused by human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Previous studies in the MET-1 cell/NOD/SCID mouse model of ATL demonstrated that MET-1 cells are very susceptible to measles virus (MV) oncolytic therapy. To further evaluate the potential of MV therapy in ATL, the susceptibility of several HTLV-1 transformed CD4+ T cell lines (MT-1, MT-2, MT-4 and C8166-45) as well as HTLV-1 negative CD4+ T cell lines (Jurkat and CCRF-CEM) to infection with MV was tested in vitro. All cell lines were permissive to MV infection and subsequent cell death, except MT-1 and CCRF-CEM cells which were susceptible and permissive to MV infection, but resistant to cell death. The resistance to MV-mediated cell death was associated with IFN? produced by MT-1 and CCRF-CEM cells. Inhibition of IFN? rendered MT-1 and CCRF-CEM cells susceptible to MV-mediated cell death. Cells susceptible to MV-induced cell death did not produce nor were responsive to IFN?. Upon infection with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), MT-1 and CCRF-CEM but not the susceptible cell lines up-regulated pSTAT-2. In vivo, treatment of tumors induced by MT-1 cell lines which produce IFN? demonstrated only small increases in mean survival time, while only two treatments prolonged mean survival time in mice with MET-1 tumors deficient in type I interferon production. These results indicate that type I interferon production is closely linked with the inability of tumor cells to respond to type I interferon. Screening of tumor cells for type I interferon could be a useful strategy to select candidate patients for MV virotherapy.
Human norovirus (NoV) accounts for 95% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine available to combat human NoV as it is not cultivable and lacks a small-animal model. Recently, we demonstrated that recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing human NoV capsid protein (rVSV-VP1) induced strong immunities in mice (Y. Ma and J. Li, J. Virol. 85:2942-2952, 2011). To further improve the safety and efficacy of the vaccine candidate, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was inserted into the rVSV-VP1 backbone vector. A second construct was generated in which the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene was inserted in place of HSP70 as a control for the double insertion. The resultant recombinant viruses (rVSV-HSP70-VP1 and rVSV-Luc-VP1) were significantly more attenuated in cell culture and viral spread in mice than rVSV-VP1. At the inoculation dose of 1.0 × 10(6) PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 triggered significantly higher vaginal IgA than rVSV-VP1 and significantly higher fecal and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-Luc-VP1, although serum IgG and T cell responses were similar. At the inoculation dose of 5.0 × 10(6) PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 stimulated significantly higher T cell, fecal, and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-VP1. Fecal and vaginal IgA responses were also significantly increased when combined vaccination of rVSV-VP1 and rVSV-HSP70 was used. Collectively, these data indicate that (i) insertion of an additional gene (HSP70 or Luc) into the rVSV-VP1 backbone further attenuates the VSV-based vaccine in vitro and in vivo, thus improving the safety of the vaccine candidate, and (ii) HSP70 enhances the human NoV-specific mucosal and T cell immunities triggered by a VSV-based human NoV vaccine.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a relatively recently identified paramyxovirus that causes acute upper and lower respiratory tract infection. Entry of hMPV is unusual among the paramyxoviruses, in that fusion is accomplished by the fusion (F) protein without the attachment glycoprotein (G protein). It has been suggested that hMPV F protein utilizes integrin ?v?1 as a cellular receptor. Consistent with this, the F proteins of all known hMPV strains possess an integrin-binding motif ((329)RGD(331)). The role of this motif in viral entry, infectivity, and pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that ?5?1 and ?v integrins are essential for cell-cell fusion and hMPV infection. Mutational analysis found that residues R329 and G330 in the (329)RGD(331) motif are essential for cell-cell fusion, whereas mutations at D331 did not significantly impact fusion activity. Furthermore, fusion-defective RGD mutations were either lethal to the virus or resulted in recombinant hMPVs that had defects in viral replication in cell culture. In cotton rats, recombinant hMPV with the R329K mutation in the F protein (rhMPV-R329K) and rhMPV-D331A exhibited significant defects in viral replication in nasal turbinates and lungs. Importantly, inoculation of cotton rats with these mutants triggered a high level of neutralizing antibodies and protected against hMPV challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that (i) ?5?1 and ?v integrins are essential for cell-cell fusion and viral replication, (ii) the first two residues in the RGD motif are essential for fusion activity, and (iii) inhibition of the interaction of the integrin-RGD motif may serve as a new target to rationally attenuate hMPV for the development of live attenuated vaccines.
Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) replicate measles virus (MV) after intranasal infection in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissue. We have cloned the cotton rat signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (CD150, SLAM) in order to investigate its role as a potential receptor for MV. Cotton rat CD150 displays 58% and 78% amino acid homology with human and mouse CD150, respectively. By staining with a newly generated cotton rat CD150 specific monoclonal antibody expression of CD150 was confirmed in cotton rat lymphoid cells and in tissues with a pattern of expression similar to mouse and humans. Previously, binding of MV hemagglutinin has been shown to be dependent on amino acids 60, 61 and 63 in the V region of CD150. The human molecule contains isoleucine, histidine and valine at these positions and binds to MV-H whereas the mouse molecule contains valine, arginine and leucine and does not function as a receptor for MV. In the cotton rat molecule, amino acids 61 and 63 are identical with the mouse molecule and amino acid 60 with the human molecule. After transfection with cotton rat CD150 HEK 293 T cells became susceptible to infection with single cycle VSV pseudotype virus expressing wild type MV glycoproteins and with a MV wildtype virus. After infection, cells expressing cotton rat CD150 replicated virus to lower levels than cells expressing the human molecule and formed smaller plaques. These data might explain why the cotton rat is a semipermissive model for measles virus infection.
Neonates have an immature immune system, which cannot adequately protect against infectious diseases. Early in life, immune protection is accomplished by maternal antibodies transferred from mother to offspring. However, decaying maternal antibodies inhibit vaccination as is exemplified by the inhibition of seroconversion after measles vaccination. This phenomenon has been described in both human and veterinary medicine and is independent of the type of vaccine being used. This review will discuss the use of animal models for vaccine research. I will review clinical solutions for inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies, and the testing and development of potentially effective vaccines. These are based on new mechanistic insight about the inhibitory mechanism of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies inhibit the generation of antibodies whereas the T cell response is usually unaffected. B cell inhibition is mediated through a cross-link between B cell receptor (BCR) with the Fc?-receptor IIB by a vaccine-antibody complex. In animal experiments, this inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of a vaccine-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B cell directly through cross-linking the BCR via complement protein C3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 (CR2) signaling complex. In addition, it was shown that interferon alpha binds to the CD21 chain of CR2 as well as the interferon receptor and that this dual receptor usage drives B cell responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. In lieu of immunizing the infant, the concept of maternal immunization as a strategy to protect neonates has been proposed. This approach would still not solve the question of how to immunize in the presence of maternal antibodies but would defer the time of infection to an age where infection might not have such a detrimental outcome as in neonates. I will review successful examples and potential challenges of implementing this concept.
Paramyxoviruses, enveloped RNA viruses that include human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), cause the majority of childhood viral pneumonia. HPIV3 infection starts when the viral receptor-binding protein engages sialic acid receptors in the lung and the viral envelope fuses with the target cell membrane. Fusion/entry requires interaction between two viral surface glycoproteins: tetrameric hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion protein (F). In this report, we define structural correlates of the HN features that permit infection in vivo. We have shown that viruses with an HN-F that promotes growth in cultured immortalized cells are impaired in differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures (HAE) and in vivo and evolve in HAE into viable viruses with less fusogenic HN-F. In this report, we identify specific structural features of the HN dimer interface that modulate HN-F interaction and fusion triggering and directly impact infection. Crystal structures of HN, which promotes viral growth in vivo, show a diminished interface in the HN dimer compared to the reference strains HN, consistent with biochemical and biological data indicating decreased dimerization and decreased interaction with F protein. The crystallographic data suggest a structural explanation for the HNs altered ability to activate F and reveal properties that are critical for infection in vivo.
Immunization of neonates is problematic because of the immaturity of their immune system and the presence of maternal antibodies, both of which affect B cell responses. We tested the effects of co-administration of measles vaccine with a combination of TLR-3 (pI:C) and TLR-9 (ODN2216, optimized for human TLR-9) agonists on the ability to induce an effective immune response in neonatal cotton rats. TLR-9 expression in cotton rat lymphocytes was at the same low level as in human lymphocytes, which is in contrast to mice that express higher levels. TLR-3 expression levels were comparable between cotton rats, mice, and humans. A combination of TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonists synergistically induced high levels of type I interferon in neonatal spleen cells and higher levels of IL-10 as compared to adult spleen cells. Previously, it was shown that type I interferon stimulates B cell generation and antibody secretion in vitro and in vivo, and that IL-10 has immunomodulatory effects. The simultaneous induction of both type I interferon and IL-10 indicated that this immunization regimen could be both effective and safe. Neonatal cotton rats did not generate neutralizing antibodies after measles vaccination in the first week of life (although a T cell response was detectable). However, co-administration of the TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonist combination with measles vaccine in neonatal cotton rats induced neutralizing antibody responses comparable to those after adult immunization. This immunization regimen was also effective in neonatal cotton rats in the presence of natural maternal antibodies, although antibody titers were lower than those after immunization in the absence of maternal antibodies.
Respiratory viral infection is a great human health concern, resulting in disease, death and economic losses. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) have been particularly useful in the study of the pathogenesis of human respiratory virus infections, including the development and testing of antiviral compounds and vaccines. In this article, the authors outline the advantages of the cotton rat compared with the mouse as a model for infection with measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, human parainfluenza virus and human metapneumovirus. From the literature and their own experience, the authors summarize guidelines for handling, maintaining and breeding cotton rats. In addition, they offer technical tips for carrying out infection experiments and provide information about the large array of immunological assays and reagents available for the study of immune responses (macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, antibodies, chemokines and cytokines) in cotton rats.
Maternal antibodies inhibit seroconversion and the generation of measles virus (MeV)-specific antibodies (both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies) after vaccination whereas T cell responses are usually unaffected. The lack of seroconversion leaves individuals susceptible to vaccine-preventable infections. Inhibition of antibody secretion is due to the inhibition of B cells through a cross-link of the B cell receptor with the inhibitory Fc?IIB receptor (CD32) by maternal antibody/vaccine complexes. Here, we demonstrate that a combination of TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonists induces synergistically higher levels of type I interferon in vitro and in vivo than either agonist alone. The synergistic action of TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonists is based on a feedback loop through the interferon receptor. Finally, we have identified CD21 as a potential receptor for interferon ? on B cells which contributes to interferon ?-mediated activation of B cells in the presence of maternal antibodies. The combination leads to complete restoration of B cell and antibody responses after immunization in the presence of inhibitory MeV-specific IgG. The strong stimulatory action of type I interferon is due to the fact that type I interferon uses not only the interferon receptor but also CD21 as a functional receptor for B cell activation.
Measles virus is highly neuroinvasive, yet host immune responses are highly effective at limiting neurovirulence in humans. We know that neurons are an important target of infection and that both IFN-? and -? expression are observed in the measles virus-infected human brain. Rodent models can be used to understand how this response is orchestrated. Constitutive expression of the major inducible 70-kDa heat-shock protein is a feature of primate tissues that is lacking in mice. This article examines the importance of addressing this difference when modeling outcomes of brain infection in mice, particularly in terms of understanding how infected neurons may activate uninfected brain macrophages to produce IFN-? and support T-cell production of IFN-?, a mediator of noncytolytic viral clearance. New and historical data suggest that the virus heat-shock protein 70 relationship is key to a protective host immune response and has potential broad relevance.
The inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies is a widely observed phenomenon in human and veterinary medicine. Maternal antibodies are known to suppress the B-cell response. This is similar to antibody feedback mechanism studies where passively transferred antibody inhibits the B-cell response against particulate antigens because of epitope masking. In the absence of experimental data addressing the mechanism underlying inhibition by maternal antibodies, it has been suggested that epitope masking explains the inhibition by maternal antibodies, too. Here we report that in the cotton rat model of measles virus (MV) vaccination passively transferred MV-specific immunoglobulin G inhibit B-cell responses through cross-linking of the B-cell receptor with Fc?RIIB. The extent of inhibition increases with the number of antibodies engaging Fc?RIIB and depends on the Fc region of antibody and its isotype. This inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of MV-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B-cell directly through cross-linking the B-cell receptor via complement protein 3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 signaling complex. These data demonstrate that maternal antibodies inhibit B-cell responses by interaction with the inhibitory/regulatory Fc?RIIB receptor and not through epitope masking.
Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive CD4(+) T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1. Measles virus (MV) oncolytic therapy has been reported to be efficient in reducing tumour burden in subcutaneous xenograft models of lymphoproliferative disorders such as myeloma, B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, but its potential to reduce tumour burden in disseminated lymphoproliferative disorders such as ATL remains to be determined. In this study, MV oncolytic therapy was evaluated in the MET-1/NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model of ATL. Treatment with the vaccine-related strain MV-NSE led to a significant reduction in tumour burden. In mice with a high tumour burden, therapy with MV-NSE significantly increased survival beyond any other single treatment tested previously using this model. Interestingly, signs of morbidity (cachexia) in mice treated with MV were not directly associated with tumour burden, but were correlated with the secretion of interleukin-6 by MET-1 cells and host cells. The results suggest that MV therapy could be a promising therapy for generalized lymphoproliferative disease.
Measles virus (MV) vaccine effectively protects seronegative individuals against infection. However, inhibition of vaccine-induced seroconversion by maternal antibodies after vaccination remains a problem, as it leaves infants susceptible to MV infection. In cotton rats, passive transfer of MV-specific IgG mimics maternal antibodies and inhibits vaccine-induced seroconversion. Here, we report that immunization in the presence of passively transferred IgG inhibits the secretion of neutralizing antibodies but not the generation of MV-specific B cells. This finding suggested that MV-specific B cells require an additional stimulus to mature into antibody-secreting plasma cells. In order to provide such a stimulus, we generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the MV hemagglutinin (NDV-H). In contrast to MV, NDV-H induced high levels of type I interferon in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and in lung tissue. In cotton rats immunized with NDV-H, neutralizing antibodies were also generated in the presence of passively transferred antibodies. In the latter case, however, the level and kinetics of antibody generation were reduced. In vitro, alpha interferon stimulated the activation of MV-specific B cells from MV-immune spleen cells. NDV infection (which induces alpha interferon) had the same effect, and stimulation could be abrogated by antibodies neutralizing alpha interferon, but not interleukin 6 (IL-6). In vivo, coapplication of UV-inactivated MV with NDV led to increased MV-specific antibody production in the presence and absence of passively transferred antibodies. These data indicate that MV-specific B cells are being generated after immunization in the presence of maternal antibodies and that the provision of alpha interferon as an additional signal leads to antibody secretion.
Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific immune response was measured in different dog populations. Three groups of vaccinated or wild-type virus exposed dogs were tested: dogs with a known vaccination history, dogs without a known vaccination history (shelter dogs), and dogs with potential exposure to wild-type CDV. The use of a T-cell proliferation assay demonstrated a detectable CDV-specific T-cell response from both spleen and blood lymphocytes of dogs. Qualitatively, antibody assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization assay] predicted the presence of a T-cell response well, although quantitatively neither antibody assays nor the T-cell assay correlated well with each other. An interesting finding from our study was that half of the dogs in shelters were not vaccinated (potentially posing a public veterinary health problem) and that antibody levels in dogs living in an environment with endemic CDV were lower than in vaccinated animals.
The ARF tumor suppressor regulates p53 as well as basic developmental processes independent of p53, including osteoclast activation, by controlling ribosomal biogenesis. Here we provide evidence that ARF is a master regulator of bone remodeling and osteosarcoma (OS) development in mice. Arf(-/-) mice displayed increased osteoblast (OB) and osteoclast (OC) activity with a significant net increase in trabecular bone volume. The long bones of Arf(-/-) mice had increased expression of OB genes while Arf(-/-) OB showed enhanced differentiation in vitro. Mice transgenic for the Tax oncogene develop lymphocytic tumors with associated osteolytic lesions, while Tax+Arf(-/-) mice uniformly developed spontaneous OS by 7 months of age. Tax+Arf(-/-) tumors were well differentiated OS characterized by an abundance of new bone with OC recruitment, expressed OB markers and displayed intact levels of p53 mRNA and reduced Rb transcript levels. Cell lines established from OS recapitulated characteristics of the primary tumor, including the expression of mature OB markers and ability to form mineralized tumors when transplanted. Loss of heterozygosity in OS tumors arising in Tax+Arf(+/-) mice emphasized the necessity of ARF-loss in OS development. Hypothesizing that inhibition of ARF-regulated bone remodeling would repress development of OS, we demonstrated that treatment of Tax+Arf(-/-) mice with zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate inhibitor of OC activity and repressor of bone turnover, prevented or delayed the onset of OS. These data describe a novel role for ARF as a regulator of bone remodeling through effects on both OB and OC. Finally, these data underscore the potential of targeting bone remodeling as adjuvant therapy or in patients with genetic predispositions to prevent the development of OS.
The first step in infection by human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) is binding to the surface of respiratory epithelial cells via interaction between viral receptor-binding molecules and sialic acid-containing receptors. DAS181, a recombinant sialidase protein containing the catalytic domain of Actinomyces viscosus sialidase, removes cell surface sialic acid, and we proposed that it would inhibit HPIV infection.
Many RNA and DNA viruses activate serine-threonine kinase AKT to increase virus replication. In contrast, measles virus (MV) infection leads to downregulation of AKT. This is thought to be beneficial for the virus because it correlates with immune suppression. To determine whether this is a sacrifice for the virus, we used a recombinant virus and transfected cells expressing constitutively active AKT and evaluated its effect on virus replication. In vitro, overexpression of AKT did not influence virus replication but did affect (cell-type dependent) virus release. In vivo, the recombinant virus did not abrogate inhibition of proliferation of spleen cells from MV-infected cotton rats.
Chronic inflammation has long been associated with a wide range of malignancies, is now widely accepted as a risk factor for development of cancer, and has been implicated as a promoter of a variety of cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. We have described a mouse model uniquely suited to examine the link between inflammation and lymphoma in which the Tax oncogene, expressed in activated T and NK cells, perpetuates chronic inflammation that begins as microscopic intraepithelial lesions and develops into inflammatory nodules, subcutaneous tumors, and large granular lymphocytic leukemia. The use of bioluminescent imaging in these mice has expanded our ability to interrogate aspects of inflammation and tumorigenesis non-invasively. Here we demonstrate that bioluminescence induction in these mice correlated with inflammation resulting from wounding, T cell activation, and exposure to chemical agents. In experiments in which long-term effects of inflammation on disease outcome were monitored, the development of lymphoma was promoted by an inflammatory stimulus. Finally we demonstrated that activation of T-cells in T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic TAX-LUC animals dramatically exacerbated the development of subcutaneous TCR- CD16+ LGL tumors. The role of activated T-cells and acquired immunity in inflammation-associated cancers is broadly applicable to hematopoietic malignancies, and we propose these mice will be of use in dissecting mechanisms by which activated T-cells promote lymphomagenesis in vivo.
The spread of virus infection within an organism is partially dictated by the receptor usage of the virus and can be influenced by sorting signals present in the viral glycoproteins expressed in infected cells. In previous studies, we have shown that the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein (F) of the measles virus (MV) vaccine strain MV(Edm) harbour tyrosine-dependent sorting signals which influence virus spread in both lymphocytes and epithelial cells to a similar degree. In contrast with the vaccine strain, MV wild-type virus does not use CD46 but CD150/SLAM and a not clearly identified molecule on epithelial cells as receptors. To determine differences in viral spread between vaccine and wild-type virus, we generated recombinant MV expressing glycoproteins of both the wild-type strain WTFb and the corresponding tyrosine mutants. In contrast with observations based on vaccine virus glycoproteins, mutations in wild-type virus H and F differently influenced cell-to-cell fusion and replication in polarized epithelia and lymphocytes. For wild-type H, our data suggest a key role of the cytoplasmic tyrosine signal for virus dissemination in vivo. It seems to be important for efficient virus spread between lymphocytes, while the tyrosine signal in the F protein gains importance in epithelial cells as both signals have to be intact to allow efficient spread of infection within epithelia.
Measles virus infection leads to immune suppression. A potential mechanism is the reduction of interleukin 12 (IL-12) secretion during acute measles, resulting in a TH2 response. Studies in humans have reported conflicting results, detecting either a TH2 or a TH1 response. We have investigated the correlation between a TH2 response and immune suppression in specific-pathogen-free inbred cotton rats which were infected with measles vaccine and wild-type viruses. After infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages with wild-type virus, IL-12 secretion was reduced in contrast to the level for vaccine virus infection. In bronchoalveolar lavage cells, IL-12 secretion was suppressed after infection with both wild-type and vaccine virus on days 2, 4, and 6 and was detectable on days 8 and 10. After stimulation of mediastinal lymph node and spleen cells with UV-inactivated measles virus at various time points after infection, gamma interferon but no IL-4 was found. After stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate-ionomycin, high gamma interferon and low IL-4 levels were detected. To investigate whether the secretion of IL-4 contributes to immune suppression, a recombinant vaccine virus was created which secretes cotton rat IL-4. After infection with this recombinant virus, IL-4 secretion was enhanced. However, neither inhibition of concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells nor keyhole limpet hemocyanin-specific proliferation of spleen cells was altered after infection with the recombinant virus in comparison to the levels with the parental virus. Our data indicate that measles virus infection leads to a decrease in IL-12 secretion and an increase in IL-4 secretion, but this does not seem to correlate with immune suppression.
Three discrete activities of the paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, receptor binding, receptor cleaving (neuraminidase), and triggering of the fusion protein, each affect the promotion of viral fusion and entry. For human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), the effects of specific mutations that alter these functions of the receptor-binding protein have been well characterized using cultured monolayer cells, which have identified steps that are potentially relevant to pathogenesis. In the present study, proposed mechanisms that are relevant to pathogenesis were tested in natural host cell cultures, a model of the human airway epithelium (HAE) in which primary HAE cells are cultured at an air-liquid interface and retain functional properties. Infection of HAE cells with wild-type HPIV3 and variant viruses closely reflects that seen in an animal model, the cotton rat, suggesting that HAE cells provide an ideal system for assessing the interplay of host cell and viral factors in pathogenesis and for screening for inhibitory molecules that would be effective in vivo. Both HNs receptor avidity and the function and timing of F activation by HN require a critical balance for the establishment of ongoing infection in the HAE, and these HN functions independently modulate the production of active virions. Alterations in HNs F-triggering function lead to the release of noninfectious viral particles and a failure of the virus to spread. The finding that the dysregulation of F triggering prohibits successful infection in HAE cells suggests that antiviral strategies targeted to HNs F-triggering activity may have promise in vivo.
In vitro studies show that hsp70 promotes gene expression for multiple viral families, although there are few reports on the in vivo significance of virus-hsp70 interaction. Previously we showed that hsp70-dependent stimulation of Edmonston measles virus (Ed MeV) transcription caused an increased cytopathic effect and mortality in transgenic hsp70-overexpressing C57BL/6 mice (H-2(b)). The response to MeV infection is influenced by the major histocompatibility complex haplotype; H-2(d) mice are resistant to brain infection due to robust antiviral immune responses, whereas H-2(b) mice are susceptible due to deficiencies in this response. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the outcome of MeV-hsp70 interaction may be dependent upon the host H-2 haplotype. The impact of selective neuronal hsp70 overexpression on Ed MeV brain infection was tested with congenic C57BL/10 H-2(d) neonatal mice. In this context, hsp70 overexpression conferred complete protection against virus-induced mortality, compared to >30% mortality in nontransgenic mice. Selective depletion of T-cell populations showed that transgenic mice exhibit a diminished reliance on T cells for protection. Brain transcript analysis indicated enhanced innate immune activation and signaling through Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 at early times postinfection for transgenic infected mice relative to those for nontransgenic infected mice. Collectively, results suggest that hsp70 can enhance innate antiviral immunity through Toll-like receptor signaling, supporting a protective role for physiological responses that enhance tissue levels of hsp70 (e.g., fever), and that the H-2 haplotype determines the effectiveness of this response.
Early events in tumor development are spontaneous, microscopic, and affected by the microenvironment. We developed a mouse model of spontaneous lymphoma in which malignant transformation is coupled with light emission that can be detected noninvasively using bioluminescent imaging. The human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1 transcriptional transactivator Tax is an oncogene sufficient to produce lymphoma in transgenic animal models. Using the granzyme B promoter to restrict Tax expression to the mature natural killer (NK)/T-cell compartment, we have reproduced many elements of HTLV-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Tax activates signaling cascades associated with transformation, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that Tax-mediated activation of luciferase in long terminal repeat-luciferase (LTR-LUC) mice serves as a reporter for imaging these processes in vivo. Using bioluminescent imaging (BLI), we discovered that microscopic intraepithelial lesions precede the onset of peripheral subcutaneous tumors, tumorigenesis progresses through early reversible stages, and Tax is sufficient for inducing tumors. Based on these findings, we propose that Tax expression in activated lymphocytes initiates a cascade of events that leads to NK/T cell recruitment, activation, and transformation. The use of BLI expands our ability to interrogate the role of Tax in tumorigenesis in vivo and has made the association of inflammation with tumor initiation amenable for study.
Our knowledge of the antibacterial role of nitric oxide (NO) during infection is based on studies of murine macrophages, which secrete large amounts of NO. In contrast, human macrophages produce very little NO and its relevance as an antibacterial mediator during infection of humans is uncertain. We have defined bone marrow-derived macrophages from cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). These macrophages display phenotypical and functional characteristics similar to other rodent and human macrophages. The most interesting finding was the low level of NO production which is in contrast to findings for murine macrophages, but consistent with those of humans. In spite of these low levels, inhibition of NO production led to a decrease in killing of bacteria. Cotton rats are highly susceptible to a variety of human pathogens and therefore offer a rodent model of infectious diseases with similar characteristics to humans in terms of NO production.
The major inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) is host protective in a mouse model of measles virus (MeV) brain infection. Transgenic constitutive expression of hsp70 in neurons, the primary target of MeV infection, abrogates neurovirulence in neonatal H-2(d) congenic C57BL/6 mice. A significant level of protection is retained after depletion of T lymphocytes, implicating innate immune mechanisms. The focus of the present work was to elucidate the basis for hsp70-dependent innate immunity using this model. Transcriptome analysis of brains from transgenic (TG) and nontransgenic (NT) mice 5 days after infection identified type I interferon (IFN) signaling, macrophage activation, and antigen presentation as the main differences linked to survival. The pivotal role of type I IFN in hsp70-mediated protection was demonstrated in mice with a genetically disrupted type I IFN receptor (IFNAR(-/-)), where IFNAR(-/-) eliminated the difference in survival between TG and NT mice. Brain macrophages, not neurons, are the predominant source of type I IFN in the virus-infected brain, and in vitro studies provided a mechanistic basis by which MeV-infected neurons can induce IFN-? in uninfected microglia in an hsp70-dependent manner. MeV infection induced extracellular release of hsp70 from mouse neuronal cells that constitutively express hsp70, and extracellular hsp70 induced IFN-? transcription in mouse microglial cells through Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Collectively, our results support a novel axis of type I IFN-dependent antiviral immunity in the virus-infected brain that is driven by hsp70.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are closely related but pathogenically distinct human retroviruses. The antisense strand of the HTLV-1 genome encodes HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper (b-ZIP) protein (HBZ), a protein that inhibits Tax-mediated viral transcription, enhances T-cell proliferation, and promotes viral persistence. Recently, an HTLV-2 antisense viral protein (APH-2) was identified. Despite its lack of a typical b-ZIP domain, APH-2, like HBZ, interacts with cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and downregulates Tax-mediated viral transcription. Here, we provide evidence that the APH-2 C-terminal LXXLL motif is important for CREB binding and Tax repression. In order to investigate the functional role of APH-2 in the HTLV-2-mediated immortalization of primary T lymphocytes in vitro and in HTLV-2 infection in vivo, we generated APH-2 mutant viruses. In cell cultures, the immortalization capacities of APH-2 mutant viruses were indistinguishable from that of wild-type HTLV-2 (wtHTLV-2), indicating that, like HBZ, APH-2 is dispensable for viral infection and cellular transformation. In vivo, rabbits inoculated with either wtHTLV-2 or APH-2 mutant viruses established a persistent infection. However, the APH-2 knockout virus displayed an increased replication rate, as measured by an increased viral antibody response and a higher proviral load. In contrast to HTLV-1 HBZ, we show that APH-2 is dispensable for the establishment of an efficient infection and persistence in a rabbit animal model. Therefore, antisense proteins of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 have evolved different functions in vivo, and further comparative studies will provide fundamental insights into the distinct pathobiologies of these two viruses.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.