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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Early-onset Crohn's disease and autoimmunity associated with a variant in CTLA-4.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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IBD is a group of complex, systemic disorders associated with intestinal inflammation and extraintestinal manifestations. Recent studies revealed Mendelian forms of IBD, which contributed significantly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis and the heritability of IBD.
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The wnt5a/sFRP5 system is dysregulated in human sepsis.
Clin. Exp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Sepsis and type 2 diabetes exhibit insulin resistance as a common phenotype. In type 2 diabetes we and others have recently provided evidence that alterations of the pro-inflammatory wnt5a/anti-inflammatory sFRP5 system are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this novel cytokine system is dysregulated in human sepsis which may indicate a potential mechanism linking inflammation to metabolism. In this single-centre prospective observational study, critically ill adult septic patients were examined and pro-inflammatory wnt5a and wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5 were measured in serum samples by ELISA at admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 5 days later. 60 sepsis patients were included and 30 healthy individuals served as controls. Wnt5a levels were found to be significantly increased in septic patients compared to healthy controls (2.21±0.33 ng/ml vs. 0.32±0.03 ng/ml, p<0.0001). In contrast, sFRP5 was not significantly altered in septic patients (19.72±3.06 ng/ml vs. 17.48±6.38 ng/ml, p=0.07). On admission to the ICU, wnt5a levels exhibited a significant positive correlation with the leukocyte count (rs=0.3797, p=0.004). Interestingly, in patients recovering from sepsis, wnt5a levels significantly declined within 5 days (2.17±0.38 ng/ml to 1.03±0.28 ng/ml, p<0.01). In contrast, if sepsis was worsening, wnt5a levels increased in the same time period by trend (2.34±0.59 ng/ml to 3.25±1.02 ng/ml, p>0.05). sFRP5 levels did not significantly change throughout the study period. The wnt5a/sFRP5 system is altered in human sepsis and might therefore be of interest for future studies on molecular pathophysiology of this common human disease.
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A large candidate-gene association study suggests genetic variants at IRF5 and PRDM1 to be associated with aggressive periodontitis.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Epidemiological and clinical studies indicated a relationship of periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to identify shared genetic susceptibility loci of RA and periodontitis.
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Genome-wide exploration identifies sex-specific genetic effects of alleles upstream NPY to increase the risk of severe periodontitis in men.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Periodontitis (PD) is influenced by genetic as well as lifestyle and socio-economic factors. Epidemiological studies show that men are at greater risk of severe forms of PD, suggesting interplay between sex and genetic factors. We aimed to systematically analyse patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) for gene-sex interactions.
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Development of the Lémann Index to Assess Digestive Tract Damage in Patients with Crohn's Disease.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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& Aims: There is a need for a scoring system that provides a comprehensive assessment of structural bowel damage, including stricturing lesions, penetrating lesions, and surgical resection, that measures disease progression. We developed the Lémann Index and assessed its ability to measure cumulative structural bowel damage in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).
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Concordance of genetic risk across migraine subgroups: Impact on current and future genetic association studies.
Cephalalgia
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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There has been intensive debate whether migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) should be considered distinct subtypes or part of the same disease spectrum. There is also discussion to what extent migraine cases collected in specialised headache clinics differ from cases from population cohorts, and how female cases differ from male cases with respect to their migraine. To assess the genetic overlap between these migraine subgroups, we examined genome-wide association (GWA) results from analysis of 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 population-matched controls.
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Genetics of sarcoidosis.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Sarcoidosis is a multifactorial and polygenic disorder. Recently, several novel predisposing genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies, and fast progress in molecular technologies such as systematic and large-scale resequencing will aid the discovery of further risk loci and variants. In this article, the current knowledge of its genetics will be presented, including known and candidate risk variants and loci, with a focus on loci in the human leukocyte antigen region. Some of these factors are shared with other, clinically distinct diseases. This may lead to the development of new hypotheses on pathomechanisms, which associate sarcoidosis with other granulomatous disorders but also with diseases with significantly different phenotypes. In the near future system, biology approaches will help unravel the differing and common features of these disorders and allow the development of new therapeutic strategies and tools to predict the course and response to treatment of individual patients.
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Etrolizumab as induction therapy for ulcerative colitis: a randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Etrolizumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody that selectively binds the ?7 subunit of the heterodimeric integrins ?4?7 and ?E?7. We aimed to assess etrolizumab in patients with moderately-to-severely active ulcerative colitis.
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Whole genome and exome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for Crohn's disease.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. More than 160 susceptibility loci have been identified for IBD, yet a large part of the genetic variance remains unexplained. Recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between monozygotic twins, who were long thought to be genetically completely identical.
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Genome-wide association meta-analysis of human longevity identifies a novel locus conferring survival beyond 90 years of age.
Joris Deelen, Marian Beekman, Hae-Won Uh, Linda Broer, Kristin L Ayers, Qihua Tan, Yoichiro Kamatani, Anna M Bennet, Riin Tamm, Stella Trompet, Daníel F Guðbjartsson, Friederike Flachsbart, Giuseppina Rose, Alexander Viktorin, Krista Fischer, Marianne Nygaard, Heather J Cordell, Paolina Crocco, Erik B van den Akker, Stefan Böhringer, Quinta Helmer, Christopher P Nelson, Gary I Saunders, Maris Alver, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Marie E Breen, Ruud van der Breggen, Amke Caliebe, Miriam Capri, Elisa Cevenini, Joanna C Collerton, Serena Dato, Karen Davies, Ian Ford, Jutta Gampe, Paolo Garagnani, Eco J C de Geus, Jennifer Harrow, Diana van Heemst, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Albert Hofman, Bernard Jeune, Palmi V Jonsson, Mark Lathrop, Doris Lechner, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Susan E McNerlan, Evelin Mihailov, Alberto Montesanto, Simon P Mooijaart, Anne Murphy, Ellen A Nohr, Lavinia Paternoster, Iris Postmus, Fernando Rivadeneira, Owen A Ross, Stefano Salvioli, Naveed Sattar, Stefan Schreiber, Hreinn Stefansson, David J Stott, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Rudi G J Westendorp, Gonneke Willemsen, Nilesh J Samani, Pilar Galán, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, J Wouter Jukema, Irene Maeve Rea, Giuseppe Passarino, Anton J M de Craen, Kaare Christensen, Almut Nebel, Kari Stefansson, Andres Metspalu, Patrik Magnusson, Hélène Blanché, Lene Christiansen, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Cornelia M van Duijn, Claudio Franceschi, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Eline Slagboom.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The genetic contribution to the variation in human lifespan is ? 25%. Despite the large number of identified disease-susceptibility loci, it is not known which loci influence population mortality. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 7729 long-lived individuals of European descent (? 85 years) and 16 121 younger controls (<65 years) followed by replication in an additional set of 13 060 long-lived individuals and 61 156 controls. In addition, we performed a subset analysis in cases aged ? 90 years. We observed genome-wide significant association with longevity, as reflected by survival to ages beyond 90 years, at a novel locus, rs2149954, on chromosome 5q33.3 (OR = 1.10, P = 1.74 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed association of rs4420638 on chromosome 19q13.32 (OR = 0.72, P = 3.40 × 10(-36)), representing the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 locus. In a prospective meta-analysis (n = 34 103), the minor allele of rs2149954 (T) on chromosome 5q33.3 associates with increased survival (HR = 0.95, P = 0.003). This allele has previously been reported to associate with low blood pressure in middle age. Interestingly, the minor allele (T) associates with decreased cardiovascular mortality risk, independent of blood pressure. We report on the first GWAS-identified longevity locus on chromosome 5q33.3 influencing survival in the general European population. The minor allele of this locus associates with low blood pressure in middle age, although the contribution of this allele to survival may be less dependent on blood pressure. Hence, the pleiotropic mechanisms by which this intragenic variation contributes to lifespan regulation have to be elucidated.
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First multicenter study of modified release phosphatidylcholine "LT-02" in ulcerative colitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in mesalazine-refractory courses.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Phosphatidylcholine is a key component of the mucosal barrier. Treatment with modified release phosphatidylcholine aims to improve the impaired barrier function. The primary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of LT-02, a newly designed modified release phosphatidylcholine formula, in a multicenter setting.
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XIAP variants in male Crohn's disease.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify rare genetic variants involved in the pathogenesis of IBD.
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New tools and approaches for improved management of inflammatory bowel diseases.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Inflammatory bowel diseases are part of a wider conglomeration of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. New management approaches need to be developed as we understand more of the epidemiology and aetiology of inflammatory bowel diseases and medical care becomes more complex.
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Protective mucosal immunity mediated by epithelial CD1d and IL-10.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The mechanisms by which mucosal homeostasis is maintained are of central importance to inflammatory bowel disease. Critical to these processes is the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC), which regulates immune responses at the interface between the commensal microbiota and the host. CD1d presents self and microbial lipid antigens to natural killer T (NKT) cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis in animal models and human inflammatory bowel disease. As CD1d crosslinking on model IECs results in the production of the important regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 (ref. 9), decreased epithelial CD1d expression--as observed in inflammatory bowel disease--may contribute substantially to intestinal inflammation. Here we show in mice that whereas bone-marrow-derived CD1d signals contribute to NKT-cell-mediated intestinal inflammation, engagement of epithelial CD1d elicits protective effects through the activation of STAT3 and STAT3-dependent transcription of IL-10, heat shock protein 110 (HSP110; also known as HSP105), and CD1d itself. All of these epithelial elements are critically involved in controlling CD1d-mediated intestinal inflammation. This is demonstrated by severe NKT-cell-mediated colitis upon IEC-specific deletion of IL-10, CD1d, and its critical regulator microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), as well as deletion of HSP110 in the radioresistant compartment. Our studies thus uncover a novel pathway of IEC-dependent regulation of mucosal homeostasis and highlight a critical role of IL-10 in the intestinal epithelium, with broad implications for diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease.
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Interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-? differentially regulate lincRNA transcripts in cells of the innate immune system in vivo in human subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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lincRNAs recently have been discovered as evolutionary conserved transcripts of non-coding DNA sequences and have been implicated in the regulation of cellular differentiation. In humans, molecular studies have suggested a functional role for lincRNAs in cancer development. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these novel molecules are specifically regulated by different cytokines in cells of the innate immune system in humans in vivo and whether lincRNAs thereby might be involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, CD14(+) monocytes were isolated from RA patients before and after anti-IL-6R (tocilizumab) or anti-TNF-? (adalimumab) therapy and lincRNA transcription was analysed by a microarray based experiment. As expected, we found lincRNAs to be present in CD14(+) monocytes of RA patients. However, of the total number of 7.419 lincRNAs examined in this study only a very small number was significantly regulated by either IL-6 or TNF-? (85 lincRNAs, corresponding to 1.1%). The numbers of lincRNAs regulated was higher due to TNF-? compared to IL-6. Interestingly, none of the identified lincRNAs was influenced by both, IL-6 and TNF-?, suggesting the regulation of lincRNA transcription to be highly specific for distinct cytokines. Taken together, our results suggest (1) that lincRNAs are novel intracellular molecular effectors of specific cytokines in cells of the innate immune system in humans in vivo and (2) that lincRNAs might be involved in the molecular pathophysiology of RA.
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Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy with gemcitabine/cisplatin and surgery versus immediate surgery in resectable pancreatic cancer : Results of the first prospective randomized phase II trial.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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In nonrandomized trials, neoadjuvant treatment was reported to prolong survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. As neoadjuvant chemoradiation is established for the treatment of rectal cancer we examined the value of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in pancreatic cancer in a randomized phase II trial. Radiological staging defining resectability was basic information prior to randomization in contrast to adjuvant therapy trials resting on pathological staging.
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Mitochondrial DNA variants in obesity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Heritability estimates for body mass index (BMI) variation are high. For mothers and their offspring higher BMI correlations have been described than for fathers. Variation(s) in the exclusively maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might contribute to this parental effect. Thirty-two to 40 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available from genome-wide association study SNP arrays (Affymetrix 6.0). For discovery, we analyzed association in a case-control (CC) sample of 1,158 extremely obese children and adolescents and 435 lean adult controls. For independent confirmation, 7,014 population-based adults were analyzed as CC sample of n = 1,697 obese cases (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) and n = 2,373 normal weight and lean controls (BMI<25 kg/m2). SNPs were analyzed as single SNPs and haplogroups determined by HaploGrep. Fisher's two-sided exact test was used for association testing. Moreover, the D-loop was re-sequenced (Sanger) in 192 extremely obese children and adolescents and 192 lean adult controls. Association testing of detected variants was performed using Fisher's two-sided exact test. For discovery, nominal association with obesity was found for the frequent allele G of m.8994G/A (rs28358887, p = 0.002) located in ATP6. Haplogroup W was nominally overrepresented in the controls (p = 0.039). These findings could not be confirmed independently. For two of the 252 identified D-loop variants nominal association was detected (m.16292C/T, p = 0.007, m.16189T/C, p = 0.048). Only eight controls carried the m.16292T allele, five of whom belonged to haplogroup W that was initially enriched among these controls. m.16189T/C might create an uninterrupted poly-C tract located near a regulatory element involved in replication of mtDNA. Though follow-up of some D-loop variants still is conceivable, our hypothesis of a contribution of variation in the exclusively maternally inherited mtDNA to the observed larger correlations for BMI between mothers and their offspring could not be substantiated by the findings of the present study.
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B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) is expressed in human adipocytes in vivo and is related to obesity but not to insulin resistance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inflammation and metabolism have been shown to be evolutionary linked and increasing evidence exists that pro-inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Until now, most data suggest that within adipose tissue these factors are secreted by cells of the innate immune system, e. g. macrophages. In the present study we demonstrate that B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is increased in human obesity. In contrast to several pro-inflammatory factors, we found the source of BLyS in human adipose tissue to be the adipocytes rather than immune cells. In grade 3 obese human subjects, expression of BLyS in vivo in adipose tissue is significantly increased (p<0.001). Furthermore, BLyS serum levels are elevated in grade 3 human obesity (862.5+222.0 pg/ml vs. 543.7+60.7 pg/ml in lean controls, p<0.001) and are positively correlated to the BMI (r = 0.43, p<0.0002). In the present study, bariatric surgery significantly altered serum BLyS concentrations. In contrast, weight loss due to a very-low-calorie-formula-diet (800 kcal/d) had no such effect. To examine metabolic activity of BLyS, in a translational research approach, insulin sensitivity was measured in human subjects in vivo before and after treatment with the human recombinant anti-BLyS antibody belimumab. Since BLyS is known to promote B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, the present data suggest that adipocytes of grade 3 obese human subjects are able to activate the adaptive immune system, suggesting that in metabolic inflammation in humans both, innate and adaptive immunity, are of pathophysiological relevance.
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Effects of ?-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones on human gut microbiota in relation to Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Clostridium difficile infections are an emerging health problem in the modern hospital environment. Severe alterations of the gut microbiome with loss of resistance to colonization against C. difficile are thought to be the major trigger, but there is no clear concept of how C. difficile infection evolves and which microbiological factors are involved. We sequenced 16S rRNA amplicons generated from DNA and RNA/cDNA of fecal samples from three groups of individuals by FLX technology: (i) healthy controls (no antibiotic therapy); (ii) individuals receiving antibiotic therapy (Ampicillin/Sulbactam, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones with subsequent development of C. difficile infection or (iii) individuals receiving antibiotic therapy without C. difficile infection. We compared the effects of the three different antibiotic classes on the intestinal microbiome and the effects of alterations of the gut microbiome on C. difficile infection at the DNA (total microbiota) and rRNA (potentially active) levels. A comparison of antibiotic classes showed significant differences at DNA level, but not at RNA level. Among individuals that developed or did not develop a C. difficile infection under antibiotics we found no significant differences. We identified single species that were up- or down regulated in individuals receiving antibiotics who developed the infection compared to non-infected individuals. We found no significant differences in the global composition of the transcriptionally active gut microbiome associated with C. difficile infections. We suggest that up- and down regulation of specific bacterial species may be involved in colonization resistance against C. difficile providing a potential therapeutic approach through specific manipulation of the intestinal microbiome.
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Characteristic changes in microbial community composition and expression of innate immune genes in acute appendicitis.
Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Appendicitis represents a common and severe gastrointestinal illness in younger individuals worldwide. The disease is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response and it is believed that bacterial overgrowth due to blockage of the appendix lumen might be involved. Despite the high incidence, only limited data on the pathophysiological changes exist; in particular, the innate immune responses involved are largely unknown. Real-time PCR analysis of tissue samples from inflamed and normal appendices demonstrated differentially regulated expression patterns of epithelial-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMP). The ?-defensins human neutrophil peptides 1-3, HD5 and HD6, as well as the two ?-defensins, human ?-defensins (hBD)-2 and hBD-3, were up-regulated, whereas hBD-1 was down-regulated in acute appendicitis. Expression of upstream regulators of AMP expression, NOD-2 and TLRs 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 was significantly increased as detected by real-time PCR. Finally, we confirmed the involvement of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-8, and detected characteristic changes in microbial community composition in appendicitis tissue specimens by 16S rDNA based detection techniques. In this study, we demonstrate a differential regulation of the innate immune system along with an altered bacterial diversity in acute appendicitis.
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Modulation of Nuclear factor E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation by the stress response gene Immediate Early Response-3 (IER3) in colonic epithelial cells - a novel mechanism of cellular adaption to inflammatory stress.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Although Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) protects from carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, underlying the rationale for using Nrf2-inducers in chemoprevention, this antioxidative transcription factor may also act as a protooncogene. Thus, an enhanced Nrf2 activity promotes formation and chemoresistance of colon cancer. One mechanism causing persistent Nrf2 activation is the adaptation of epithelial cells to oxidative stress during chronic inflammation, e.g. colonocytes in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), and the multifunctional stress response gene Immediate Early Response-3 (IER3) has a crucial role under these conditions. We now demonstrate that colonic tissue from Ier3-/- mice subject of DSS colitis exhibit greater Nrf2 activity than Ier3+/+ mice manifesting as increased nuclear Nrf2 protein level and Nrf2 target gene expression. Likewise, human NCM460 colonocytes subject of shRNA mediated IER3 knock-down exhibit greater Nrf2 activity compared with control cells, whereas IER3 overexpression attenuated Nrf2 activation. IER3 deficient NCM460 cells exhibited reduced ROS level, indicating increased antioxidative protection, as well as lower sensitivity to TRAIL or anti-cancer drug induced apoptosis and greater clonogenicity. Knock-down of Nrf2 expression reversed these IER3 dependent effects. Further, the enhancing effect of IER3 deficiency on Nrf2 activity relates to the control of the inhibitory tyrosine kinase Fyn by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or knock-down of Akt or Fyn expression abrogated the impact of IER3 deficiency on Nrf2 activity. In conclusion, the interference of IER3 with the PI3K/Akt-Fyn pathway represents a novel mechanism of Nrf2 regulation that may get lost in tumors and by which IER3 exerts its stress-adaptive and tumor suppressive activity.
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The co-occurrence of mtDNA mutations on different oxidative phosphorylation subunits, not detected by haplogroup analysis, affects human longevity and is population specific.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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To re-examine the correlation between mtDNA variability and longevity, we examined mtDNAs from samples obtained from over 2200 ultranonagenarians (and an equal number of controls) collected within the framework of the GEHA EU project. The samples were categorized by high-resolution classification, while about 1300 mtDNA molecules (650 ultranonagenarians and an equal number of controls) were completely sequenced. Sequences, unlike standard haplogroup analysis, made possible to evaluate for the first time the cumulative effects of specific, concomitant mtDNA mutations, including those that per se have a low, or very low, impact. In particular, the analysis of the mutations occurring in different OXPHOS complex showed a complex scenario with a different mutation burden in 90+ subjects with respect to controls. These findings suggested that mutations in subunits of the OXPHOS complex I had a beneficial effect on longevity, while the simultaneous presence of mutations in complex I and III (which also occurs in J subhaplogroups involved in LHON) and in complex I and V seemed to be detrimental, likely explaining previous contradictory results. On the whole, our study, which goes beyond haplogroup analysis, suggests that mitochondrial DNA variation does affect human longevity, but its effect is heavily influenced by the interaction between mutations concomitantly occurring on different mtDNA genes.
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Genome-wide analysis associates familial colorectal cancer with increases in copy number variations and a rare structural variation at 12p12.3.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancer worldwide. However, a large number of genetic risk factors involved in CRC have not been understood. Copy number variations (CNVs) might partly contribute to the missing heritability of CRC. An increased overall burden of CNV has been identified in several complex diseases, whereas the association between the overall CNV burden and CRC risk is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide investigation of CNVs on genomic DNA from 384 familial CRC cases and 1285 healthy controls by the Affymetrix 6.0 array. An increase of overall CNV burden was observed in familial CRC patients compared with healthy controls, especially for CNVs larger than 50kb (case/control ratio = 1.66, P = 0.025). In addition, we discovered for the first time a novel structural variation at 12p12.3 and determined the breakpoints by strategic PCR and sequencing. This 12p12.3 structural variation was found in four of 2862 CRC cases but not in 6243 healthy controls (P = 0.0098). RERGL gene (RERG/RAS-like), the only gene influenced by the 12p12.3 structural variation, sharing most of the conserved regions with its close family member RERG tumor suppressor gene (RAS-like, estrogen-regulated, growth inhibitor), might be a novel CRC-related gene. In conclusion, this is the first study to reveal the contribution of the overall burden of CNVs to familial CRC risk and identify a novel rare structural variation at 12p12.3 containing RERGL gene to be associated with CRC.
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Dysfunctional nitric oxide signalling increases risk of myocardial infarction.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the ?1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (?1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCT?, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce ?1-sGC as well as ?1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in ?1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.
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Genome-wide association study in musicians dystonia: A risk variant at the arylsulfatase G locus?
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Musicians dystonia (MD) affects 1% to 2% of professional musicians and frequently terminates performance careers. It is characterized by loss of voluntary motor control when playing the instrument. Little is known about genetic risk factors, although MD or writers dystonia (WD) occurs in relatives of 20% of MD patients. We conducted a 2-stage genome-wide association study in whites. Genotypes at 557,620 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed stringent quality control for 127 patients and 984 controls. Ten SNPs revealed P?
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Deep resequencing of GWAS loci identifies rare variants in CARD9, IL23R and RNF186 that are associated with ulcerative colitis.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Genome-wide association studies and follow-up meta-analyses in Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have recently identified 163 disease-associated loci that meet genome-wide significance for these two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). These discoveries have already had a tremendous impact on our understanding of the genetic architecture of these diseases and have directed functional studies that have revealed some of the biological functions that are important to IBD (e.g. autophagy). Nonetheless, these loci can only explain a small proportion of disease variance (~14% in CD and 7.5% in UC), suggesting that not only are additional loci to be found but that the known loci may contain high effect rare risk variants that have gone undetected by GWAS. To test this, we have used a targeted sequencing approach in 200 UC cases and 150 healthy controls (HC), all of French Canadian descent, to study 55 genes in regions associated with UC. We performed follow-up genotyping of 42 rare non-synonymous variants in independent case-control cohorts (totaling 14,435 UC cases and 20,204 HC). Our results confirmed significant association to rare non-synonymous coding variants in both IL23R and CARD9, previously identified from sequencing of CD loci, as well as identified a novel association in RNF186. With the exception of CARD9 (OR = 0.39), the rare non-synonymous variants identified were of moderate effect (OR = 1.49 for RNF186 and OR = 0.79 for IL23R). RNF186 encodes a protein with a RING domain having predicted E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and two transmembrane domains. Importantly, the disease-coding variant is located in the ubiquitin ligase domain. Finally, our results suggest that rare variants in genes identified by genome-wide association in UC are unlikely to contribute significantly to the overall variance for the disease. Rather, these are expected to help focus functional studies of the corresponding disease loci.
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Replication study of ulcerative colitis risk loci in a Lithuanian-Latvian case-control sample.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Differences between populations might be reflected in their different genetic risk maps to complex diseases, for example, inflammatory bowel disease. We here investigated the role of known inflammatory bowel disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a subset of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) from the Northeastern European countries Lithuania and Latvia and evaluated possible epistatic interactions between these genetic variants.
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Adjustment for smoking does not alter the FOXO3A association with longevity.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Human longevity is a multifactorial phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Despite its heritability of 25-32 %, the genetic background of longevity is as yet largely unexplained. Apart from APOE status, variation in the FOXO3A gene is the only confirmed genetic contributor to survival into old age. On the other hand, FOXO3A activity is known to be downregulated in various cancers, and the gene was recently identified as a novel deletion hotspot in human lung adenocarcinoma. In view of the strong association between smoking and lung cancer, we set out to explore whether smoking modifies the known association between FOXO3A variation and longevity. To this end, we conducted a case-control study in two different populations, drawing upon extensive collections of old-aged individuals and younger controls available to us (1,613 German centenarians/nonagenarians and 1,104 controls; 1,088 Danish nonagenarians and 736 controls). In the German sample, 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the FOXO3A gene region were genotyped, whereas 15 FOXO3A SNPs were analyzed in the Danish sample. Eight SNPs were typed in both populations. Logistic regression analysis revealed that adjustment for smoking does not systematically alter the association between FOXO3A variation and longevity in neither population. Our analysis therefore suggests that the said association is not largely due to the confounding effects of lung cancer.
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Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Mesolithic populations throughout Europe used diverse resource exploitation strategies that focused heavily on collecting and hunting wild prey. Between 5500 and 4200 cal BC, agriculturalists migrated into northwestern Europe bringing a suite of Neolithic technologies including domesticated animals. Here we investigate to what extent Mesolithic Ertebølle communities in northern Germany had access to domestic pigs, possibly through contact with neighbouring Neolithic agricultural groups. We employ a multidisciplinary approach, applying sequencing of ancient mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (coat colour-coding gene MC1R) as well as traditional and geometric morphometric (molar size and shape) analyses in Sus specimens from 17 Neolithic and Ertebølle sites. Our data from 63 ancient pig specimens show that Ertebølle hunter-gatherers acquired domestic pigs of varying size and coat colour that had both Near Eastern and European mitochondrial DNA ancestry. Our results also reveal that domestic pigs were present in the region ~500 years earlier than previously demonstrated.
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A genome-wide association study identifies 6p21 as novel risk locus for dilated cardiomyopathy.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the leading causes for cardiac transplantations and accounts for up to one-third of all heart failure cases. Since extrinsic and monogenic causes explain only a fraction of all cases, common genetic variants are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of DCM, its age of onset, and clinical progression. By a large-scale case-control genome-wide association study we aimed here to identify novel genetic risk loci for DCM.
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Anti-IL-6 treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases: next cytokine, next target.
Curr Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing, and destructive inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Both Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) seem to arise from an impaired dialog between the environment and gut microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts, leading to an inappropriate immune activation and resulting in the over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-6 is a key modulator of inflammatory response. It is a phylogenetically important cytokine with relevance in IBD, as well as in other chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Influencing the production of this cytokine can change the balance of effector CD4+ T cell subsets and induce B cell antibody production. Moreover, given IL-6 is mostly produced from innate immune cells such as macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells, it is a strategic bridge between the innate and the adaptive system. Interestingly, IL-6 induced signaling can be primarily seen in a relatively small number of IL-6 responsive cells whereas in a chronic phase of inflammation it is able to activate almost all cells of the body through a process known as trans-signaling. In this review, we discuss the role of IL-6 in chronic inflammation, with particular emphasis on its role in CD and UC, and we explore the potential to develop anti-IL-6 agents for IBD treatment.
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The large non-coding RNA ANRIL, which is associated with atherosclerosis, periodontitis and several forms of cancer, regulates ADIPOR1, VAMP3 and C11ORF10.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The long non-coding RNA ANRIL is the best replicated genetic risk locus of coronary artery disease (CAD) and periodontitis (PD), and is independently associated with a variety of other immune-mediated and metabolic disorders and several forms of cancer. Recent studies showed a correlation of decreased concentrations of proximal ANRIL transcripts with homozygous carriership of the CAD and PD main risk alleles. To elucidate the relation of these transcripts to disease manifestation, we constructed a short hairpin RNA in a stable inducible knock-down system of T-Rex 293 HEK cell lines, specifically targeting the proximal transcripts EU741058 and DQ485454. By genome-wide expression profiling using Affymetrix HG1.0 ST Arrays, we identified the transcription of ADIPOR1, VAMP3 and C11ORF10 to be correlated with decreased ANRIL expression in a time-dependent manner. We validated these findings on a transcriptional and translational level in different cell types. Exploration of the identified genes for the presence of disease associated variants, using Affymetrix 500K genotyping and Illumina custom genotyping arrays, highlighted a region upstream of VAMP3 within CAMTA1 to be associated with increased risk of CAD [rs10864294 P = 0.015, odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.6, 1471 cases, 2737 controls] and aggressive PD (AgP; P = 0.008, OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, 864 cases, 3664 controls). In silico replication in a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of CAD of the CARDIoGRAM Consortium identified rs2301462, located on the same haplotype block, as associated with P = 0.001 upon adjustment for sex and age. Our results give evidence that specific isoforms of ANRIL regulate key genes of glucose and fatty acid metabolism.
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Paneth cells as a site of origin for intestinal inflammation.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The recognition of autophagy related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) as a genetic risk factor has exposed the critical role of autophagy in Crohns disease. Homozygosity for the highly prevalent ATG16L1 risk allele, or murine hypomorphic (HM) activity, causes Paneth cell dysfunction. As Atg16l1(HM) mice do not develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation, the mechanism(s) by which ATG16L1 contributes to disease remains obscure. Deletion of the unfolded protein response (UPR) transcription factor X-box binding protein-1 (Xbp1) in intestinal epithelial cells, the human orthologue of which harbours rare inflammatory bowel disease risk variants, results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Paneth cell impairment and spontaneous enteritis. Unresolved ER stress is a common feature of inflammatory bowel disease epithelium, and several genetic risk factors of Crohns disease affect Paneth cells. Here we show that impairment in either UPR (Xbp1(?IEC)) or autophagy function (Atg16l1(?IEC) or Atg7(?IEC)) in intestinal epithelial cells results in each others compensatory engagement, and severe spontaneous Crohns-disease-like transmural ileitis if both mechanisms are compromised. Xbp1(?IEC) mice show autophagosome formation in hypomorphic Paneth cells, which is linked to ER stress via protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), elongation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Ileitis is dependent on commensal microbiota and derives from increased intestinal epithelial cell death, inositol requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?)-regulated NF-?B activation and tumour-necrosis factor signalling, which are synergistically increased when autophagy is deficient. ATG16L1 restrains IRE1? activity, and augmentation of autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells ameliorates ER stress-induced intestinal inflammation and eases NF-?B overactivation and intestinal epithelial cell death. ER stress, autophagy induction and spontaneous ileitis emerge from Paneth-cell-specific deletion of Xbp1. Genetically and environmentally controlled UPR function within Paneth cells may therefore set the threshold for the development of intestinal inflammation upon hypomorphic ATG16L1 function and implicate ileal Crohns disease as a specific disorder of Paneth cells.
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Polymorphisms in the superoxidase dismutase genes reveal no association with human longevity in Germans: a case-control association study.
Biogerontology
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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The role of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in aging and oxidative stress regulation has been widely studied and there is growing evidence that imbalances in these processes influence lifespan in several species. In humans, genetic polymorphisms in SOD genes may play an important role in the development of age-related diseases and genetic variation in SOD2 is thought to be associated with longevity. These observations prompted us to perform a case-control association study using a comprehensive haplotype tagging approach for the three SOD genes (SOD1, SOD2, SOD3) by testing a total of 19 SNPs in our extensive collection of 1,612 long-lived individuals (centenarians and nonagenarians) and 1,104 younger controls. Furthermore, we intended to replicate the previous association of the SOD2 SNP rs4880 with longevity observed in a Danish cohort. In our study, no association was detected between the tested SNPs and the longevity phenotype, neither in the entire long-lived sample set nor in the centenarian subgroup analysis. Our results suggest that there is no considerable influence of sequence variation in the SOD genes on human longevity in Germans.
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Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new susceptibility loci for migraine.
Verneri Anttila, Bendik S Winsvold, Padhraig Gormley, Tobias Kurth, Francesco Bettella, George McMahon, Mikko Kallela, Rainer Malik, Boukje de Vries, Gisela Terwindt, Sarah E Medland, Unda Todt, Wendy L McArdle, Lydia Quaye, Markku Koiranen, M Arfan Ikram, Terho Lehtimäki, Anine H Stam, Lannie Ligthart, Juho Wedenoja, Ian Dunham, Benjamin M Neale, Priit Palta, Eija Hämäläinen, Markus Schürks, Lynda M Rose, Julie E Buring, Paul M Ridker, Stacy Steinberg, Hreinn Stefansson, Finnbogi Jakobsson, Debbie A Lawlor, David M Evans, Susan M Ring, Markus Färkkilä, Ville Artto, Mari A Kaunisto, Tobias Freilinger, Jean Schoenen, Rune R Frants, Nadine Pelzer, Claudia M Weller, Ronald Zielman, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden, Grant W Montgomery, Nicholas G Martin, Guntram Borck, Hartmut Göbel, Axel Heinze, Katja Heinze-Kuhn, Frances M K Williams, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Anneli Pouta, Joyce van den Ende, André G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Najaf Amin, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Jacqueline M Vink, Kauko Heikkilä, Michael Alexander, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Stefan Schreiber, Thomas Meitinger, Heinz Erich Wichmann, Arpo Aromaa, Johan G Eriksson, Bryan J Traynor, Daniah Trabzuni, Elizabeth Rossin, Kasper Lage, Suzanne B R Jacobs, J Raphael Gibbs, Ewan Birney, Jaakko Kaprio, Brenda W Penninx, Dorret I Boomsma, Cornelia van Duijn, Olli Raitakari, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, John-Anker Zwart, Lynn Cherkas, David P Strachan, Christian Kubisch, Michel D Ferrari, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Martin Dichgans, Maija Wessman, George Davey Smith, Kari Stefansson, Mark J Daly, Dale R Nyholt, Daniel I Chasman, Aarno Palotie, .
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Migraine is the most common brain disorder, affecting approximately 14% of the adult population, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the results of a meta-analysis across 29 genome-wide association studies, including a total of 23,285 individuals with migraine (cases) and 95,425 population-matched controls. We identified 12 loci associated with migraine susceptibility (P<5×10(-8)). Five loci are new: near AJAP1 at 1p36, near TSPAN2 at 1p13, within FHL5 at 6q16, within C7orf10 at 7p14 and near MMP16 at 8q21. Three of these loci were identified in disease subgroup analyses. Brain tissue expression quantitative trait locus analysis suggests potential functional candidate genes at four loci: APOA1BP, TBC1D7, FUT9, STAT6 and ATP5B.
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DNA methylation analysis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease suggests distinct disease-specific and remodeling signatures after bariatric surgery.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder in industrialized countries. Liver samples from morbidly obese patients (n = 45) with all stages of NAFLD and controls (n = 18) were analyzed by array-based DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling. NAFLD-specific expression and methylation differences were seen for nine genes coding for key enzymes in intermediate metabolism (including PC, ACLY, and PLCG1) and insulin/insulin-like signaling (including IGF1, IGFBP2, and PRKCE) and replicated by bisulfite pyrosequening (independent n = 39). Transcription factor binding sites at NAFLD-specific CpG sites were >1,000-fold enriched for ZNF274, PGC1A, and SREBP2. Intraindividual comparison of liver biopsies before and after bariatric surgery showed NAFLD-associated methylation changes to be partially reversible. Postbariatric and NAFLD-specific methylation signatures were clearly distinct both in gene ontology and transcription factor binding site analyses, with >400-fold enrichment of NRF1, HSF1, and ESRRA sites. Our findings provide an example of treatment-induced epigenetic organ remodeling in humans.
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High-density genotyping study identifies four new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a strong heritable component. Pathogenetic models consider keratinocyte differentiation defects and immune alterations as scaffolds, and recent data indicate a role for autoreactivity in at least a subgroup of patients. FLG (encoding filaggrin) has been identified as a major locus causing skin barrier deficiency. To better define risk variants and identify additional susceptibility loci, we densely genotyped 2,425 German individuals with atopic dermatitis (cases) and 5,449 controls using the Immunochip array followed by replication in 7,196 cases and 15,480 controls from Germany, Ireland, Japan and China. We identified four new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis and replicated previous associations. This brings the number of atopic dermatitis risk loci reported in individuals of European ancestry to 11. We estimate that these susceptibility loci together account for 14.4% of the heritability for atopic dermatitis.
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Transcriptome and genome sequencing uncovers functional variation in humans.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Genome sequencing projects are discovering millions of genetic variants in humans, and interpretation of their functional effects is essential for understanding the genetic basis of variation in human traits. Here we report sequencing and deep analysis of messenger RNA and microRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines of 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project--the first uniformly processed high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from multiple human populations with high-quality genome sequences. We discover extremely widespread genetic variation affecting the regulation of most genes, with transcript structure and expression level variation being equally common but genetically largely independent. Our characterization of causal regulatory variation sheds light on the cellular mechanisms of regulatory and loss-of-function variation, and allows us to infer putative causal variants for dozens of disease-associated loci. Altogether, this study provides a deep understanding of the cellular mechanisms of transcriptome variation and of the landscape of functional variants in the human genome.
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Endoscopic endoluminal vacuum therapy is superior to other regimens in managing anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy: a comparative retrospective study.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy is a life-threatening complication. No comparative outcome analyses for the different treatment regimens are yet available.
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Diagnosing fatty liver disease: a comparative evaluation of metabolic markers, phenotypes, genotypes and established biomarkers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To date, liver biopsy is the only means of reliable diagnosis for fatty liver disease (FLD). Owing to the inevitable biopsy-associated health risks, however, the development of valid noninvasive diagnostic tools for FLD is well warranted.
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Metabolic signature of electrosurgical liver dissection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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High frequency electrosurgery has a key role in the broadening application of liver surgery. Its molecular signature, i.e. the metabolites evolving from electrocauterization which may inhibit hepatic wound healing, have not been systematically studied.
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Quality of life in patients with thyroid cancer compared with the general population.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Since patients with thyroid cancer have a very good prognosis overall, clinicians may often assume that their quality of life is comparable to the general population. We hypothesized that quality of life of thyroid cancer patients is lower compared with the general population while controlling the effect of age and gender.
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Genome-wide meta-analysis of psoriatic arthritis identifies susceptibility locus at REL.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal disease affecting up to 30% of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) cases and approximately 0.25 to 1% of the general population. To identify common susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of three imputed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on psoriasis, stratified for PsA. A total of 1,160,703 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in the discovery set consisting of 535 PsA cases and 3,432 controls from Germany, the United States, and Canada. We followed up two SNPs in 1,931 PsA cases and 6,785 controls comprising six independent replication panels from Germany, Estonia, the United States, and Canada. In the combined analysis, a genome-wide significant association was detected at 2p16 near the REL locus encoding c-Rel (rs13017599, P=1.18 × 10(-8), odds ratio (OR)=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.18-1.35). The rs13017599 polymorphism is known to associate with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and another SNP near REL (rs702873) was recently implicated in PsV susceptibility. However, conditional analysis indicated that rs13017599, rather than rs702873, accounts for the PsA association at REL. We hypothesize that c-Rel, as a member of the Rel/NF-?B family, is associated with PsA in the context of disease pathways that involve other identified PsA and PsV susceptibility genes including TNIP1, TNFAIP3, and NF?BIA.
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Colonic mucosa-associated microbiota is influenced by an interaction of Crohn disease and FUT2 (Secretor) genotype.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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The FUT2 (Secretor) gene is responsible for the presence of ABO histo-blood group antigens on the gastrointestinal mucosa and in bodily secretions. Individuals lacking a functional copy of FUT2 are known as "nonsecretors" and display an array of differences in susceptibility to infection and disease, including Crohn disease. To determine whether variation in resident microbial communities with respect to FUT2 genotype is a potential factor contributing to susceptibility, we performed 454-based community profiling of the intestinal microbiota in a panel of healthy subjects and Crohn disease patients and determined their genotype for the primary nonsecretor allele in Caucasian populations, W143X (G428A). Consistent with previous studies, we observe significant deviations in the microbial communities of individuals with Crohn disease. Furthermore, the FUT2 genotype explains substantial differences in community composition, diversity, and structure, and we identified several bacterial species displaying disease-by-genotype associations. These findings indicate that alterations in resident microbial communities may in part explain the variety of host susceptibilities surrounding nonsecretor status and that FUT2 is an important genetic factor influencing host-microbial diversity.
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Certolizumab pegol for the treatment of Crohns disease.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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In this article we provide a contemporary overview of available clinical data on certolizumab pegol, a pegylated anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha agent that comprises a uniquely small protein, and its emerging role as a therapy for Crohns disease (CD). The results from a comprehensive clinical trial program suggest that certolizumab pegol offers rapid and sustained remission of moderate to severe CD. Certolizumab pegol is an effective and well-tolerated therapy both in patients who have already received biologics and in patients who are anti-TNF naïve. Benefits of therapy include a stable dosing regimen, which allows for rapid induction of a clinical response followed by long-term maintenance of response and remission under one fixed dose. Treatment with certolizumab pegol has been shown to improve function and quality of life in patients with CD, and insights into the potential mechanisms by which certolizumab pegol effects a response in CD suggest that this agent may have the potential to slow or even modify disease progression. Early therapy is particularly effective and could help control CD progression and lessen the burden of disease on patients.
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New gene functions in megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation.
Christian Gieger, Aparna Radhakrishnan, Ana Cvejic, Weihong Tang, Eleonora Porcu, Giorgio Pistis, Jovana Serbanovic-Canic, Ulrich Elling, Alison H Goodall, Yann Labrune, Lorna M Lopez, Reedik Mägi, Stuart Meacham, Yukinori Okada, Nicola Pirastu, Rossella Sorice, Alexander Teumer, Katrin Voss, Weihua Zhang, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Joshua C Bis, David Ellinghaus, Martin Gögele, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Claudia Langenberg, Peter Kovacs, Paul F O'Reilly, So-Youn Shin, Tonu Esko, Jaana Hartiala, Stavroula Kanoni, Federico Murgia, Afshin Parsa, Jonathan Stephens, Pim van der Harst, C Ellen van der Schoot, Hooman Allayee, Antony Attwood, Beverley Balkau, François Bastardot, Saonli Basu, Sebastian E Baumeister, Ginevra Biino, Lorenzo Bomba, Amélie Bonnefond, Francois Cambien, John C Chambers, Francesco Cucca, Pio D'Adamo, Gail Davies, Rudolf A de Boer, Eco J C de Geus, Angela Döring, Paul Elliott, Jeanette Erdmann, David M Evans, Mario Falchi, Wei Feng, Aaron R Folsom, Ian H Frazer, Quince D Gibson, Nicole L Glazer, Chris Hammond, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Susan R Heckbert, Christian Hengstenberg, Micha Hersch, Thomas Illig, Ruth J F Loos, Jennifer Jolley, Kay Tee Khaw, Brigitte Kühnel, Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis, Vasiliki Lagou, Heather Lloyd-Jones, Thomas Lumley, Massimo Mangino, Andrea Maschio, Irene Mateo Leach, Barbara McKnight, Yasin Memari, Braxton D Mitchell, Grant W Montgomery, Yusuke Nakamura, Matthias Nauck, Gerjan Navis, Ute Nöthlings, Ilja M Nolte, David J Porteous, Anneli Pouta, Peter P Pramstaller, Janne Pullat, Susan M Ring, Jerome I Rotter, Daniela Ruggiero, Aimo Ruokonen, Cinzia Sala, Nilesh J Samani, Jennifer Sambrook, David Schlessinger, Stefan Schreiber, Heribert Schunkert, James Scott, Nicholas L Smith, Harold Snieder, John M Starr, Michael Stumvoll, Atsushi Takahashi, W H Wilson Tang, Kent Taylor, Albert Tenesa, Swee Lay Thein, Anke Tönjes, Manuela Uda, Sheila Ulivi, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Peter M Visscher, Uwe Völker, H-Erich Wichmann, Kerri L Wiggins, Gonneke Willemsen, Tsun-Po Yang, Jing Hua Zhao, Paavo Zitting, John R Bradley, George V Dedoussis, Paolo Gasparini, Stanley L Hazen, Andres Metspalu, Mario Pirastu, Alan R Shuldiner, L Joost van Pelt, Jaap-Jan Zwaginga, Dorret I Boomsma, Ian J Deary, Andre Franke, Philippe Froguel, Santhi K Ganesh, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Nicholas G Martin, Christa Meisinger, Bruce M Psaty, Timothy D Spector, Nicholas J Wareham, Jan-Willem N Akkerman, Marina Ciullo, Panos Deloukas, Andreas Greinacher, Steve Jupe, Naoyuki Kamatani, Jyoti Khadake, Jaspal S Kooner, Josef Penninger, Inga Prokopenko, Derek Stemple, Daniela Toniolo, Lorenz Wernisch, Serena Sanna, Andrew A Hicks, Augusto Rendon, Manuel A Ferreira, Willem H Ouwehand, Nicole Soranzo.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Platelets are the second most abundant cell type in blood and are essential for maintaining haemostasis. Their count and volume are tightly controlled within narrow physiological ranges, but there is only limited understanding of the molecular processes controlling both traits. Here we carried out a high-powered meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 66,867 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. We identified 68 genomic loci reliably associated with platelet count and volume mapping to established and putative novel regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation. These genes show megakaryocyte-specific gene expression patterns and extensive network connectivity. Using gene silencing in Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster, we identified 11 of the genes as novel regulators of blood cell formation. Taken together, our findings advance understanding of novel gene functions controlling fate-determining events during megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation, providing a new example of successful translation of GWAS to function.
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A variant in the heart-specific fatty acid transport protein 6 is associated with lower fasting and postprandial TAG, blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Fatty acid transport protein 6 (FATP6) is primarily expressed in the heart and seems to be involved in cardiac fatty acid uptake. Therefore, we investigated whether a variation in the 5-untranslated region of the FATP6 gene is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome and signs of myocardial alteration or heart failure. A total of 755 male participants from a Metabolic Intervention Cohort Kiel were genotyped for the FATP6-7T>A polymorphism (rs2526246) and phenotyped for features of the metabolic syndrome. Participants underwent a glucose tolerance test and the postprandial assessment of metabolic variables after a standardised mixed meal. Left ventricular heart function was evaluated in fifty-four participants. Fasting (P = 0·01) and postprandial (P = 0·02) TAG concentrations were significantly lower in AA homozygotes when compared with wild-type carriers. Homozygosity of allele A was associated with significantly lower postprandial insulin concentrations after a glucose load and significantly lower systolic (P = 0·01) and diastolic (P = 0·01) blood pressure values compared with wild-type carriers. Accordingly, left ventricular heart mass was significantly lower in twenty-seven AA homozygotes in comparison with twenty-seven TT homozygotes, matched for BMI (P = 0·04). In conclusion, the effects of the FATP6 polymorphism on TAG are mediated by affluent dietary fat. The FATP6-7T>A polymorphism may protect from traits of the metabolic syndrome and CVD.
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Rare copy number variation discovery and cross-disorder comparisons identify risk genes for ADHD.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and persistent condition characterized by developmentally atypical and impairing inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. We identified de novo and rare copy number variations (CNVs) in 248 unrelated ADHD patients using million-feature genotyping arrays. We found de novo CNVs in 3 of 173 (1.7%) ADHD patients for whom we had DNA from both parents. These CNVs affected brain-expressed genes: DCLK2, SORCS1, SORCS3, and MACROD2. We also detected rare inherited CNVs in 19 of 248 (7.7%) ADHD probands, which were absent in 2357 controls and which either overlapped previously implicated ADHD loci (for example, DRD5 and 15q13 microduplication) or identified new candidate susceptibility genes (ASTN2, CPLX2, ZBBX, and PTPRN2). Among these de novo and rare inherited CNVs, there were also examples of genes (ASTN2, GABRG1, and CNTN5) previously implicated by rare CNVs in other neurodevelopmental conditions including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further explore the overlap of risks in ADHD and ASD, we used the same microarrays to test for rare CNVs in an independent, newly collected cohort of 349 unrelated individuals with a primary diagnosis of ASD. Deletions of the neuronal ASTN2 and the ASTN2-intronic TRIM32 genes yielded the strongest association with ADHD and ASD, but numerous other shared candidate genes (such as CHCHD3, MACROD2, and the 16p11.2 region) were also revealed. Our results provide support for a role for rare CNVs in ADHD risk and reinforce evidence for the existence of common underlying susceptibility genes for ADHD, ASD, and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
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A comprehensively molecular haplotype-resolved genome of a European individual.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Independent determination of both haplotype sequences of an individual genome is essential to relate genetic variation to genome function, phenotype, and disease. To address the importance of phase, we have generated the most complete haplotype-resolved genome to date, "Max Planck One" (MP1), by fosmid pool-based next generation sequencing. Virtually all SNPs (>99%) and 80,000 indels were phased into haploid sequences of up to 6.3 Mb (N50 ~1 Mb). The completeness of phasing allowed determination of the concrete molecular haplotype pairs for the vast majority of genes (81%) including potential regulatory sequences, of which >90% were found to be constituted by two different molecular forms. A subset of 159 genes with potentially severe mutations in either cis or trans configurations exemplified in particular the role of phase for gene function, disease, and clinical interpretation of personal genomes (e.g., BRCA1). Extended genomic regions harboring manifold combinations of physically and/or functionally related genes and regulatory elements were resolved into their underlying "haploid landscapes," which may define the functional genome. Moreover, the majority of genes and functional sequences were found to contain individual or rare SNPs, which cannot be phased from population data alone, emphasizing the importance of molecular phasing for characterizing a genome in its molecular individuality. Our work provides the foundation to understand that the distinction of molecular haplotypes is essential to resolve the (inherently individual) biology of genes, genomes, and disease, establishing a reference point for "phase-sensitive" personal genomics. MP1s annotated haploid genomes are available as a public resource.
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Genetic variation in the CYP2C monooxygenase enzyme subfamily shows no association with longevity in a German population.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially the CYP2C subfamily, are involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species and are regarded as susceptibility factors for age-related diseases. Furthermore, the CYP2C-encoding genes are known to be highly polymorphic, with a number of variants leading to changes in enzyme activity. These observations prompted us to investigate whether allelic variation in the CYP2C-encoding genes was associated with human longevity. In a comprehensive haplotype tagging approach, we genotyped 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the CYP2C gene family (CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19) in our extensive collection of 1,384 long-lived individuals (centenarians and nonagenarians) and 945 younger controls. None of the tested single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a significant association with the longevity phenotype at the allele, genotype, or haplotype level. These results suggest that there is no notable influence of sequence variation in the CYP2C genes on longevity in the examined German population.
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Recommendations for the treatment of Crohns disease with tumor necrosis factor antagonists: an expert consensus report.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Symptom relief is the traditional treatment goal in Crohns disease (CD). New goals including mucosal healing and bowel preservation are now achievable with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. Infliximab and adalimumab are approved as second-line treatments for severe, active CD. Certolizumab pegol is approved only in the U.S. and Switzerland as second-line treatment for moderate-to-severe, active CD. Data from trials of infliximab suggest that high-risk patients and patients with active inflammation (CRP elevation and/or ileocolonic ulcers) may benefit from earlier use of this drug.
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Genome-wide association study in German patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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The heritability of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is approximately 0.8. Despite several larger scale attempts, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not led to the identification of significant results. We performed a GWAS based on 495 German young patients with ADHD (according to DSM-IV criteria; Human660W-Quadv1; Illumina, San Diego, CA) and on 1,300 population-based adult controls (HumanHap550v3; Illumina). Some genes neighboring the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the lowest P-values (best P-value: 8.38 × 10(-7)) have potential relevance for ADHD (e.g., glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5 gene, GRM5). After quality control, the 30 independent SNPs with the lowest P-values (P-values ? 7.57 × 10(-5) ) were chosen for confirmation. Genotyping of these SNPs in up to 320 independent German families comprising at least one child with ADHD revealed directionally consistent effect-size point estimates for 19 (10 not consistent) of the SNPs. In silico analyses of the 30 SNPs in the largest meta-analysis so far (2,064 trios, 896 cases, and 2,455 controls) revealed directionally consistent effect-size point estimates for 16 SNPs (11 not consistent). None of the combined analyses revealed a genome-wide significant result. SNPs in previously described autosomal candidate genes did not show significantly lower P-values compared to SNPs within random sets of genes of the same size. We did not find genome-wide significant results in a GWAS of German children with ADHD compared to controls. The second best SNP is located in an intron of GRM5, a gene located within a recently described region with an infrequent copy number variation in patients with ADHD.
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NKX2-3 variant rs11190140 is associated with IBD and alters binding of NFAT.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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NKX2-3 SNP rs11190140 is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The T allele is over-transmitted in IBD and the C allele represents a potential CpG methylation site. We hypothesize that genetic variation and/or methylation of SNP rs11190140 may play a role in NKX2-3 gene expression by affecting transcription factor binding. We studied 233 IBD cases and 250 unrelated healthy individuals from an IBD population from central Pennsylvania and performed genotype analyses of the genetic variation and methylation status analysis using PCR-based RFLP. For transcription factor binding, nuclear extracts from human B cells were incubated with biotin-labeled oligonucleotide sequences of the NKX2-3 promoter region containing the genetic variation of T, non-methylated C or methylated C at rs11190140, followed by biotin pull-down and Western blot analysis for transcription factors SP1, NFAT1, NF-?B, and ETS-1. In case-control analysis, the genetic variation was significantly associated with IBD (OR=0.503, 95% CI=0.330-0.764, p<0.001). Methylation status analyses revealed that the C allele is subject to modification by DNA methylation. transcription factor binding assay indicated distinct differential binding of NFAT1 to the NKX2-3 promoter sequence, with higher binding to those with non-methylated and methylated C than to T. The binding of NFAT1 to the NKX2-3 promoter region with rs1190140 was confirmed by ChIP assay. We speculate that the rs11190140 may regulate NKX2-3 expression and have a role in IBD pathogenesis.
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A genome-wide association study confirms APOE as the major gene influencing survival in long-lived individuals.
Mech. Ageing Dev.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) of human longevity, comparing 664,472 autosomal SNPs in 763 long-lived individuals (LLI; mean age: 99.7 years) and 1085 controls (mean age: 60.2 years) from Germany. Only one association, namely that of SNP rs4420638 near the APOC1 gene, achieved genome-wide significance (allele-based P=1.8×10(-10)). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that this association, which was replicated in an independent German sample, is fully explicable by linkage disequilibrium with the APOE allele ?4, the only variant hitherto established as a major genetic determinant of survival into old age. Our GWAS failed to identify any additional autosomal susceptibility genes. One explanation for this lack of success in our study would be that GWAS provide only limited statistical power for a polygenic phenotype with loci of small effect such as human longevity. A recent GWAS in Dutch LLI independently confirmed the APOE-longevity association, thus strengthening the conclusion that this locus is a very, if not the most, important genetic factor influencing longevity.
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A tissue-specific landscape of sense/antisense transcription in the mouse intestine.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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The intestinal mucosa is characterized by complex metabolic and immunological processes driven highly dynamic gene expression programs. With the advent of next generation sequencing and its utilization for the analysis of the RNA sequence space, the level of detail on the global architecture of the transcriptome reached a new order of magnitude compared to microarrays.
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APOE ?4 is associated with higher vitamin D levels in targeted replacement mice and humans.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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The allele ?4 of apolipoprotein E (APOE), which is a key regulator of lipid metabolism, represents a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimers disease. Despite its adverse effects, the allele is common and shows a nonrandom global distribution that is thought to be the result of evolutionary adaptation. One hypothesis proposes that the APOE ?4 allele protects against vitamin D deficiency. Here we present, for the first time, experimental and epidemiological evidence that the APOE ?4 allele is indeed associated with higher serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. In APOE4 targeted replacement mice, significantly higher 25(OH)D levels were found compared with those in APOE2 and APOE3 mice (70.9 vs. 41.8 and 27.8 nM, P<0.05). Furthermore, multivariate adjusted models show a positive association of the APOE ?4 allele with 25(OH)D levels in a small collective of human subjects (n=93; P=0.072) and a general population sample (n=699; P=0.003). The novel link suggests ?4 as a modulator of vitamin D status. Although this result agrees well with evolutionary aspects, it appears contradictory with regard to chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. Large prospective cohort studies are now needed to investigate the potential implications of this finding for chronic disease risks.
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A genome-wide association study identifies LIPA as a susceptibility gene for coronary artery disease.
Philipp S Wild, Tanja Zeller, Arne Schillert, Silke Szymczak, Christoph R Sinning, Arne Deiseroth, Renate B Schnabel, Edith Lubos, Till Keller, Medea S Eleftheriadis, Christoph Bickel, Hans J Rupprecht, Sandra Wilde, Heidi Rossmann, Patrick Diemert, L Adrienne Cupples, Claire Perret, Jeanette Erdmann, Klaus Stark, Marcus E Kleber, Stephen E Epstein, Benjamin F Voight, Kari Kuulasmaa, Mingyao Li, Arne S Schäfer, Norman Klopp, Peter S Braund, Hendrik B Sager, Serkalem Demissie, Carole Proust, Inke R König, Heinz-Erich Wichmann, Wibke Reinhard, Michael M Hoffmann, Jarmo Virtamo, Mary Susan Burnett, David Siscovick, Per Gunnar Wiklund, Liming Qu, Nour Eddine El Mokthari, John R Thompson, Annette Peters, Albert V Smith, Emmanuelle Yon, Jens Baumert, Christian Hengstenberg, Winfried März, Philippe Amouyel, Joseph Devaney, Stephen M Schwartz, Olli Saarela, Nehal N Mehta, Diana Rubin, Kaisa Silander, Alistair S Hall, Jean Ferrières, Tamara B Harris, Olle Melander, Frank Kee, Hakon Hakonarson, Juergen Schrezenmeir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Roberto Elosua, Dominique Arveiler, Alun Evans, Daniel J Rader, Thomas Illig, Stefan Schreiber, Joshua C Bis, David Altshuler, Maryam Kavousi, Jaqueline C M Witteman, André G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Aaron R Folsom, Maja Barbalic, Eric Boerwinkle, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Christopher J O'Donnell, Nilesh J Samani, Heribert Schunkert, Francois Cambien, Karl J Lackner, Laurence Tiret, Veikko Salomaa, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Ziegler, Stefan Blankenberg.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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eQTL analyses are important to improve the understanding of genetic association results. We performed a genome-wide association and global gene expression study to identify functionally relevant variants affecting the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Increased intestinal permeability and tight junction disruption by altered expression and localization of occludin in a murine graft versus host disease model.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is increasingly performed for hematologic diseases. As a major side effect, acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) with serious gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding and high mortality can be observed. Because surveillance and biopsies of human gastrointestinal GvHD are difficult to perform, rare information of the alterations of the gastrointestinal barrier exists resulting in a need for systematic animal models.
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Toward the blood-borne miRNome of human diseases.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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In a multicenter study, we determined the expression profiles of 863 microRNAs by array analysis of 454 blood samples from human individuals with different cancers or noncancer diseases, and validated this miRNome by quantitative real-time PCR. We detected consistently deregulated profiles for all tested diseases; pathway analysis confirmed disease association of the respective microRNAs. We observed significant correlations (P = 0.004) between the genomic location of disease-associated genetic variants and deregulated microRNAs.
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Chromosome 7p11.2 (EGFR) variation influences glioma risk.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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While gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors, their etiology is largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci for glioma, we conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of two case-control series from France and Germany (2269 cases and 2500 controls). Pooling these data with previously reported UK and US GWA studies provided data on 4147 glioma cases and 7435 controls genotyped for 424 460 common tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Using these data, we demonstrate two statistically independent associations between glioma and rs11979158 and rs2252586, at 7p11.2 which encompasses the EGFR gene (population-corrected statistics, P(c) = 7.72 × 10(-8) and 2.09 × 10(-8), respectively). Both associations were independent of tumor subtype, and were independent of EGFR amplification, p16INK4a deletion and IDH1 mutation status in tumors; compatible with driver effects of the variants on glioma development. These findings show that variation in 7p11.2 is a determinant of inherited glioma risk.
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Certolizumab pegol for active Crohns disease: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is a pegylated-conjugated Fab against tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Additional data are needed regarding the efficacy of induction therapy with CZP in active Crohns disease (CD).
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Twin study indicates loss of interaction between microbiota and mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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Interactions between genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in onset and initiation of inflammatory bowel disease. We analyzed the interaction between gastrointestinal mucosal microbiota and host genes in twin pairs discordant for ulcerative colitis (UC) to study the functional interaction between microbiota and mucosal epithelium.
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The neuronal transporter gene SLC6A15 confers risk to major depression.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Major depression (MD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and a leading cause of loss in work productivity. A combination of genetic and environmental risk factors probably contributes to MD. We present data from a genome-wide association study revealing a neuron-specific neutral amino acid transporter (SLC6A15) as a susceptibility gene for MD. Risk allele carrier status in humans and chronic stress in mice were associated with a downregulation of the expression of this gene in the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in the pathophysiology of MD. The same polymorphisms also showed associations with alterations in hippocampal volume and neuronal integrity. Thus, decreased SLC6A15 expression, due to genetic or environmental factors, might alter neuronal circuits related to the susceptibility for MD. Our convergent data from human genetics, expression studies, brain imaging, and animal models suggest a pathophysiological mechanism for MD that may be accessible to drug targeting.
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Distinct DNA methylation patterns in cirrhotic liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Abberrant DNA methylation is one of the hallmarks of cancerogenesis. Our study aims to delineate differential DNA methylation in cirrhosis and hepatic cancerogenesis. Patterns of methylation of 27,578 individual CpG loci in 12 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 15 cirrhotic controls and 12 normal liver samples were investigated using an array-based technology. A supervised principal component analysis (PCA) revealed 167 hypomethylated loci and 100 hypermethylated loci in cirrhosis and HCC as compared to normal controls. Thus, these loci show a "cirrhotic" methylation pattern that is maintained in HCC. In pairwise supervised PCAs between normal liver, cirrhosis and HCC, eight loci were significantly changed in all analyses differentiating the three groups (p < 0.0001). Of these, five loci showed highest methylation levels in HCC and lowest in control tissue (LOC55908, CELSR1, CRMP1, GNRH2, ALOX12 and ANGPTL7), whereas two loci showed the opposite direction of change (SPRR3 and TNFSF15). Genes hypermethylated between normal liver to cirrhosis, which maintain this methylation pattern during the development of HCC, are depleted for CpG islands, high CpG content promoters and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) targets in embryonic stem cells. In contrast, genes selectively hypermethylated in HCC as compared to nonmalignant samples showed an enrichment of CpG islands, high CpG content promoters and PRC2 target genes (p < 0.0001). Cirrhosis and HCC show distinct patterns of differential methylation with regards to promoter structure, PRC2 targets and CpG islands.
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The level of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is decreased in metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) represent the sixth largest group among all human malignancies. However, the exact molecular mechanisms inducing the genesis and the progression of metastasis in these tumors are poorly understood. The identification of molecular alterations involved in metastasis of HNSCC might influence the value of clinical diagnostics, impact therapy strategies and finally improve the prognosis of the patients. The purpose of this study was to identify clinically relevant alterations at the transcriptional and translational levels, when comparing metastatic (N+) and non-metastatic (N0) primary HNSCC. Three transcripts HERPUD1, SLPI and RAD51 were selected for further validation based on their association with carcinogenesis and metastasis. Quantitative real-time-PCR was performed to determine the mRNA expression levels. For subsequent confirmation of the results, immunohistochemistry was performed applying a monoclonal anti-SLPI antibody on 121 HNSCC tumor specimens (N0, n=40; N+, n=81). In metastatic primary cancer, SLPI mRNA showed 5.9-fold lower expression in comparison with non-metastatic primary cancer (p=0.0092). Immunohistochemical staining revealed a fold change of -1.79 between the N+ and the N0 group (p=0.0002). The results presented here clearly indicate the repression of SLPI, measurable on both, mRNA and protein levels in metastatic primary HNSCC as compared to non-metastatic HNSCC. Therefore, it can be assumed that SLPI might have a substantial protective effect on the metastasis process of HNSCC.
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Characterization of changes in serum anti-glycan antibodies in Crohns disease--a longitudinal analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2011
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Anti-glycan antibodies are a promising tool for differential diagnosis and disease stratification of patients with Crohns disease (CD). We longitudinally assessed level and status changes of anti-glycan antibodies over time in individual CD patients as well as determinants of this phenomenon.
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Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.
, Stephen Sawcer, Garrett Hellenthal, Matti Pirinen, Chris C A Spencer, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Loukas Moutsianas, Alexander Dilthey, Zhan Su, Colin Freeman, Sarah E Hunt, Sarah Edkins, Emma Gray, David R Booth, Simon C Potter, An Goris, Gavin Band, Annette Bang Oturai, Amy Strange, Janna Saarela, Celine Bellenguez, Bertrand Fontaine, Matthew Gillman, Bernhard Hemmer, Rhian Gwilliam, Frauke Zipp, Alagurevathi Jayakumar, Roland Martin, Stephen Leslie, Stanley Hawkins, Eleni Giannoulatou, Sandra D'Alfonso, Hannah Blackburn, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Jennifer Liddle, Hanne F Harbo, Marc L Perez, Anne Spurkland, Matthew J Waller, Marcin P Mycko, Michelle Ricketts, Manuel Comabella, Naomi Hammond, Ingrid Kockum, Owen T McCann, Maria Ban, Pamela Whittaker, Anu Kemppinen, Paul Weston, Clive Hawkins, Sara Widaa, John Zajicek, Serge Dronov, Neil Robertson, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Lisa F Barcellos, Rathi Ravindrarajah, Roby Abraham, Lars Alfredsson, Kristin Ardlie, Cristin Aubin, Amie Baker, Katharine Baker, Sergio E Baranzini, Laura Bergamaschi, Roberto Bergamaschi, Allan Bernstein, Achim Berthele, Mike Boggild, Jonathan P Bradfield, David Brassat, Simon A Broadley, Dorothea Buck, Helmut Butzkueven, Ruggero Capra, William M Carroll, Paola Cavalla, Elisabeth G Celius, Sabine Cepok, Rosetta Chiavacci, Françoise Clerget-Darpoux, Katleen Clysters, Giancarlo Comi, Mark Cossburn, Isabelle Cournu-Rebeix, Mathew B Cox, Wendy Cozen, Bruce A C Cree, Anne H Cross, Daniele Cusi, Mark J Daly, Emma Davis, Paul I W de Bakker, Marc Debouverie, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Katherine Dixon, Rita Dobosi, Bénédicte Dubois, David Ellinghaus, Irina Elovaara, Federica Esposito, Claire Fontenille, Simon Foote, Andre Franke, Daniela Galimberti, Angelo Ghezzi, Joseph Glessner, Refujia Gomez, Olivier Gout, Colin Graham, Struan F A Grant, Franca Rosa Guerini, Hakon Hakonarson, Per Hall, Anders Hamsten, Hans-Peter Hartung, Rob N Heard, Simon Heath, Jeremy Hobart, Muna Hoshi, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Gillian Ingram, Wendy Ingram, Talat Islam, Maja Jagodic, Michael Kabesch, Allan G Kermode, Trevor J Kilpatrick, Cecilia Kim, Norman Klopp, Keijo Koivisto, Malin Larsson, Mark Lathrop, Jeannette S Lechner-Scott, Maurizio A Leone, Virpi Leppä, Ulrika Liljedahl, Izaura Lima Bomfim, Robin R Lincoln, Jenny Link, Jianjun Liu, Aslaug R Lorentzen, Sara Lupoli, Fabio Macciardi, Thomas Mack, Mark Marriott, Vittorio Martinelli, Deborah Mason, Jacob L McCauley, Frank Mentch, Inger-Lise Mero, Tania Mihalova, Xavier Montalban, John Mottershead, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Paola Naldi, William Ollier, Alison Page, Aarno Palotie, Jean Pelletier, Laura Piccio, Trevor Pickersgill, Fredrik Piehl, Susan Pobywajlo, Hong L Quach, Patricia P Ramsay, Mauri Reunanen, Richard Reynolds, John D Rioux, Mariaemma Rodegher, Sabine Roesner, Justin P Rubio, Ina-Maria Rückert, Marco Salvetti, Erika Salvi, Adam Santaniello, Catherine A Schaefer, Stefan Schreiber, Christian Schulze, Rodney J Scott, Finn Sellebjerg, Krzysztof W Selmaj, David Sexton, Ling Shen, Brigid Simms-Acuna, Sheila Skidmore, Patrick M A Sleiman, Cathrine Smestad, Per Soelberg Sørensen, Helle Bach Søndergaard, Jim Stankovich, Richard C Strange, Anna-Maija Sulonen, Emilie Sundqvist, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Francesca Taddeo, Bruce Taylor, Jenefer M Blackwell, Pentti Tienari, Elvira Bramon, Ayman Tourbah, Matthew A Brown, Ewa Tronczynska, Juan P Casas, Niall Tubridy, Aiden Corvin, Jane Vickery, Janusz Jankowski, Pablo Villoslada, Hugh S Markus, Kai Wang, Christopher G Mathew, James Wason, Colin N A Palmer, H-Erich Wichmann, Robert Plomin, Ernest Willoughby, Anna Rautanen, Juliane Winkelmann, Michael Wittig, Richard C Trembath, Jacqueline Yaouanq, Ananth C Viswanathan, Haitao Zhang, Nicholas W Wood, Rebecca Zuvich, Panos Deloukas, Cordelia Langford, Audrey Duncanson, Jorge R Oksenberg, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Jonathan L Haines, Tomas Olsson, Jan Hillert, Adrian J Ivinson, Philip L De Jager, Leena Peltonen, Graeme J Stewart, David A Hafler, Stephen L Hauser, Gil McVean, Peter Donnelly, Alastair Compston.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
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