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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A novel HMM distributed classifier for the detection of gait phases by means of a wearable inertial sensor network.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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In this work, we decided to apply a hierarchical weighted decision, proposed and used in other research fields, for the recognition of gait phases. The developed and validated novel distributed classifier is based on hierarchical weighted decision from outputs of scalar Hidden Markov Models (HMM) applied to angular velocities of foot, shank, and thigh. The angular velocities of ten healthy subjects were acquired via three uni-axial gyroscopes embedded in inertial measurement units (IMUs) during one walking task, repeated three times, on a treadmill. After validating the novel distributed classifier and scalar and vectorial classifiers-already proposed in the literature, with a cross-validation, classifiers were compared for sensitivity, specificity, and computational load for all combinations of the three targeted anatomical segments. Moreover, the performance of the novel distributed classifier in the estimation of gait variability in terms of mean time and coefficient of variation was evaluated. The highest values of specificity and sensitivity (>0.98) for the three classifiers examined here were obtained when the angular velocity of the foot was processed. Distributed and vectorial classifiers reached acceptable values (>0.95) when the angular velocity of shank and thigh were analyzed. Distributed and scalar classifiers showed values of computational load about 100 times lower than the one obtained with the vectorial classifier. In addition, distributed classifiers showed an excellent reliability for the evaluation of mean time and a good/excellent reliability for the coefficient of variation. In conclusion, due to the better performance and the small value of computational load, the here proposed novel distributed classifier can be implemented in the real-time application of gait phases recognition, such as to evaluate gait variability in patients or to control active orthoses for the recovery of mobility of lower limb joints.
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Shoulder motor performance assessment in the sagittal plane in children with hemiplegia during single joint pointing tasks.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Pointing is a motor task extensively used during daily life activities and it requires complex visuo-motor transformation to select the appropriate movement strategy. The study of invariant characteristics of human movements has led to several theories on how the brain solves the redundancy problem, but the application of these theories on children affected by hemiplegia is limited. This study aims at giving a quantitative assessment of the shoulder motor behaviour in children with hemiplegia during pointing tasks.
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Partial knee arthroplasty: patellofemoral arthroplasty and combined unicompartmental and patellofemoral arthroplasty implants - general considerations and indications, technique and clinical experience.
Knee
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Unicompartmental and patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) are not new concepts as shown by different authors, and nowadays surgical solutions other than total knee arthroplasty (TKA) must be considered, exploiting the technical possibilities offered by the new designs of prostheses which have improved the results of already used, old fashioned implants. The aim of our study was to present our experience with PFA and its combination with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA).
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A wireless flexible sensorized insole for gait analysis.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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This paper introduces the design and development of a novel pressure-sensitive foot insole for real-time monitoring of plantar pressure distribution during walking. The device consists of a flexible insole with 64 pressure-sensitive elements and an integrated electronic board for high-frequency data acquisition, pre-filtering, and wireless transmission to a remote data computing/storing unit. The pressure-sensitive technology is based on an optoelectronic technology developed at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna. The insole is a low-cost and low-power battery-powered device. The design and development of the device is presented along with its experimental characterization and validation with healthy subjects performing a task of walking at different speeds, and benchmarked against an instrumented force platform.
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The Effect of Aging on the Specialized Conducting System: A Telemetry ECG Study in Rats over a 6 Month Period.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Advanced age alone appears to be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. We previously observed in the aged rat heart that sinus rhythm ventricular activation is delayed and characterized by abnormal epicardial patterns although conduction velocity is normal. While these findings relate to an advanced stage of aging, it is not yet known when and how ventricular electrical impairment originates and which is the underlying substrate. To address these points, we performed continuous telemetry ECG recordings in freely moving rats over a six-month period to monitor ECG waveform changes, heart rate variability and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. At the end of the study, we performed in-vivo multiple lead epicardial recordings and histopathology of cardiac tissue. We found that the duration of ECG waves and intervals gradually increased and heart rate variability gradually decreased with age. Moreover, the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias gradually increased, with atrial arrhythmias exceeding ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial multiple lead recordings confirmed abnormalities in ventricular activation patterns, likely attributable to distal conducting system dysfunctions. Microscopic analysis of aged heart specimens revealed multifocal connective tissue deposition and perinuclear myocytolysis in the atria. Our results demonstrate that aging gradually modifies the terminal part of the specialized cardiac conducting system, creating a substrate for increased arrhythmogenesis. These findings may open new therapeutic options in the management of cardiac arrhythmias in the elderly population.
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Signs of cardiac autonomic imbalance and proarrhythmic remodeling in FTO deficient mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In humans, variants of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have recently been associated with obesity. However, the physiological function of FTO is not well defined. Previous investigations in mice have linked FTO deficiency to growth retardation, loss of white adipose tissue, increased energy metabolism and enhanced systemic sympathetic activation. In this study we investigated for the first time the effects of global knockout of the mouse FTO gene on cardiac function and its autonomic neural regulation. ECG recordings were acquired via radiotelemetry in homozygous knockout (n?=?12) and wild-type (n?=?8) mice during resting and stress conditions, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. In the same animals, cardiac electrophysiological properties (assessed by epicardial mapping) and structural characteristics were investigated. Our data indicate that FTO knockout mice were characterized by (i) higher heart rate values during resting and stress conditions, (ii) heart rate variability changes (increased LF to HF ratio), (iii) larger vulnerability to stress-induced tachyarrhythmias, (iv) altered ventricular repolarization, and (v) cardiac hypertrophy compared to wild-type counterparts. We conclude that FTO deficiency in mice leads to an imbalance of the autonomic neural modulation of cardiac function in the sympathetic direction and to a potentially proarrhythmic remodeling of electrical and structural properties of the heart.
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Kinematics and design of a portable and wearable exoskeleton for hand rehabilitation.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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We present the kinematic design and actuation mechanics of a wearable exoskeleton for hand rehabilitation of post-stroke. Our design method is focused on achieving maximum safety, comfort and reliability in the interaction, and allowing different users to wear the device with no manual regulations. In particular, we propose a kinematic and actuation solution for the index finger flexion/extension, which leaves full movement freedom on the abduction-adduction plane. This paper presents a detailed kineto-static analysis of the system and a first prototype of the device.
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Lateral ankle instability in high-demand athletes: reconstruction with fibular periosteal flap.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Fibular periosteal flaps have been used to address chronic lateral ankle instability, but there are no studies in the literature reporting functional outcomes after this particular procedure in high-demand athletes. We postulated that for chronic instability, nonanatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligament with a fibular periosteal flap will return high-demand athletes to their previous levels of activity.
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Giant intraosseous schwannoma of the ileopubic ramus.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Schwannomas are the most common tumors of the peripheral nerves. Intraosseous schwannoma is a rare entity; approximately 200 cases are described in the world literature, with only 1 involving the ileopubic ramus. To the authors knowledge, this article is the first to describe a giant intraosseous schwannoma of the ileopubic ramus, its clinical presentation and radiographic aspect, its histological findings, its biological behavior, and the differential diagnosis. It is also the first to describe surgical treatment of this entity. A 63-year-old woman presented with paroxysmal pain at the right groin. Radiographs showed a multilocular lytic lesion of the right ileopubic ramus, extending from the acetabulum to the pubic symphysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed extraosseous extension in the pelvis and in the anteromedial region of the right thigh. An incisional biopsy revealed fibroconnective tissue with sparse spindle cells in a myxoid stroma; diffuse expression of S100 protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. Intraosseous neurofibroma was the first histopathologic diagnosis. The 12×8×4-cm lesion was entirely removed via a Letournel ileoinguinal approach. Reconstruction of the ileopubic ramus was performed with an autologous bone graft taken from the omolateral iliac crest and fixed by a pelvic reconstruction plate. Histopathological examination revealed Antoni A and B patterns with Verocay bodies, no mitosis or cellular atypia, and diffuse expression of S100 protein by immunohistochemistry, all features indicative of a benign schwannoma. The patient returned to activities of daily living with no limitations. No recurrence had occurred 24 months postoperatively.
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Automated detection of gait initiation and termination using wearable sensors.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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This paper presents algorithms for detection of gait initiation and termination using wearable inertial measurement units and pressure-sensitive insoles. Body joint angles, joint angular velocities, ground reaction force and center of plantar pressure of each foot are obtained from these sensors and input into supervised machine learning algorithms. The proposed initiation detection method recognizes two events: gait onset (an anticipatory movement preceding foot lifting) and toe-off. The termination detection algorithm segments gait into steps, measures the signals over a buffer at the beginning of each step, and determines whether this measurement belongs to the final step. The approach is validated with 10 subjects at two gait speeds, using within-subject and subject-independent cross-validation. Results show that gait initiation can be detected timely and accurately, with few errors in the case of within-subject cross-validation and overall good performance in subject-independent cross-validation. Gait termination can be predicted in over 80% of trials well before the subject comes to a complete stop. Results also show that the two sensor types are equivalent in predicting gait initiation while inertial measurement units are generally superior in predicting gait termination. Potential use of the algorithms is foreseen primarily with assistive devices such as prostheses and exoskeletons.
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A flexible sensor technology for the distributed measurement of interaction pressure.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We present a sensor technology for the measure of the physical human-robot interaction pressure developed in the last years at Scuola Superiore SantAnna. The system is composed of flexible matrices of opto-electronic sensors covered by a soft silicone cover. This sensory system is completely modular and scalable, allowing one to cover areas of any sizes and shapes, and to measure different pressure ranges. In this work we present the main application areas for this technology. A first generation of the system was used to monitor human-robot interaction in upper- (NEUROExos; Scuola Superiore SantAnna) and lower-limb (LOPES; University of Twente) exoskeletons for rehabilitation. A second generation, with increased resolution and wireless connection, was used to develop a pressure-sensitive foot insole and an improved human-robot interaction measurement systems. The experimental characterization of the latter system along with its validation on three healthy subjects is presented here for the first time. A perspective on future uses and development of the technology is finally drafted.
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Feasibility study of a wearable exoskeleton for children: is the gait altered by adding masses on lower limbs?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot) to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait) and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg). T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five "with added mass" conditions. We found significant differences among "natural gait" and "with added masses" conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here.
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Pediatric anklebot.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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In this paper we present the alpha-prototype of a novel pediatric ankle robot. This lower-extremity robotic therapy module was developed at MIT to aid recovery of ankle function in children with cerebral palsy ages 5 to 8 years old. This lower-extremity robotic module will commence pilot testing with children with cerebral palsy at Blythedale Childrens Hospital (Valhalla, NY), Bambino Gesu Childrens Hospital (Rome, Italy), Riley Childrens Hospital (Indianapolis, IN). Its design follows the same guidelines as our upper-extremity robots and adult anklebot designs, i.e. it is a low friction, backdriveable device with intrinsically low mechanical impedance. We show the ankle robot characteristics and stability range. We also present pilot data with healthy children to demonstrate the potential of this device.
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Oscillator-based walking assistance: a model-free approach.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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In this paper, we further develop our framework to design new assistance and rehabilitation protocols based on motor primitives. In particular, we extend our recent results of oscillator-based assistance to the case of walking. The adaptive oscillator used in this paper is capable of predicting the angular position of the users joints in the future, based on the pattern learned during preceding cycles. Assistance is then provided by attracting the joints to this future position using a force field in a compliant lower-limb exoskeleton. To demonstrate the method efficiency, we computed the rate of metabolic energy expended by the participants during a walking task, with and without assistance. Results show a significant decrease of energy expenditure with the assistance switched on, although not to a point to entirely compensate for the burden due to the exoskeleton lack of transparency. The results further show changes in the kinematics: with assistance, the participants walked with a faster cadence and ampler movements. These results tend to prove the relevance of designing assistance protocols based on adaptive oscillators (or primitives in general) and pave the way to the design of new rehabilitation protocols.
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Modular tibial plate for minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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Aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of a modular tibial plate purposely designed for minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.
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Oscillator-based assistance of cyclical movements: model-based and model-free approaches.
Med Biol Eng Comput
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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In this article, we propose a new method for providing assistance during cyclical movements. This method is trajectory-free, in the sense that it provides user assistance irrespective of the performed movement, and requires no other sensing than the assisting robots own encoders. The approach is based on adaptive oscillators, i.e., mathematical tools that are capable of learning the high level features (frequency, envelope, etc.) of a periodic input signal. Here we present two experiments that we recently conducted to validate our approach: a simple sinusoidal movement of the elbow, that we designed as a proof-of-concept, and a walking experiment. In both cases, we collected evidence illustrating that our approach indeed assisted healthy subjects during movement execution. Owing to the intrinsic periodicity of daily life movements involving the lower-limbs, we postulate that our approach holds promise for the design of innovative rehabilitation and assistance protocols for the lower-limb, requiring little to no user-specific calibration.
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N?-lysine acetylation determines dissociation from GAP junctions and lateralization of connexin 43 in normal and dystrophic heart.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Wanting to explore the epigenetic basis of Duchenne cardiomyopathy, we found that global histone acetylase activity was abnormally elevated and the acetylase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) coimmunoprecipitated with connexin 43 (Cx43), which was N(?)-lysine acetylated and lateralized in mdx heart. This observation was paralleled by Cx43 dissociation from N-cadherin and zonula occludens 1, whereas pp60-c-Src association was unaltered. In vivo treatment of mdx with the pan-histone acetylase inhibitor anacardic acid significantly reduced Cx43 N(?)-lysine acetylation and restored its association to GAP junctions (GJs) at intercalated discs. Noteworthy, in normal as well as mdx mice, the class IIa histone deacetylases 4 and 5 constitutively colocalized with Cx43 either at GJs or in the lateralized compartments. The class I histone deacetylase 3 was also part of the complex. Treatment of normal controls with the histone deacetylase pan-inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (MC1568) or the class IIa-selective inhibitor 3-{4-[3-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1-propen-1-yl]-1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl}-N-hydroxy-2-propenamide (MC1568) determined Cx43 hyperacetylation, dissociation from GJs, and distribution along the long axis of ventricular cardiomyocytes. Consistently, the histone acetylase activator pentadecylidenemalonate 1b (SPV106) hyperacetylated cardiac proteins, including Cx43, which assumed a lateralized position that partly reproduced the dystrophic phenotype. In the presence of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, cell to cell permeability was significantly diminished, which is in agreement with a Cx43 close conformation in the consequence of hyperacetylation. Additional experiments, performed with Cx43 acetylation mutants, revealed, for the acetylated form of the molecule, a significant reduction in plasma membrane localization and a tendency to nuclear accumulation. These results suggest that Cx43 N(?)-lysine acetylation may have physiopathological consequences for cell to cell coupling and cardiac function.
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Growth factor-induced mobilization of cardiac progenitor cells reduces the risk of arrhythmias, in a rat model of chronic myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Heart repair by stem cell treatment may involve life-threatening arrhythmias. Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) appear best suited for reconstituting lost myocardium without posing arrhythmic risks, being commissioned towards cardiac phenotype. In this study we tested the hypothesis that mobilization of CPCs through locally delivered Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 to heal chronic myocardial infarction (MI), lowers the proneness to arrhythmias. We used 133 adult male Wistar rats either with one-month old MI and treated with growth factors (GFs, n?=?60) or vehicle (V, n?=?55), or sham operated (n?=?18). In selected groups of animals, prior to and two weeks after GF/V delivery, we evaluated stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias by telemetry-ECG, cardiac mechanics by echocardiography, and ventricular excitability, conduction velocity and refractoriness by epicardial multiple-lead recording. Invasive hemodynamic measurements were performed before sacrifice and eventually the hearts were subjected to anatomical, morphometric, immunohistochemical, and molecular biology analyses. When compared with untreated MI, GFs decreased stress-induced arrhythmias and concurrently prolonged the effective refractory period (ERP) without affecting neither the duration of ventricular repolarization, as suggested by measurements of QTc interval and mRNA levels for K-channel ?-subunits Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, nor the dispersion of refractoriness. Further, markers of cardiomyocyte reactive hypertrophy, including mRNA levels for K-channel ?-subunit Kv1.4 and ?-subunit KChIP2, interstitial fibrosis and negative structural remodeling were significantly reduced in peri-infarcted/remote ventricular myocardium. Finally, analyses of BrdU incorporation and distribution of connexin43 and N-cadherin indicated that cytokines generated new vessels and electromechanically-connected myocytes and abolished the correlation of infarct size with deterioration of mechanical function. In conclusion, local injection of GFs ameliorates electromechanical competence in chronic MI. Reduced arrhythmogenesis is attributable to prolongation of ERP resulting from improved intercellular coupling via increased expression of connexin43, and attenuation of unfavorable remodeling.
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Sensing pressure distribution on a lower-limb exoskeleton physical human-machine interface.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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A sensory apparatus to monitor pressure distribution on the physical human-robot interface of lower-limb exoskeletons is presented. We propose a distributed measure of the interaction pressure over the whole contact area between the user and the machine as an alternative measurement method of human-robot interaction. To obtain this measure, an array of newly-developed soft silicone pressure sensors is inserted between the limb and the mechanical interface that connects the robot to the user, in direct contact with the wearers skin. Compared to state-of-the-art measures, the advantage of this approach is that it allows for a distributed measure of the interaction pressure, which could be useful for the assessment of safety and comfort of human-robot interaction. This paper presents the new sensor and its characterization, and the development of an interaction measurement apparatus, which is applied to a lower-limb rehabilitation robot. The system is calibrated, and an example its use during a prototypical gait training task is presented.
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Mid-term results of an uncemented femoral stem with modular neck options.
Hip Int
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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We prospectively assessed the results of 239 primary total hip replacements performed using a conical stem combined with modular necks of different lengths and inclinations (Modulus System, Lima Corporate San Daniele Del Friuli, Udine, Italia) in 222 patients (50 men, 172 women), undergoing surgery between October 2001 and December 2006 and presenting with anatomical deformities of the proximal femur and/or acetabulum, including developmental dysplasia (DDH), ankylosis, and sequelae of osteotomies or fractures. Such conditions can make hip replacement problematic. The mean age at the time of surgery was 57.6 years (22 ÷ 83). No patients were lost to follow-up. 3 femoral components underwent revision. At a mean of 5 years follow-up the Harris Hip Score showed a significant improvement, increasing from 35 preoperatively to a mean of 96.6. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis the survival rate at 5 years was 98.28%. The Modulus stem showed good mid-term results in terms of survival, as well as clinical and radiographic outcome.
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The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid reduces cardiac arrhythmias in dystrophic mice.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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The effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors on dystrophic heart function is not established. To investigate this aspect, dystrophic mdx mice and wild-type (WT) animals were treated 90 days either with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, 5 mg/kg/day) or with an equivalent amount of vehicle.
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Efficacy of intra-articular polynucleotides in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted over 16 weeks to assess the efficacy and safety profile of intra-articular polynucleotides gel injections in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis associated with persistent knee pain. 60 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive intra-articular polynucleotides (n = 30) or hyaluronan (n = 30); patients received five weekly intra-articular knee injections and the follow-up period was 3 months after the end of treatment. Primary endpoint was to determine polynucleotides (PN) efficacy in reducing knee pain at the end of the study, over baseline value and over standard hyaluronan viscosupplementation (HA). Pain levels were measured using a 0-10 cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Secondary endpoints included Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), NSAIDs consumption, crackling during movement and articular mobility limitation. The mean global VAS pain decreased from 5.7 + or - 1.9 cm (T0) to 1.9 + or - 1.5 cm (T16) in polynucleotide group and from 4.9 + or - 2.0 cm (T0) to 2.1 + or - 1.4 cm (T16) in hyaluronan group. The reduction in pain was statistically significant for both groups. KOOS increases from baseline values were statistically significant in both groups. No significant adverse events were reported. These findings suggest that intra-articular polynucleotides can be a valid alternative to traditional hyaluronan supplementation for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
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The neuro-robotics paradigm: NEURARM, NEUROExos, HANDEXOS.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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This work describes the neuro-robotics paradigm: the fusion of neuroscience and robotics. The fusion of neuroscience and robotics, called neuro-robotics, is fundamental to develop robotic systems to be used in functional support, personal assistance and neuro-rehabilitation. While usually the robotic device is considered as a "tool" for neuroscientific studies, a breakthrough is obtained if the two scientific competences and methodologies converge to develop innovative platforms to go beyond robotics by including novel models to design better robots. This paper describes three robotic platforms developed at the ARTS lab of Scuola Superiore SantAnna, implementing neuro-robotic design paradigm.
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On the design of ergonomic wearable robotic devices for motion assistance and rehabilitation.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
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The appropriate ergonomic design of a wearable robotic device is critical for the effectiveness of the device itself. In this paper we identified two key requirements for a structural ergonomics: the correct kinematic compatibility with the human limb and a comfortable and adaptable physical human-robot interface. We then show how the aforementioned requirements have been faced and implemented in the mechanical design of two wearable devices for elbow and hand rehabilitation, both developed at The BioRobotics Institute of Scuola Superiore Sant Anna.
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Structural and electrical myocardial remodeling in a rodent model of depression.
Psychosom Med
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Despite a well-documented association between stress and depression with cardiac morbidity and mortality, there is no satisfactory explanation for the mechanisms linking affective and cardiac disorders. This study investigated cardiac electrophysiological properties in an animal model of depression.
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Stress-induced susceptibility to sudden cardiac death in mice with altered serotonin homeostasis.
PLoS ONE
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In humans, chronic stressors have long been linked to cardiac morbidity. Altered serotonergic neurotransmission may represent a crucial pathophysiological mechanism mediating stress-induced cardiac disturbances. Here, we evaluated the physiological role of serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in the autonomic regulation of cardiac function under acute and chronic stress conditions, using 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice (KOs). When exposed to acute stressors, KO mice displayed a higher tachycardic stress response and a larger reduction of vagal modulation of heart rate than wild type counterparts (WTs). During a protocol of chronic psychosocial stress, 6 out of 22 (27%) KOs died from cardiac arrest. Close to death, they displayed a severe bradycardia, a lengthening of cardiac interval (P wave, PQ and QRS) duration, a notched QRS complex and a profound hypothermia. In the same period, the remaining knockouts exhibited higher values of heart rate than WTs during both light and dark phases of the diurnal rhythm. At sacrifice, KO mice showed a larger expression of cardiac muscarinic receptors (M2), whereas they did not differ for gross cardiac anatomy and the amount of myocardial fibrosis compared to WTs. This study demonstrates that chronic genetic loss of 5-HT(1A) receptors is detrimental for cardiovascular health, by intensifying acute, stress-induced heart rate rises and increasing the susceptibility to sudden cardiac death in mice undergoing chronic stress.
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Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays.
Artif DNA PNA XNA
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PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes.
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Ceramic femoral components in total knee arthroplasty - two year follow-up results of an international prospective multi-centre study.
Open Orthop J
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Total knee arthroplasty can be considered as a reliable surgical procedure with a good long-term clinical result. However, implant failure due to particle induced aseptic loosening as well as the aspect of hypersensitivity to metal ions still remains an emerging issue.
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The trivector approach for minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty: a technical note.
J Orthop Traumatol
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One of the main criticisms of minimally invasive approaches in total knee arthroplasty has been their poor adaptability in cases of major deformity or stiffness of the knee joint. When they are used in such cases, excessive soft-tissue tension is needed to provide appropriate joint exposure. Here, we describe the "mini trivector approach," which has become our standard approach for total knee replacement because it permits us to enlarge the indication for minimally or less invasive total knee replacement to many knees where quad sparing, a subvastus approach, or a mini quad or mini midvastus snip may not be sufficient to achieve correct exposure. It consists of a limited double snip of the VMO and the quadriceps tendon that reduces tension on the extensor mechanism and allows easier verticalization of the patella as well as good joint exposure.
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Near elimination of ventricular pacing in SafeR mode compared to DDD modes: a randomized study of 422 patients.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
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SafeR performance versus DDD/automatic mode conversion (DDD/AMC) and DDD with a 250-ms atrioventricular (AV) delay (DDD/LD) modes was assessed toward ventricular pacing (Vp) reduction.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.