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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
MicroRNA binding site polymorphisms as biomarkers in cancer management and research.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. They have been implicated in a broad range of biological processes, and miRNA-related genetic alterations probably underlie several human diseases. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of transcripts may modulate the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNAs and explain interindividual variability in cancer risk and in chemotherapy response. On the basis of recent association studies published in the literature, the present review mainly summarizes the potential role of miRNAs as molecular biomarkers for disease susceptibility, diagnosis, prognosis, and drug-response prediction in tumors. Many clues suggest a role for polymorphisms within the 3' untranslated regions of KRAS rs61764370, SET8 rs16917496, and MDM4 rs4245739 as SNPs in miRNA binding sites highly promising in the biology of human cancer. However, more studies are needed to better characterize the composite spectrum of genetic determinants for future use of markers in risk prediction and clinical management of diseases, heading toward personalized medicine.
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Novel genome-wide association study-based candidate loci for differentiated thyroid cancer risk.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have identified robust associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 9q22.33 (FOXE1), 14q13.3 (NKX2-1), and 2q35 (DIRC3). Our recently published GWAS suggested additional susceptibility loci specific for the high-incidence Italian population.
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Risk of multiple myeloma is associated with polymorphisms within telomerase genes and telomere length.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Compelling biological and epidemiological evidences point to a key role of genetic variants of the TERT and TERC genes in cancer development. We analyzed the genetic variability of these two gene regions using samples of 2,267 multiple myeloma (MM) cases and 2,796 healthy controls. We found that a TERT variant, rs2242652, is associated with reduced MM susceptibility (OR?=?0.81; 95% CI: 0.72-0.92; p?=?0.001). In addition we measured the leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a subgroup of 140 cases who were chemotherapy-free at the time of blood donation and 468 controls, and found that MM patients had longer telomeres compared to controls (OR?=?1.19; 95% CI: 0.63-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.01 comparing the quartile with the longest LTL versus the shortest LTL). Our data suggest the hypothesis of decreased disease risk by genetic variants that reduce the efficiency of the telomerase complex. This reduced efficiency leads to shorter telomere ends, which in turn may also be a marker of decreased MM risk.
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Obesity and the risk of papillary thyroid cancer: a pooled analysis of three case-control studies.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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There is a correlation between temporal trends of obesity prevalence and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) incidence in the United States. Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for many cancers, but there are few studies on the association between obesity and PTC risk. We investigated the association between anthropometric measurements and PTC risk using pooled individual data from three case-control populations.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.
Brian M Wolpin, Cosmeri Rizzato, Peter Kraft, Charles Kooperberg, Gloria M Petersen, Zhaoming Wang, Alan A Arslan, Laura Beane-Freeman, Paige M Bracci, Julie Buring, Federico Canzian, Eric J Duell, Steven Gallinger, Graham G Giles, Gary E Goodman, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric J Jacobs, Aruna Kamineni, Alison P Klein, Laurence N Kolonel, Matthew H Kulke, Donghui Li, Nuria Malats, Sara H Olson, Harvey A Risch, Howard D Sesso, Kala Visvanathan, Emily White, Wei Zheng, Christian C Abnet, Demetrius Albanes, Gabriella Andreotti, Melissa A Austin, Richard Barfield, Daniela Basso, Sonja I Berndt, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Michelle Brotzman, Markus W Büchler, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Peter Bugert, Laurie Burdette, Daniele Campa, Neil E Caporaso, Gabriele Capurso, Charles Chung, Michelle Cotterchio, Eithne Costello, Joanne Elena, Niccola Funel, J Michael Gaziano, Nathalia A Giese, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Megan J Gorman, Myron Gross, Christopher A Haiman, Manal Hassan, Kathy J Helzlsouer, Brian E Henderson, Elizabeth A Holly, Nan Hu, David J Hunter, Federico Innocenti, Mazda Jenab, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Eric A Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Vittorio Krogh, Juozas Kupcinskas, Robert C Kurtz, Andrea LaCroix, Maria T Landi, Stefano Landi, Loic Le Marchand, Andrea Mambrini, Satu Mannisto, Roger L Milne, Yusuke Nakamura, Ann L Oberg, Kouros Owzar, Alpa V Patel, Petra H M Peeters, Ulrike Peters, Raffaele Pezzilli, Ada Piepoli, Miquel Porta, Francisco X Real, Elio Riboli, Nathaniel Rothman, Aldo Scarpa, Xiao-Ou Shu, Debra T Silverman, Pavel Soucek, Malin Sund, Renata Talar-Wojnarowska, Philip R Taylor, George E Theodoropoulos, Mark Thornquist, Anne Tjønneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Pavel Vodicka, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Nicolas Wentzensen, Chen Wu, Herbert Yu, Kai Yu, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Robert Hoover, Patricia Hartge, Charles Fuchs, Stephen J Chanock, Rachael S Stolzenberg-Solomon, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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We performed a multistage genome-wide association study including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.84, P = 3.0 × 10(-12)), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.30-1.65, P = 1.1 × 10(-10)), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1, OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20, P = 2.4 × 10(-9)) and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3, OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.25, P = 1.2 × 10(-8)). We identified an independent signal in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098, OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.85, P = 9.8 × 10(-14)). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer that are worthy of follow-up studies.
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Management of hepatic rupture diagnosed after an emergency cesarean section.
Case Rep Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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A careful management of hepatic capsular rupture, with massive hemoperitoneum which occurred 14 hours after an emergency cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation, is meticulously reported. The grade of hepatic involvement varies from minor capsular laceration to extensive parenchymal rupture. Our management involved a combination of surgical interventions and aggressive supportive care. The patient was discharged after 53 days and 4 laparotomies and an unsuccessful attempt of superselective artery embolization. Ultrasound after 40 days from the last surgery showed uniform hepatic parenchyma free of focal lesions. Due to the rarity and the unpredictability nature of this devastating event we believe necessary to report our experience, reinforcing the importance of the postsurgery management.
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MSLN gene silencing has an anti-malignant effect on cell lines overexpressing mesothelin deriving from malignant pleural mesothelioma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genes involved in the carcinogenetic mechanisms underlying malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are still poorly characterized. So far, mesothelin (MSLN) has aroused the most interest. It encodes for a membrane glycoprotein, frequently over-expressed in various malignancies such as MPM, and ovarian and pancreatic cancers. It has been proposed as a diagnostic and immunotherapeutic target with promising results. However, an alternative therapeutic approach seems to rise, whereby synthetic molecules, such as antisense oligonucleotides, could be used to inhibit MSLN activity. To date, such a gene-level inhibition has been attempted in two studies only, both on pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma cell lines, with the use of silencing RNA approaches. With regard to MPM, only one cell line (H2373) has been employed to study the effects of MSLN depletion. Indeed, the knowledge on the role of MSLN in MPM needs expanding. Accordingly, we investigated the expression of MSLN in a panel of three MPM cell lines, i.e., NCI-H28, Mero-14, and IstMes2; one non-MPM cell line was used as reference (Met5A). MSLN knock-down experiments on MSLN-overexpressing cells were also performed through silencing RNA (siRNA) to verify whether previous findings could be generalized to a different set of cell cultures. In agreement with previous studies, transient MSLN-silencing caused decreased proliferation rate and reduced invasive capacity and sphere formation in MSLN-overexpressing Mero-14 cells. Moreover, MSLN-siRNA combined with cisplatin, triggered a marked increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation as compared to cells treated with each agent alone, thereby suggesting a sensitizing effect of siRNA towards cisplatin. In summary, our findings confirm that MSLN should be considered a key molecular target for novel gene-based targeted therapies of cancer.
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Variation within 3-UTRs of base excision repair genes and response to therapy in colorectal cancer patients: A potential modulation of microRNAs binding.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Colorectal cancer is routinely treated with a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. 5-FU incorporates into DNA, and the base excision repair (BER) pathway specifically recognizes such damage. We investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3-untranslated regions (UTR) of BER genes, and potentially affecting the microRNA (miRNA) binding, on the risk of colorectal cancer, its progression, and prognosis. SNPs in miRNA-binding sites may modulate the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression operated by miRNAs and explain interindividual variability in BER capacity and response to 5-FU.
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Risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and polymorphisms within the susceptibility cancer region 8q24.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Genome-wide association studies have shown that the 8q24 region harbours multiple independent cancer susceptibility loci and it was also defined as the "susceptibility cancer region." Thus, it could be hypothesized that genetic variants within this region could play a role in the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
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Genome-wide association study on differentiated thyroid cancer.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have identified associations with polymorphisms at 2q35 (DIRC3), 8p12 (NRG1), 9q22.33 (FOXE1), and 14q13.2 (NKX2-1). However, most of the inherited genetic risk factors of DTC remain to be discovered.
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TPO genetic variants and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in two European populations.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Thyroid cancer risk involves the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The thyroperoxidase (TPO) has a key role in the iodine metabolism, being essential for the thyroid function. Mutations in the TPO gene are common in congenital hypothyroidism, and there are also signs of the implication of TPO in thyroid cancer. We performed a case-control association study of genetic variants in TPO and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in 1,586 DTC patients and 1,769 controls including two European populations (Italy: 1,190 DTC and 1,290 controls; Spain: 396 DTC and 479 controls). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed separately for each population and each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). From the three studied polymorphisms, significant associations were detected between DTC and rs2048722 and rs732609 in both populations (p < 0.05). In the Italian population, both SNPs showed a negative association (rs2048722, odds ratio [OR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63-1.00, p = 0.045; rs732609, OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55-0.94, p = 0.016), whereas in the Spanish population, these SNPs showed a positive association (rs2048722, OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.03-1.89, p = 0.033; rs732609, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06-1.87, p = 0.018). The corresponding associations for papillary or follicular thyroid cancer were similar to those for all DTC, within population. No association was detected for the third TPO polymorphism in the Italian and the Spanish populations. Our results, for the first time, point to TPO as a gene involved in the risk of DTC, and suggest the importance of interactions between TPO variants and other unidentified population-specific factors in determining thyroid cancer risk.
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ABO blood groups and pancreatic cancer risk and survival: results from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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There is strong epidemiologic evidence indicating that common genetic variability could be implicated in pancreatic cancer risk and, to date, various loci have been proposed. In particular, there is increasing evidence of the involvement of ABO gene variability and pancreatic cancer risk. In a large multicentric study of 1,028 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and 2,257 controls in the context of the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium, we investigated the suggested association with increased risk for carriers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determining the A or B allele in comparison with the O allele, which encodes for a non-functional enzyme. Since glycosyltransferase activity, encoded by ABO, is higher for the A1 variant compared with the A2 variant, we investigated the hypothesis that A1 carriers were at an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. In our analysis, carriers of the A1 were indeed at greater risk of developing the disease. In addition, we investigated the possible influence that genetic variability at the ABO locus may have in pancreatic cancer survival, but we observed no effect in our population.
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Transversus abdominis plane block associated with locoregional anesthesia with a laparotenser for gynecologic surgery in an awake state.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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The laparotenser instrument is used to perform isobaric laparoscopy to avoid adverse effects in the pneumoperitoneum. To decrease hospitalization time and increase the rate of same-day discharge, we investigated the safety of isobaric laparoscopy using the Laparotenser, a new subcutaneous abdominal wall-lifting system, with transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block combined with locoregional anesthesia (subarachnoid, peridural, spino-peridural) for patients undergoing minor and major gynecologic surgeries. With this combination of anesthetics, TAP block enabled us to anesthetize the supraumbilical region while the pelvic region was covered by locoregional anesthesia. We describe our experience with TAP blockade associated with locoregional anesthesia during gasless laparoscopy. We performed ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine 0.25% 20 mL to cover the supraumbilical region in association with locoregional anesthesia (lumbar subarachnoid-peridural-spinoperidural) and bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg/3 mL) to cover the lower pelvic region. Successful outcome was reported in 81.3% (13/16) of the patients.
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Polymorphisms in regulators of xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes PXR and CAR do not affect multiple myeloma risk: a case-control study in the context of the IMMEnSE consortium.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The exposure to pesticides and toxic compounds in xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes has been shown to affect risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM). Therefore, we hypothesized that genetic variations in xenobiotic transport and metabolism regulator genes PXR (NR1I2) and CAR (NR1I3) could determine a difference in MM susceptibility. Ten tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for PXR and seven for the CAR genes were selected and genotyped in 627 MM cases and 883 controls collected in the context of the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium. None of the 17 SNPs investigated showed significant association with MM risk either alone or when combined in haplotypes. Significant SNP-SNP interactions were not found, neither with 58 previously genotyped polymorphisms in ABC transporters. We can therefore exclude that common genetic variants in the xenobiotic transport and metabolism regulator genes PXR and CAR affect MM risk.
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APEX DNA microarray for the identification of pathogenic fungi.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The identification of fungal pathogens, though continuously improving, is still time-consuming and often inadequate for ensuring an early targeted therapy, which may be crucial for the treatment of invasive mycoses. Here, we describe a DNA-microarray system based on the arrayed-primer extension (APEX) technique for a rapid identification of pathogenic fungi, which represents a critical step in medical practice.
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The role of microRNA-binding site polymorphisms in DNA repair genes as risk factors for bladder cancer and breast cancer and their impact on radiotherapy outcomes.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through binding to messenger RNAs (mRNA) thereby promoting mRNA degradation or altered translation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within a miRNA-binding site could thus alter mRNA translation and influence cancer risk and treatment response. The common SNPs located within the 3-untranslated regions of 20 DNA repair genes were analysed for putative miRNA-binding sites using bioinformatics algorithms, calculating the difference in Gibbs free binding energy (??G) for each wild-type versus variant allele. Seven SNPs were selected to be genotyped in germ line DNAs both from a bladder cancer case-control series (752 cases and 704 controls) and 202 muscle-invasive bladder cancer radiotherapy cases. The PARP-1 SNP rs8679 was also genotyped in a breast cancer case-control series (257 cases and 512 controls). Without adjustment for multiple testing, multivariate analysis demonstrated an association with increased bladder cancer risk with PARP1 rs8679 (P(trend) = 0.05) while variant homozygotes of PARP1 rs8679 were also noted to have an increased breast cancer risk (P = 0.03). In the radiotherapy cases, carriers of the RAD51 rs7180135 minor allele had improved cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.87, P = 0.01). This is the first report of associations between DNA repair gene miRNA-binding site SNPs with bladder and breast cancer risk and radiotherapy outcomes. If validated, these findings may give further insight into the biology of bladder carcinogenesis, allow testing of the RAD51 SNP as a potential predictive biomarker and also reveal potential targets for new cancer treatments.
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Genetics and molecular epidemiology of multiple myeloma: the rationale for the IMMEnSE consortium (review).
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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There is strong evidence suggesting the presence of a genetic component in the aetiology of multiple myeloma (MM). However no genetic risk factors have been unequivocally established so far. To further our understanding of the genetic determinants of MM risk, a promising strategy is to collect a large set of patients in a consortium, as successfully done for other cancers. In this article, we review the main findings in the genetic susceptibility and pharmacogenetics of MM and present the strategy of the IMMEnSE (International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch) consortium in contributing to determine the role of genetic variation in pharmacogenetics and in MM risk.
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A review of transcriptome studies combined with data mining reveals novel potential markers of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a cancer of the serosal pleural cavities, is one of the most aggressive human tumors. In order to identify genes crucial for the onset and progression of MPM, we performed an extensive literature review focused on transcriptome studies (RTS). In this kind of studies a great number of transcripts are analyzed without formulating any a priori hypothesis, thus preventing any bias coming from previously established knowledge that could lead to an over-representation of specific genes. Each study was thoroughly analyzed paying particular attention to: (i) the employed microarray platform, (ii) the number and type of samples, (iii) the fold-change, and (iv) the statistical significance of deregulated genes. We also performed data mining (DM) on MPM using three different tools (Coremine, SNPs3D, and GeneProspector). Results from RTS and DM were compared in order to restrict the number of genes potentially deregulated in MPM. Our main requirement for a gene to be a "mesothelioma gene" (MG) is to be reproducibly deregulated among independent studies and confirmed by DM. A list of MGs was thus produced, including PTGS2, BIRC5, ASS1, JUNB, MCM2, AURKA, FGF2, MKI67, CAV1, SFRP1, CCNB1, CDK4, and MSLN that might represent potential novel biomarkers or therapeutic targets for MPM. Moreover, it was found a sub-group of MGs including ASS1, JUNB, PTGS2, EEF2, SULF1, TOP2A, AURKA, BIRC5, CAV1, IFITM1, PCNA, and PKM2 that could explain, at least in part, the mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin, one first-line chemotherapeutic drug used for the disease. Finally, the pathway analysis showed that co-regulation networks related to the cross-talk between MPM and its micro-environment, in particular involving the adhesion molecules, integrins, and cytokines, might have an important role in MPM. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the role played by these genes in MPM.
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Evidences that the polymorphism Pro-282-Ala within the tumor suppressor gene WWOX is a new risk factor for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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We report a hypothesis-driven study aimed to detect genetic markers of susceptibility to differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC). A large number of candidate genes were first selected through literature search (genome-wide studies were also included). To restrict the analysis to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a high likelihood to be associated with increased risk, each SNP must comply with several a priori hypotheses. Only one SNP, the rs3764340 encoding for the aminoacidic substitution proline-to-alanine at codon 282 of the tumor suppressor gene WWOX, passed the selection. A case-control association study was carried out, involving a total of 1,741 cases and 1,042 controls. The logistic regression analysis revealed an increased risk of DTC for the carriers of the G-allele (crude odds ratio, OR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.18-1.99; p = 1.38 × 10(-3) ). When we controlled for covariates, the adjusted OR was 1.48 with a 95% CI of 1.08-2.03 (p = 8.0 × 10(-3) ). The association was confirmed after stratification for histology (for papillary thyroid carcinoma the adjusted OR was 1.43; 95% CI 1.02-2.00; p = 0.037), incident cases and smokers, but was also at the limit of statistical significance in all the other categories considered. In silico analyses showed that when alanine substitutes proline, subtle changes of the proteic structure can be predicted. These findings together with other observations from literature on human cancers and the fact that the proline at codon 282 is extremely conserved in phylogenetically distant organisms (including Drosophila) suggest that the variant allele-282 could affect the biological function of WWOX, thereby predisposing individuals to thyroid cancer.
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Two novel polymorphisms in 5 flanking region of the mesothelin gene are associated with soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) levels.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Increased concentrations of soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP) have been found in sera of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) even if a relatively high rate of false positives has hampered their clinical use as a tumor marker. Individual SMRP levels could be affected by polymorphic elements. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter-5UTR regions and SMRP levels in healthy asbestos-exposed individuals and patients suffering from MPM.?
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Prediction of the biological effect of polymorphisms within microRNA binding sites.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are negative gene regulators acting at the 3UTR level, modulating the translation of cancer-related genes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 3UTRs could impact the miRNA-dependent gene regulation either by weakening or by reinforcing the binding sites. Thus, the alteration of the normal regulation of a given gene could affect the individuals risk of cancer. Therefore, it is helpful to develop a tool enabling the researchers to predict which of the many SNPs could really impact the regulation of a target gene. At present, there are several available databases and algorithms able to predict potential binding sites in the 3UTR of genes. However, each algorithm gives different predictions and none of them gives, for each polymorphism, a direct measurement of the biological impact. We propose an approach allowing the assignment to each polymorphism a ranking of its biological impact. The method is based on a simple elaboration of predictions from preexisting well-established algorithms. As an example, we show the application of this approach to 140 genes candidate for colorectal cancer (CRC). These genes were identified following a genome-wide sequencing of 20,857 transcripts from 18,191 genes in 11 CRC specimens and were found somatically mutated and thought to be crucial for the development of cancer.
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Polymorphisms affecting micro-RNA regulation and associated with the risk of dietary-related cancers: a review from the literature and new evidence for a functional role of rs17281995 (CD86) and rs1051690 (INSR), previously associated with colorectal canc
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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In this review, we focus on the genetic variations (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) known to occur in microRNAs and in their binding sites and the susceptibility to cancers of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract in humans. Since the sequence complementarity and the thermodynamics of binding play an essential role in the interaction of miRNA with its target mRNA, sequence variations in the miRNA-binding seed regions or in miRNA genes (either within pre-, pri-, or mature miRNA regions) should reinforce, weaken, or disrupt the miRNA-mRNA interaction and affect the expression of mRNA targets. Indirect evidences supporting these hypotheses are reported in the literature, essentially coming from case-control association studies. Several studies have been published on the association between miR-SNPs or SNPs within their binding sites and the risk of oesophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, functional studies are lacking. Besides reviewing the available literature, we present here for the first time two SNPs (rs17281995 in CD86 and rs1051690 in INSR) previously associated with the risk of CRC in a Czech population are also associated with the risk in a Spanish population. Moreover, we show for the first time that both these alleles regulate differentially the amount of a reporter gene (luciferase) in an in vitro assay on HeLa cells. These findings suggest that both these SNPs may have a functional role in regulating the expression of CD-86 and INSR proteins acting at the level of the 3UTR. More functional studies are needed in order to better understand the role of polymorphic regulatory sequences at the 3UTR of genes.
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COMPASSS (COMplex PAttern of Sequence Search Software), a simple and effective tool for mining complex motifs in whole genomes.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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The complete sequencing of the human genome shows that only 1% of the entire genome encodes for proteins. The major part of the genome is made up of non-coding DNA, regulatory elements and junk DNA. Transcriptional regulation plays a central role in a multitude of critical cellular processes and responses, and it is a central force in the development and differentiation of multicellular organisms. Identifying regulatory elements is one of the major tasks in this challenge. To accomplish this task, we developed a solid and simple suite that allows direct access to genomic database and immediate result check. We introduce COMPASSS (COMplex PAttern of Sequence Search Software), a simple and effective tool for motif search in entire genomes. Motifs can be partially degenerated and interrupted by spacers of variable length.
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DeltaN133p53 expression levels in relation to haplotypes of the TP53 internal promoter region.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The transcription of the DeltaN133p53 isoform of the TP53 gene is controlled by an internal promoter region (IPR) containing eight polymorphisms in 11 common haplotypes, following a resequencing of 47 Caucasians. We assayed the functional effects of the commonest six haplotypes on the promoter activity with a luciferase reporter system, in HeLa and 293T cells. These studies showed that different IPR haplotypes are associated with differences in the promoter activity resulting in marked variation in the baseline expression of DeltaN133p53. In vivo quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on human tissues confirmed that the baseline levels of DeltaN133p53 showed haplotype specific differences that paralleled those seen in vitro. When cell lines were treated with camptothecin, the fold-increase in DeltaN133p53 levels was dose-dependent but haplotype-independent (i.e., similar for all the haplotypes). Finally, we used an electrophoretic mobility shift assay to analyze the rs1794287 polymorphism and found changes in the pattern of protein binding. This partially confirmed our in silico analysis showing that the polymorphism rs1794287 can affect the function of the internal promoter by changing its affinity for several transcription factors. Thus, we showed that the expression of DeltaN133p53 is under genetic control, and suggested the presence of interindividual differences underlying this mechanism.
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An insertion/deletion polymorphism at miRNA-122-binding site in the interleukin-1alpha 3 untranslated region confers risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2009
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy caused by environmental and genetic factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs with posttranscriptional regulatory functions. They participate in diverse biological pathways and function as gene regulators. Genetic polymorphisms in 3 untranslated regions (3 UTRs) targeted by miRNAs alter the strength of miRNA binding, with consequences on regulation of target genes thereby affecting the individuals cancer risk. We have previously predicted polymorphisms falling in miRNA-binding regions of cancer genes. We selected an insertion/deletion (Indel) polymorphism (rs3783553) in the 3 UTR of interleukin (IL)-1alpha (IL1A) for a case-control study in a Chinese population. With samples from 403 HCC patients and 434 healthy control individuals, strong evidence of association was observed for the variant homozygote. This association was validated in a second independent case-control study with 1074 HCC patients and 1239 healthy control individuals (odds ratio = 0.62; 95% confidence interval = 0.49-0.78). We further show that the TTCA insertion allele for rs3783553 disrupts a binding site for miR-122 and miR-378, thereby increasing transcription of IL-1alpha in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that functional polymorphism rs3783553 in IL1A could contribute to HCC susceptibility. Considering IL-1alpha affects not only various phases of the malignant process, such as carcinogenesis, tumor growth and invasiveness, but also patterns of interactions between malignant cells and the hosts immune system, our results indicated that IL-1alpha may be a promising target for immunotherapy, early diagnosis and intervention of HCC.
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Polymorphisms in the putative micro-RNA-binding sites of mesothelin gene are associated with serum levels of mesothelin-related protein.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2009
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Serum mesothelin, also known as soluble mesothelin-related protein (SMRP), reportedly shows increased levels in epithelial-type malignant pleural mesothelioma, but sometimes also arrives at high values in healthy asbestos-exposed subjects.
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HAS-1 genetic polymorphism in sporadic abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Heart Int
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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The hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS-1) gene encodes a plasma membrane protein that synthesizes hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix molecule. Accumulating evidence emphasizes the relevance of HA metabolism in an increasing number of processes of clinical interest, including abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The existence of aberrant splicing variants of the HAS-1 gene could partly explain the altered extracellular matrix architecture and influence various biological functions, resulting in progressive arterial wall failure in the development of AAA. In the present study, we assessed the hypothesis that HAS-1 genetic 833A/G polymorphism could be associated with the risk of AAA by performing a case-control association study, involving AAA patients and healthy matched donors.
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A novel similarity-measure for the analysis of genetic data in complex phenotypes.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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Recent technological advances in DNA sequencing and genotyping have led to the accumulation of a remarkable quantity of data on genetic polymorphisms. However, the development of new statistical and computational tools for effective processing of these data has not been equally as fast. In particular, Machine Learning literature is limited to relatively few papers which are focused on the development and application of data mining methods for the analysis of genetic variability. On the other hand, these papers apply to genetic data procedures which had been developed for a different kind of analysis and do not take into account the peculiarities of population genetics. The aim of our study was to define a new similarity measure, specifically conceived for measuring the similarity between the genetic profiles of two groups of subjects (i.e., cases and controls) taking into account that genetic profiles are usually distributed in a population group according to the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium.
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Oxytocin receptor polymorphisms and adult attachment style in patients with depression.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Much evidence of an association between specific attachment styles and depression prompted us to investigate, in depressive disorders, the potential role of polymorphisms within the gene encoding the receptor of the main neurohormone involved in attachment processes, oxytocin. For this purpose, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 6930G>A (rs53576) and 9073G>A (rs2254298), within the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), were studied in a cohort of 185 patients with major depression (50.3%) or bipolar I or II disorders (49.7%) and 192 matched healthy controls. A positive association between the GG genotype of OXTR SNPs (6930G>A or 9073G>A) and unipolar depression was demonstrated. In this group, GG individuals showed high scores on Attachment Style Questionnaire factors that have been previously associated with depression. Moreover, the GG genotype was also associated with high levels of adult separation anxiety. These findings support the involvement of the oxytocinergic system in the mechanisms that underlie depression and specific adult attachment styles.
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Pooled analysis of NAT2 genotypes as risk factors for asbestos-related malignant mesothelioma.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumor of the pleura. The most important causal factor for the development of MM is occupational exposure to asbestos. Different lines of evidence suggest a role of genetic background in MM development, as for other cancers. Two published studies observed an association between MM and N-acetyl-transferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms. First, a Finnish study observed that the NAT2 slow acetylator phenotype was associated with an increased risk of MM. Conversely, MM risk was higher in Italian subjects carrying the NAT2 fast acetylator genotypes. The conflicting results obtained in Finland and Italy could be ascribed to random chance, considering the small panel of patients and controls in the two studies, but also ethnic or other differences may have been important. To ascertain the role of NAT2 genotype, we performed a study on 252 MM patients and 262 controls recruited in two Northern Italy areas that were characterized by high asbestos exposure, due to intense industrial activities (an asbestos cement factory in Casale Monferrato, mainly shipyards and refineries in Liguria). Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). NAT2 fast acetylator genotypes showed an increased OR, although not statistically significant, both in asbestos-exposed subjects (OR=1.47; 95% CI=0.96-2.26) and in the entire population (OR=1.38; 95% CI=0.93-2.04). These results suggest that NAT2 polymorphisms do not exert a strong effect on individual susceptibility to MM.
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Laparoscopic colorectal resection for bowel endometriosis: feasibility, complications, and clinical outcome.
Arch Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal resection for endometriosis.
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Risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma and polymorphisms in genes involved in the genome stability and xenobiotics metabolism.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer mostly attributable to asbestos exposure. Many polymorphic genes encoding for xenobiotic and oxidative metabolism enzymes (XME) or involved in genome stability (GS) can modulate individual MPM risk in exposed populations. An association study was carried out in a case-control setting including 119 MPM patients and two groups of referent subjects (104 with and 695 without documented asbestos exposure). Forty-eight polymorphisms in XME genes and 75 in GS-genes were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed some significant associations of studied polymorphisms with MPM risk, but most of them disappeared after applying Bonferroni correction (new threshold for statistical significance: p=4.07 x 10(-4)). On the other hand, the nucleotidic change 282C>T within NAT2 held the statistical significance (OR=3.54; 95% CI 1.75-7.16; p=0.0002), reinforcing existing evidences that describe genetic polymorphisms of NAT2 possibly involved in the etiology of the MPM.
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Determining the effectiveness of High Resolution Melting analysis for SNP genotyping and mutation scanning at the TP53 locus.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Together single nucleotide substitutions and small insertion/deletion variants are the most common form of sequence variation in the human gene pool.High-resolution SNP profile and/or haplotype analyses enable the identification of modest-risk susceptibility genes to common diseases, genes that may modulate responses to pharmaceutical agents, and SNPs that can affect either their expression or function. In addition, sensitive techniques for germline or somatic mutation detection are important tools for characterizing sequence variations in genes responsible for tumor predisposition. Cost-effective methods are highly desirable. Many of the recently developed high-throughput technologies are geared toward industrial scale genetic studies and arguably do not provide useful solutions for small laboratory investigator-initiated projects. Recently, the use of new fluorescent dyes allowed the high-resolution analysis of DNA melting curves (HRM).
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NBN 657del5 heterozygous mutations and colorectal cancer risk in the Czech Republic.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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The most frequent Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)-causing mutation is a 5-base pair deletion in gene coding for nibrin (NBN 657del5), which results in a non-fully functional protein product and is particularly frequent in Central and Eastern Europe. Recent studies have investigated whether NBN 657del5 carriage may predispose to an increased risk of different types of cancer. The Czech Republic has one of the highest incidences of colorectal cancer in the world as well as high incidence of NBS. To assess whether NBN 657del5 associates with an increased risk of sporadic colorectal cancer, we have screened 771 colorectal cancer patients, 614 controls with negative colonoscopy and 818 healthy blood donors from the Czech Republic. There were no significant differences between the frequencies of heterozygous carriers among the three groups. The present results do not provide any evidence that the exceeding risk of CRC in this population is attributable to the high frequency of heterozygous carriage of the NBN 657del5.
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Genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors to pancreatic cancer: A review of the literature.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Some cases of pancreatic cancer (PC) are described to cluster within families. With the exception of PALLD gene mutations, which explain only a very modest fraction of familial cases, the genetic basis of familial PC is still obscure. Here the literature was reviewed in order to list the known genes, environmental factors, and health conditions associated with PC or involved in the carcinogenesis of the pancreas. Most of the genes listed are responsible for various well-defined cancer syndromes, such as CDKN2A (familial atypical mole-multiple melanoma, FAMMM), the mismatch repair genes (Lynch Syndrome), TP53 (Li-Fraumeni syndrome), APC (familial adenomatous polyposis), and BRCA2 (breast-ovarian familial cancer), where PC is part of the cancer spectrum of the disease. In addition, in this review I ranked known/possible risk factors extending the analysis to the hereditary pancreatitis (HP), diabetes, or to specific environmental exposures such as smoking. It appears that these factors contribute strongly to only a small proportion of PC cases. Recent work has revealed new genes somatically mutated in PC, including alterations within the pathways of Wnt/Notch and DNA mismatch repair. These new insights will help to reveal new candidate genes for the susceptibility to this disease and to better ascertain the actual contribution of the familial forms.
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Uterine rupture in a nulliparous woman with septate uterus of the second trimester pregnancy and review in literature.
Int J Surg Case Rep
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Uterine rupture (UR) in early pregnancy in nulliparous women is a rare and unpredictable occurrence with high maternal morbidity and fatal fetal outcomes. Intrauterine anomalies could be the primum movens of this dangerous condition and underestimated in the literature.
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Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and its functional characterisation: the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium.
Dig Liver Dis
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Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the European Union and in the USA, but little is known about its genetic susceptibility. The PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium was established to unite the efforts of different research groups; its aim is to create a large bio-database to uncover new genetic factors for pancreatic cancer risk, response to treatment, and patient survival. So far 2220 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a smaller number of cases of endocrine pancreatic tumours (n=86), chronic pancreatitis (n=272) and 3847 healthy controls have been collected. As a collective effort of the consortium, SNPs associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk from a genome-wide association study performed in Caucasians were replicated. The possibility that the same genetic polymorphisms may influence patient survival as well was also addressed. This collective effort is particularly important for pancreatic cancer because it is a relatively rare disease for which little is known about aetiopathogenesis and risk factors. The recruitment of additional collaborators and partner institutions is continuously on-going.
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Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and RET proto-oncogene: mutation spectrum in the familial cases and a meta-analysis of studies on the sporadic form.
Mutat. Res.
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Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon malignant tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular cells (C cells) of thyroid. It accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers, and it mostly occurs as a sporadic entity (sMTC), but a familial pattern (fMTC) is also possible. RET proto-oncogene germline mutations are crucial for the onset and the progression of fMTC, and the occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms could predispose to the sporadic form. In order to clarify the role of this gene in MTC, we carefully reviewed the PubMed database using appropriate terms. First, we summarized current knowledge of the germline RET mutations, mutation spectrum, and prevalence. We then performed a meta-analysis on the available case-control association studies for sMTC. Finally, we carried out in silico predictions of the best associated variants in the attempt to better define their role in the disease. To date, a total of 39 different RET germline mutations have been identified in fMTC families. The most affected codons are 609, 611, 618, 620 (exon 10) and 634 (exon 11), encoding for the extracellular cysteine-rich domain, and codons 768 (exon 13) and 804 (exon 14) of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Six polymorphisms with at least three studies were included in the meta-analysis (A45A [rs1800858], G691S [rs1799939], L769L [rs1800861], S836S [rs1800862], S904S [rs1800863], and IVS1-126G>T [rs2565206]). The meta-analysis demonstrated a modest association of sMTC susceptibility with S836S and a strong association with the IVS1-126G>T polymorphism. Besides RET polymorphisms, we also investigated the role of a few other low-penetrance alleles of genes involved in the RET pathway or in xenobiotic metabolism, but none of these were confirmed. Thus, despite the well-known molecular basis of fMTC, the genetic variants of the sporadic form are still poorly understood, and functional analyses are needed to better understand the consequence of such RET variants and to improve our knowledge on the disease.
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Comprehensive investigation of genetic variation in the 8q24 region and multiple myeloma risk in the IMMEnSE consortium.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that the 8q24 region harbours multiple independent cancer susceptibility loci, even though it is devoid of genes. Given that no GWAS data are currently available for multiple myeloma (MM), we tested the hypothesis that genetic variants in this region could play a role in MM risk. We genotyped 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 8q24 in 1188 MM cases and 2465 controls and found a statistically significant (P = 0·0022) association between rs2456449 and MM risk. These data provide further evidence that the genetic variability in the 8q24 region is associated with cancer risk, particularly haematological malignancies.
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Polymorphisms in miRNA-binding sites of nucleotide excision repair genes and colorectal cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis
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Reduced DNA repair capacity and DNA damage accumulation may lead to cancer development. Regulation of and coordination between genes involved in DNA repair pathways is fundamental for maintaining genome stability, and post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) may therefore be of particular relevance. In this context, the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 3untranslated regions of target DNA repair genes could alter the binding with specific miRNAs, modulating gene expression and ultimately affecting cancer susceptibility. In this study, we investigated the role of genetic variations in miRNA-binding sites of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes in association with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. From 28 NER genes, we screened among SNPs residing in their 3untranslated regions and simultaneously located in miRNA-binding sites, with an in silico approach. Through the calculation of different binding free energy according to both alleles of identified SNPs, and with global binding free energies median providing a threshold, we selected nine NER gene variants. We tested those SNPs in 1098 colorectal cancer cases and 1469 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. Rs7356 in RPA2 and rs4596 in GTF2H1 were associated with colorectal cancer risk. After stratification for tumor location, the association of both SNPs was significant only for rectal cancer (rs7356: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.26, P = 0.04 and rs4596: OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.94, P = 0.02; results not adjusted for multiple testing). Variation in miRNA target binding sites in the 3untranslated region of NER genes may be important for modulating colorectal cancer risk, with a different relevance according to tumor location.
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MAP3K7 and GSTZ1 are associated with human longevity: a two-stage case-control study using a multilocus genotyping.
Age (Dordr)
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The pathways that regulate energy homeostasis, the mechanisms of damage repair, and the signaling response to internal environmental changes or external signals have been shown to be critical in modulating lifespan of model organisms and humans. In order to investigate whether genetic variation of genes involved in these pathways contribute to longevity, a two-stage case-control study in two independent sets of long-lived individuals from Calabria (Italy) was performed. In stage 1, 317 SNPs in 104 genes were analyzed in 78 cases (median age 98 years) and 71 controls (median age 67 years). In stage 2, 31 candidate SNPs identified in stage 1 (? markers = 0.1) were analyzed in an independent sample composed by 288 cases (median age 92 years) and 554 controls (median age 67 years). Two SNPs, rs282070 located in intron 1 of the MAP3K7 gene, and rs2111699 located in intron 1 of the GSTZ1 gene, were significantly associated (after adjustment for multiple testing) with longevity in stage 2 (p?=?1.1?×?10(-3) and p?=?1.4?×?10(-3), respectively). Interestingly, both genes are implicated in the cellular response to internal and external environmental changes, playing a crucial role in the inflammation processes that accompany aging. Our data confirm that long-lived subjects are endowed with genetic variants that allow them to optimize these cellular responses and to better deal with environmental and internal stresses.
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Role of variations within microRNA-binding sites in cancer.
Mutagenesis
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Over 2000 microRNA (miRNA) sequences from different species have been submitted to the miRBase, the central online repository for miRNAs, making a total of 5071 miRNA loci, expressing 5922 distinct mature miRNA sequences. In this review, we have addressed the importance of the genetic variations in humans affecting miRNAs, their target genes and the genes involved in miRNA processing for individual risk of cancer, with particular emphasis on colorectal cancer. In fact, the number of studies suggesting that individual predisposition to cancer is modulated by genetic polymorphisms affecting the biogenesis of miRNA and the interaction between miRNAs and targets has risen steeply in the last few years. We also report the first evidence that variant alleles of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within miRNA genes and miRNA targets, previously associated with the risk of cancer, behave differently when tested in functional studies. The SNPs belonging to the miRNA world are certainly contributing to new insights in the field of the genetic predisposition to disease.
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Identification of candidate genes carrying polymorphisms associated with the risk of colorectal cancer by analyzing the colorectal mutome and microRNAome.
Cancer
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The presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 3-untranslated regions of genes could affect the binding between a microRNA (miRNA) and its target, with consequences on gene expression regulation. Considering the important role of miRNAs in carcinogenesis, it is hypothesized here that these SNPs could also affect the individual risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.