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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Awareness of the 2010 Guidelines Implemented by the New York State Education Department for Respiratory Therapists in Their Role as Clinical Preceptors.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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In 1993, the New York State (NYS) legislature and governor signed into law the Respiratory Therapy Guide to Practice Education Law to guide and regulate the profession of respiratory care under the auspices of the New York State Education Department. New guidelines were implemented by the New York State Education Department for respiratory therapists (RTs) in 2010 to provide the opportunity for RTs to receive continuing education units (CEUs) when participating as clinical preceptors. This study was conducted in June 2012 to determine the extent to which the NYS RTs are aware of the new licensing guidelines and amendments.
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Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000visitorsy(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale.
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Orthology inference in nonmodel organisms using transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes: improving accuracy and matrix occupancy for phylogenomics.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Orthology inference is central to phylogenomic analyses. Phylogenomic data sets commonly include transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes that are incomplete and contain errors and isoforms. These properties can severely violate the underlying assumptions of orthology inference with existing heuristics. We present a procedure that uses phylogenies for both homology and orthology assignment. The procedure first uses similarity scores to infer putative homologs that are then aligned, constructed into phylogenies, and pruned of spurious branches caused by deep paralogs, misassembly, frameshifts, or recombination. These final homologs are then used to identify orthologs. We explore four alternative tree-based orthology inference approaches, of which two are new. These accommodate gene and genome duplications as well as gene tree discordance. We demonstrate these methods in three published data sets including the grape family, Hymenoptera, and millipedes with divergence times ranging from approximately 100 to over 400 Ma. The procedure significantly increased the completeness and accuracy of the inferred homologs and orthologs. We also found that data sets that are more recently diverged and/or include more high-coverage genomes had more complete sets of orthologs. To explicitly evaluate sources of conflicting phylogenetic signals, we applied serial jackknife analyses of gene regions keeping each locus intact. The methods described here can scale to over 100 taxa. They have been implemented in python with independent scripts for each step, making it easy to modify or incorporate them into existing pipelines. All scripts are available from https://bitbucket.org/yangya/phylogenomic_dataset_construction.
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Nonlesions, Misdiagnoses, Missed Diagnoses, and Other Interpretive Challenges in Fish Histopathology Studies: A Guide for Investigators, Authors, Reviewers, and Readers.
Toxicol Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Differentiating salient histopathologic changes from normal anatomic features or tissue artifacts can be decidedly challenging, especially for the novice fish pathologist. As a consequence, findings of questionable accuracy may be reported inadvertently, and the potential negative impacts of publishing inaccurate histopathologic interpretations are not always fully appreciated. The objectives of this article are to illustrate a number of specific morphologic findings in commonly examined fish tissues (e.g., gills, liver, kidney, and gonads) that are frequently either misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed, and to address related issues involving the interpretation of histopathologic data. To enhance the utility of this article as a guide, photomicrographs of normal and abnormal specimens are presented. General recommendations for generating and publishing results from histopathology studies are additionally provided. It is hoped that the furnished information will be a useful resource for manuscript generation, by helping authors, reviewers, and readers to critically assess fish histopathologic data.
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A novel use of the rigid external distraction frame: acute on-table distraction with autologous bone grafting.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Distraction osteogenesis with an external distraction device such as the rigid external distraction (RED) frame has become an established method for treating midface hypoplasia. It allows for greater advancement of the midface than achievable with traditional Le Fort III osteotomies; however, there are a number of problems associated with frame application such as pin site migration and need for frame removal. We present 2 cases of the novel use of the RED frame, in both a pediatric patient and an adult patient. The RED frame was used to achieve table soft tissue distraction, greater than previously achievable with traditional Le Fort III osteotomy. This was then combined with acute bone grafting, allowing the RED frame to be removed intraoperatively and thereby removing the complications associated with long-term frame application. We believe this to be the first reported use of the RED frame for acute on-table distraction of the midface. This has allowed far greater advancement of the midface than would be achievable with traditional Le Fort III advancement but, when combined with autologous bone grafting, has allowed intraoperative removal of the frame, thus negating some of the complications of long-term distraction osteogenesis using the RED frame.
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Preventing risk for significant behavior problems through a cognitive-behavioral intervention: effects of the tools for getting along curriculum at one-year follow-up.
J Prim Prev
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Efficient and effective social-emotional learning programs increase the likelihood of success in school for all students, and particularly for those who may develop emotional or behavior problems. In this study, we followed a sub-sample of students 1 year after their participation in a randomized controlled trial of the effects of the Tools for Getting Along (TFGA) curriculum. TFGA is a universally delivered, preventive cognitive-behavioral curricular intervention designed to improve upper elementary school students' emotional and behavioral self-regulation. To determine effects at 1-year follow-up, we assessed 720 out of the 1,296 original students across TFGA and control conditions on measures of curricular knowledge, teacher-rated executive function and behavior, and student-reported anger and social problem solving. Findings indicated a continued positive effect on curricular knowledge for students taught TFGA relative to controls. We also found significant pretest by condition interaction effects on teacher reports of skills associated with executive function, including inhibitory control and shift (cognitive flexibility), and on teacher reported internalizing and externalizing behavior. Specifically, students with poorer scores on these measures at pretest benefited from TFGA at follow-up relative to comparable students in the control condition. Finally, we found marginally significant pretest by condition interaction effects on proactive aggression, outward expressions of anger, and the executive function related skills of initiating activities and using working memory. Counter to expectations, we found negative TFGA effects on student-reported trait anger and anger control.
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Refraction correction in 3D transcranial ultrasound imaging.
Ultrason Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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We present the first correction of refraction in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging using an iterative approach that traces propagation paths through a two-layer planar tissue model, applying Snell's law in 3D. This approach is applied to real-time 3D transcranial ultrasound imaging by precomputing delays offline for several skull thicknesses, allowing the user to switch between three sets of delays for phased array imaging at the push of a button. Simulations indicate that refraction correction may be expected to increase sensitivity, reduce beam steering errors, and partially restore lost spatial resolution, with the greatest improvements occurring at the largest steering angles. Distorted images of cylindrical lesions were created by imaging through an acrylic plate in a tissue-mimicking phantom. As a result of correcting for refraction, lesions were restored to 93.6% of their original diameter in the lateral direction and 98.1% of their original shape along the long axis of the cylinders. In imaging two healthy volunteers, the mean brightness increased by 8.3% and showed no spatial dependency.
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A neural correlate of visceral emotional responses: evidence from fMRI of the thoracic spinal cord.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of thoracic spinal cord neurons was used to examine the neural correlates of visceral emotional responses. Participants completed four spinal fMRI runs involving passive viewing (i.e. no movement) and motoric responses to negative or neutral images. Negative images, particularly in the movement condition, elicited robust activity in motoric nuclei, indicating 'action preparedness'. These images also enhanced activity in autonomic and sensory nuclei, thus providing a clear neural representation of visceral responses to emotional stimuli.
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Cardiac troponin changes to distinguish type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarction and 180-day mortality risk.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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To determine the ability of serial cardiac troponin (cTnI) changes (delta) to distinguish type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) (excluding all ST-segment elevation MIs (STEMIs)) and describe the diagnostic accuracy and 180-day mortality in MI versus no-MI patients.
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"Black Bone" MRI: a potential alternative to CT with three-dimensional reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton in the diagnosis of craniosynostosis.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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To determine the potential of novel gradient echo parameters, "Black Bone" MRI as an alternative to CT in the identification of normal and prematurely fused cranial sutures both in 2D and 3D imaging.
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Symmetry of the fornix using diffusion tensor imaging.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To: 1) Present fornix tractography in its entirety for 20 healthy individuals to assess variability. 2) Provide individual and groupwise whole tract diffusion parameter symmetry assessments prior to clinical application. 3) Compare whole tract diffusion parameter assessments with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS).
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Brentuximab vedotin administered to platinum-refractory, transplant-naïve Hodgkin lymphoma patients can increase the proportion achieving FDG PET negative status.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Normalization of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging prior to high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) improves outcomes in relapsed and refractory (RR) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but many patients refractory to platinum-based salvage regimens are unable to achieve this goal. We therefore investigated whether brentuximab vedotin (BV) could normalize FDG PET in platinum-refractory HL prior to ASCT. Fifteen consecutive patients with RR HL and FDG PET positive disease after platinum-based salvage therapy were treated with a median of 4 cycles of BV. Normalization of FDG PET (Deauville ?2) occurred in 8/15 (53%) patients but was only observed in patients that had achieved partial remission or stable disease after platinum-based salvage therapy. All patients eventually proceeded to ASCT, regardless of FDG PET status. Our data suggest that BV can normalize FDG PET in a subset of patients with platinum-refractory HL prior to ASCT. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Rare hereditary COL4A3/COL4A4 variants may be mistaken for familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histological lesion with many causes, including inherited genetic defects, with significant proteinuria being the predominant clinical finding at presentation. Mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 are known to cause Alport syndrome (AS), thin basement membrane nephropathy, and to result in pathognomonic glomerular basement membrane (GBM) findings. Secondary FSGS is known to develop in classic AS at later stages of the disease. Here, we present seven families with rare or novel variants in COL4A3 or COL4A4 (six with single and one with two heterozygous variants) from a cohort of 70 families with a diagnosis of hereditary FSGS. The predominant clinical finding at diagnosis was proteinuria associated with hematuria. In all seven families, there were individuals with nephrotic-range proteinuria with histologic features of FSGS by light microscopy. In one family, electron microscopy showed thin GBM, but four other families had variable findings inconsistent with classical Alport nephritis. There was no recurrence of disease after kidney transplantation. Families with COL4A3 and COL4A4 variants that segregated with disease represent 10% of our cohort. Thus, COL4A3 and COL4A4 variants should be considered in the interpretation of next-generation sequencing data from such patients. Furthermore, this study illustrates the power of molecular genetic diagnostics in the clarification of renal phenotypes.Kidney International advance online publication, 17 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.305.
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BP, cardiovascular disease, and death in the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation trial.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The optimal BP level in kidney transplant recipients remains uncertain. This post hoc analysis of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) trial cohort assessed associations of BP with a pooled cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome and with all-cause mortality. In 3474 prevalent kidney transplant patients, mean age was 52±9 years, 63% were men, 76% were white, 20% had a history of CVD, 40% had a history of diabetes mellitus, and the median time since transplant was 4.1 years (25th to 75th percentiles, 1.7-7.4); mean systolic BP was 136±20 mmHg and mean diastolic BP was 79±12 mmHg. There were 497 CVD events and 406 deaths. After adjustment for demographic and transplant characteristics and CVD risk factors, each 20-mmHg increase in baseline systolic BP associated with a 32% increase in subsequent CVD risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.19 to 1.46) and a 13% increase in mortality risk (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.27). Similarly, after adjustment, at diastolic BP levels<70 mmHg, each 10-mmHg decrease in diastolic BP level associated with a 31% increase in CVD risk (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.62) and a 31% increase in mortality risk (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.66). However, at diastolic BP levels>70 mmHg, there was no significant relationship between diastolic BP and outcomes. Higher systolic BP strongly and independently associated with increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality, without evidence of a J shape, whereas only lower levels of diastolic BP associated with increased risk of CVD and death in this trial.
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Double Ring Array Catheter for In Vivo Real-Time 3D Ultrasound.
Ultrason Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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We developed new forward-viewing matrix transducers consisting of double ring arrays of 118 total PZT elements integrated into catheters used to deploy medical interventional devices. Our goal is 3D ultrasound guidance of medical device implantation to reduce x-ray fluoroscopy exposure. The double ring arrays were fabricated on inner and outer custom polyimide flexible circuits with inter-element spacing of 0.20 mm and then wrapped around an 11 French (Fr) catheter to produce a 15 Fr catheter (outer diameter [O.D.]). We used a braided cabling technology to connect the elements to the Volumetrics Medical Imaging (VMI) real-time 3D ultrasound scanner. Transducer performance yielded an average -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 49% ± 11% centered at 4.4 MHz for 118 elements. Real-time 3D cardiac scans of the in vivo pig model yielded good image quality including en face views of the tricuspid valve and real-time 3D guidance of an endo-myocardial biopsy catheter introduced into the left ventricle.
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Use of esmolol after failure of standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation to treat patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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We compare the outcomes for patients who received esmolol to those who did not receive esmolol during refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) in the emergency department (ED).
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Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) on an IVUS circular array.
Ultrason Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Our long-term goal is the detection and characterization of vulnerable plaque in the coronary arteries of the heart using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters. Vulnerable plaque, characterized by a thin fibrous cap and a soft, lipid-rich necrotic core is a precursor to heart attack and stroke. Early detection of such plaques may potentially alter the course of treatment of the patient to prevent ischemic events. We have previously described the characterization of carotid plaques using external linear arrays operating at 9 MHz. In addition, we previously modified circular array IVUS catheters by short-circuiting several neighboring elements to produce fixed beamwidths for intravascular hyperthermia applications. In this paper, we modified Volcano Visions 8.2 French, 9 MHz catheters and Volcano Platinum 3.5 French, 20 MHz catheters by short-circuiting portions of the array for acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) applications. The catheters had an effective transmit aperture size of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. The catheters were connected to a Verasonics scanner and driven with pushing pulses of 180 V p-p to acquire ARFI data from a soft gel phantom with a Young's modulus of 2.9 kPa. The dynamic response of the tissue-mimicking material demonstrates a typical ARFI motion of 1 to 2 microns as the gel phantom displaces away and recovers back to its normal position. The hardware modifications applied to our IVUS catheters mimic potential beamforming modifications that could be implemented on IVUS scanners. Our results demonstrate that the generation of radiation force from IVUS catheters and the development of intravascular ARFI may be feasible.
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A chest trauma scoring system to predict outcomes.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Rib fractures (RIBFX) are a common injury and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Using a previously published RIBFX scoring system, we sought to validate the system by applying it to a larger patient population. We hypothesized that the RIBFX scoring system reliably predicts morbidity and mortality in patients with chest wall injury at the time of initial evaluation.
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Exposed core microstructured optical fiber Bragg gratings: refractive index sensing.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Bragg gratings have been written in exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for the first time using a femtosecond laser. Second and third order gratings have been written and both show strong reflectivity at 1550 nm, with bandwidths as narrow as 60 pm. Due to the penetration of the guided field outside the fiber the Bragg reflections are sensitive to the external refractive index. As different modes have different sensitivities to refractive index but the same temperature sensitivity the sensor can provide temperature-compensated refractive index measurements. Since these Bragg gratings have been formed by physical ablation, these devices can also be used for high temperature sensing, demonstrated here up to 800°C. The fibers have been spliced to single mode fiber for improved handling and integration with commercial interrogation units.
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A meta-analysis on the effect of sham feeding following colectomy: should gum chewing be included in enhanced recovery after surgery protocols?
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Sham feeding has been shown to hasten the return of GI function following colorectal surgery, before the advent of enhanced recovery after surgery protocols. Few data exist regarding the efficacy of sham feeding in the modern era, with rapid postoperative feeding.
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Induction bortezomib in Al amyloidosis followed by high dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation: a single institution retrospective study.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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High-dose melphalan (HDM) followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) for light chain amyloidosis (AL) was performed in 31 patients at Oregon Health and Science University between 2005 and 2012. Fifteen patients had cardiac involvement.
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Bacterial self-defence: how Escherichia coli evades serum killing.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The ability to survive the bactericidal action of serum is advantageous to extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli that gain access to the bloodstream. Evasion of the innate defences present in serum, including complement and antimicrobial peptides, involves multiple factors. Serum resistance mechanisms utilized by E. coli include the production of protective extracellular polysaccharide capsules and expression of factors that inhibit or interfere with the complement cascade. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of structural integrity of the cell envelope in serum survival. These survival strategies are outlined in this review with particular attention to novel findings and recent insights into well-established resistance mechanisms.
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PUmPER: phylogenies updated perpetually.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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New sequence data useful for phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses continues to be added to public databases. The construction of multiple sequence alignments and inference of huge phylogenies comprising large taxonomic groups are expensive tasks, both in terms of man hours and computational resources. Therefore, maintaining comprehensive phylogenies, based on representative and up-to-date molecular sequences, is challenging. PUmPER is a framework that can perpetually construct multi-gene alignments (with PHLAWD) and phylogenetic trees (with ExaML or RAxML-Light) for a given NCBI taxonomic group. When sufficient numbers of new gene sequences for the selected taxonomic group have accumulated in GenBank, PUmPER automatically extends the alignment and infers extended phylogenetic trees by using previously inferred smaller trees as starting topologies. Using our framework, large phylogenetic trees can be perpetually updated without human intervention. Importantly, resulting phylogenies are not statistically significantly worse than trees inferred from scratch.
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Tractography of Meyer's Loop asymmetries.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The purpose of the current study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to conduct tractography of the optic radiations (OR) and its component bundles and to assess both the degree of hemispheric asymmetry and the inter-subject variability of Meyer's Loop (ML). We hypothesized that there are significant left versus right differences in the anterior extent of ML to the temporal pole (TP) in healthy subjects.
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Supply/demand type 2 myocardial infarction: should we be paying more attention?
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Supply/demand (type 2) myocardial infarction is a commonly encountered clinical challenge. It is anticipated that it will be detected more frequently once high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays are approved for clinical use in the United States. We provide a perspective that is based on available data regarding the definition, epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, prognosis, management, and controversies regarding type 2 myocardial infarction. Understanding these basic concepts will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of these patients as well as ongoing research efforts.
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Depth and medium-scale spatial processes influence fish assemblage structure of unconsolidated habitats in a subtropical marine park.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region.
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Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs.
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Impacts of climate-change-driven sea level rise on intertidal rocky reef habitats will be variable and site specific.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intertidal rocky reefs are complex and rich ecosystems that are vulnerable to even the smallest fluctuations in sea level. We modelled habitat loss associated with sea level rise for intertidal rocky reefs using GIS, high-resolution digital imagery, and LIDAR technology at fine-scale resolution (0.1 m per pixel). We used projected sea levels of +0.3 m, +0.5 m and +1.0 m above current Mean Low Tide Level (0.4 m). Habitat loss and changes were analysed for each scenario for five headlands in the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. The results indicate that changes to habitat extent will be variable across different shores and will not necessarily result in net loss of area for some habitats. In addition, habitat modification will not follow a regular pattern over the projected sea levels. Two of the headlands included in the study currently have the maximum level of protection within the SIMP. However, these headlands are likely to lose much of the habitat known to support biodiverse assemblages and may not continue to be suitable sanctuaries into the future. The fine-scale approach taken in this study thus provides a protocol not only for modelling habitat modification but also for future proofing conservation measures under a scenario of changing sea levels.
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The genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its implications for cell type evolution.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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An understanding of ctenophore biology is critical for reconstructing events that occurred early in animal evolution. Toward this goal, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Our phylogenomic analyses of both amino acid positions and gene content suggest that ctenophores rather than sponges are the sister lineage to all other animals. Mnemiopsis lacks many of the genes found in bilaterian mesodermal cell types, suggesting that these cell types evolved independently. The set of neural genes in Mnemiopsis is similar to that of sponges, indicating that sponges may have lost a nervous system. These results present a newly supported view of early animal evolution that accounts for major losses and/or gains of sophisticated cell types, including nerve and muscle cells.
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in adults aged 75 years and older: a single institution analysis of cause-specific survival and prognostic factors.
Ther Adv Hematol
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Very elderly patients (75 years and older) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) will be increasingly considered for cancer treatment as the population ages, but are underrepresented in clinical trials. Here we report outcomes of very elderly DLBCL patients treated in the modern era at the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU).
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IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Background: Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is typically seen in association with drug exposure and infection or in autoimmune diseases such as Sjogrens syndrome or systemic lupus erythematosis. The recently described IgG4-related systemic diseases can affect many organ systems including the kidney and typically respond to corticosteroid treatment.?Case: We present a case of IgG4-related TIN in a patient with concomitant chronic lymphocytic leukemia. To our knowledge, IgG4-related TIN has not been associated with any hematological disorder such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia.?Conclusion: We propose that all kidney biopsies with significant plasma cell infiltrate should be stained for IgG4 as response to treatment is common.
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Response of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli to Human Serum Reveals a Protective Role for Rcs-Regulated Exopolysaccharide Colanic Acid.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) organisms are the leading cause of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections. These bacteria adapt to survival in the bloodstream through expression of factors involved in scavenging of nutrients and resisting the killing activity of serum. In this study, the transcriptional response of a prototypic ExPEC strain (CFT073) to human serum was investigated. Resistance of CFT073 to the bactericidal properties of serum involved increased expression of envelope stress regulators, including CpxR, ?E, and RcsB. Many of the upregulated genes induced by active serum were regulated by the Rcs two-component system. This system is triggered by envelope stress such as changes to cell wall integrity. RcsB-mediated serum resistance was conferred through induction of the exopolysaccharide colanic acid. Production of this exopolysaccharide may be protective while cell wall damage caused by serum components is repaired.
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Disruptive technology in the treatment of thoracic trauma.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The care of patients with thoracic injuries has undergone monumental change over the past 25 years. Advances in technology have driven improvements in care, with obvious benefits to patients. In many instances, new or "disruptive" technologies have unexpectedly displaced previously established standards for the diagnosis and treatment of these potentially devastating injuries. Examples of disruptive technology include the use of ultrasound technology for the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade and pneumothorax; thoracoscopic techniques instead of thoracotomy, pulmonary tractotomy, and stapled lung resection; endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury; operative fixation of flail chest; and the enhanced availability of extracorporeal lung support for severe respiratory failure. Surgeons must be prepared to recognize the benefits, and limits, of novel technologies and incorporate these methods into day-to-day treatment protocols.
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Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).
Waste Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice.
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Analyzing and synthesizing phylogenies using tree alignment graphs.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Phylogenetic trees are used to analyze and visualize evolution. However, trees can be imperfect datatypes when summarizing multiple trees. This is especially problematic when accommodating for biological phenomena such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and hybridization, as well as topological conflict between datasets. Additionally, researchers may want to combine information from sets of trees that have partially overlapping taxon sets. To address the problem of analyzing sets of trees with conflicting relationships and partially overlapping taxon sets, we introduce methods for aligning, synthesizing and analyzing rooted phylogenetic trees within a graph, called a tree alignment graph (TAG). The TAG can be queried and analyzed to explore uncertainty and conflict. It can also be synthesized to construct trees, presenting an alternative to supertrees approaches. We demonstrate these methods with two empirical datasets. In order to explore uncertainty, we constructed a TAG of the bootstrap trees from the Angiosperm Tree of Life project. Analysis of the resulting graph demonstrates that areas of the dataset that are unresolved in majority-rule consensus tree analyses can be understood in more detail within the context of a graph structure, using measures incorporating node degree and adjacency support. As an exercise in synthesis (i.e., summarization of a TAG constructed from the alignment trees), we also construct a TAG consisting of the taxonomy and source trees from a recent comprehensive bird study. We synthesized this graph into a tree that can be reconstructed in a repeatable fashion and where the underlying source information can be updated. The methods presented here are tractable for large scale analyses and serve as a basis for an alternative to consensus tree and supertree methods. Furthermore, the exploration of these graphs can expose structures and patterns within the dataset that are otherwise difficult to observe.
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Identification and quantification of explosives in nanolitre solution volumes by Raman spectroscopy in suspended core optical fibers.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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A novel approach for identifying explosive species is reported, using Raman spectroscopy in suspended core optical fibers. Numerical simulations are presented that predict the strength of the observed signal as a function of fiber geometry, with the calculated trends verified experimentally and used to optimize the sensors. This technique is used to identify hydrogen peroxide in water solutions at volumes less than 60 nL and to quantify microgram amounts of material using the solvents Raman signature as an internal calibration standard. The same system, without further modifications, is also used to detect 1,4-dinitrobenzene, a model molecule for nitrobenzene-based explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT).
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Enhanced visual cortical activation for emotional stimuli is preserved in patients with unilateral amygdala resection.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Emotionally arousing pictures induce increased activation of visual pathways relative to emotionally neutral images. A predominant model for the preferential processing and attention to emotional stimuli posits that the amygdala modulates sensory pathways through its projections to visual cortices. However, recent behavioral studies have found intact perceptual facilitation of emotional stimuli in individuals with amygdala damage. To determine the importance of the amygdala to modulations in visual processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine visual cortical blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in response to emotionally salient and neutral images in a sample of human patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe resection that included the amygdala. Adults with right (n = 13) or left (n = 5) medial temporal lobe resections were compared with demographically matched healthy control participants (n = 16). In the control participants, both aversive and erotic images produced robust BOLD signal increases in bilateral primary and secondary visual cortices relative to neutral images. Similarly, all patients with amygdala resections showed enhanced visual cortical activations to erotic images both ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion site. All but one of the amygdala resection patients showed similar enhancements to aversive stimuli and there were no significant group differences in visual cortex BOLD responses in patients compared with controls for either aversive or erotic images. Our results indicate that neither the right nor left amygdala is necessary for the heightened visual cortex BOLD responses observed during emotional stimulus presentation. These data challenge an amygdalo-centric model of emotional modulation and suggest that non-amygdalar processes contribute to the emotional modulation of sensory pathways.
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Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf phenology (evergreen or deciduous), diameter of hydraulic conduits (that is, xylem vessels and tracheids) and climate occupancies (exposure to freezing). To model the evolution of species traits and climate occupancies, we combined these data with an unparalleled dated molecular phylogeny (32,223 species) for land plants. Here we show that woody clades successfully moved into freezing-prone environments by either possessing transport networks of small safe conduits and/or shutting down hydraulic function by dropping leaves during freezing. Herbaceous species largely avoided freezing periods by senescing cheaply constructed aboveground tissue. Growth habit has long been considered labile, but we find that growth habit was less labile than climate occupancy. Additionally, freezing environments were largely filled by lineages that had already become herbs or, when remaining woody, already had small conduits (that is, the trait evolved before the climate occupancy). By contrast, most deciduous woody lineages had an evolutionary shift to seasonally shedding their leaves only after exposure to freezing (that is, the climate occupancy evolved before the trait). For angiosperms to inhabit novel cold environments they had to gain new structural and functional trait solutions; our results suggest that many of these solutions were probably acquired before their foray into the cold.
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Microwave accelerated synthesis of isoxazole hydrazide inhibitors of the system xc- transporter: Initial homology model.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) technology provided a good method to obtain selective and open isoxazole ligands that bind to and inhibit the Sxc- antiporter. The MARS provided numerous advantages, including: shorter time, better yield and higher purity of the product. Of the newly synthesized series of isoxazoles the salicyl hydrazide 6 exhibited the highest level of inhibitory activity in the transport assay. A homology model has been developed to summarize the SAR results to date, and provide a working hypothesis for future studies.
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3-d transcranial ultrasound imaging with bilateral phase aberration correction of multiple isoplanatic patches: a pilot human study with microbubble contrast enhancement.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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With stroke currently the second-leading cause of death globally, and 87% of all strokes classified as ischemic, the development of a fast, accessible, cost-effective approach for imaging occlusive stroke could have a significant impact on health care outcomes and costs. Although clinical examination and standard computed tomography alone do not provide adequate information for understanding the complex temporal events that occur during an ischemic stroke, ultrasound imaging is well suited to the task of examining blood flow dynamics in real time and may allow for localization of a clot. A prototype bilateral 3-D ultrasound imaging system using two matrix array probes on either side of the head allows for correction of skull-induced aberration throughout two entire phased array imaging volumes. We investigated the feasibility of applying this custom correction technique in five healthy volunteers with Definity microbubble contrast enhancement. Subjects were scanned simultaneously via both temporal acoustic windows in 3-D color flow mode. The number of color flow voxels above a common threshold increased as a result of aberration correction in five of five subjects, with a mean increase of 33.9%. The percentage of large arteries visualized by 3-D color Doppler imaging increased from 46% without aberration correction to 60% with aberration correction.
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Relationship between blood alcohol concentration and observable symptoms of intoxication in patients presenting to an emergency department.
Alcohol Alcohol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
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Clinical and medico-legal decisions often require knowledge of alcohol impairment that is not necessarily revealed by an individuals appearance, and in turn, may not necessarily reflect level of blood alcohol. This study compares clinical signs and symptoms with measured and estimated blood alcohol concentrations (BACs).
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Optimizing de novo assembly of short-read RNA-seq data for phylogenomics.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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RNA-seq has shown huge potential for phylogenomic inferences in non-model organisms. However, error, incompleteness, and redundant assembled transcripts for each gene in de novo assembly of short reads cause noise in analyses and a large amount of missing data in the aligned matrix. To address these problems, we compare de novo assemblies of paired end 90 bp RNA-seq reads using Oases, Trinity, Trans-ABySS and SOAPdenovo-Trans to transcripts from genome annotation of the model plant Ricinus communis. By doing so we evaluate strategies for optimizing total gene coverage and minimizing assembly chimeras and redundancy.
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Rates of speciation and morphological evolution are correlated across the largest vertebrate radiation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Several evolutionary theories predict that rates of morphological change should be positively associated with the rate at which new species arise. For example, the theory of punctuated equilibrium proposes that phenotypic change typically occurs in rapid bursts associated with speciation events. However, recent phylogenetic studies have found little evidence linking these processes in nature. Here we demonstrate that rates of species diversification are highly correlated with the rate of body size evolution across the 30,000+ living species of ray-finned fishes that comprise the majority of vertebrate biological diversity. This coupling is a general feature of fish evolution and transcends vast differences in ecology and body-plan organization. Our results may reflect a widespread speciational mode of character change in living fishes. Alternatively, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic evolvability-the capacity of organisms to evolve-shapes the dynamics of speciation through time at the largest phylogenetic scales.
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Pitch-catch phase aberration correction of multiple isoplanatic patches for 3-D transcranial ultrasound imaging.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Having previously presented the ultrasound brain helmet, a system for simultaneous 3-D ultrasound imaging via both temporal bone acoustic windows, the scanning geometry of this system is utilized to allow each matrix array to serve as a correction source for the opposing array. Aberration is estimated using cross-correlation of RF channel signals, followed by least mean squares solution of the resulting overdetermined system. Delay maps are updated and real-time 3-D scanning resumes. A first attempt is made at using multiple arrival time maps to correct multiple unique aberrators within a single transcranial imaging volume, i.e., several isoplanatic patches. This adaptive imaging technique, which uses steered unfocused waves transmitted by the opposing, or beacon, array, updates the transmit and receive delays of 5 isoplanatic patches within a 64° x 64° volume. In phantom experiments, color flow voxels above a common threshold have also increased by an average of 92%, whereas color flow variance decreased by an average of 10%. This approach has been applied to both temporal acoustic windows of two human subjects, yielding increases in echo brightness in 5 isoplanatic patches with a mean value of 24.3 ± 9.1%, suggesting that such a technique may be beneficial in the future for performing noninvasive 3-D color flow imaging of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke.
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Limb-specific emotional modulation of cervical spinal cord neurons.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Emotional stimuli receive prioritized attentional and motoric processing in the brain. Recent data have indicated that emotional stimuli enhance activity in the cervical spinal cord as well. In the present study, we used fMRI to investigate the specificity of this emotion-dependent spinal cord activity. We examined whether the limb depicted in a passively viewed image (upper vs. lower) differentially influenced activity in the cervical segments that innervate the upper limbs, and whether this effect was enhanced by emotion. Participants completed four fMRI runs: neutral-upper limb, neutral-lower limb, negative-upper limb, and negative-lower limb. The results indicated main effects of limb and emotion, with upper limbs and negative stimuli eliciting greater activity than lower limbs and neutral stimuli, respectively. For upper-limb runs, negative stimuli evoked more activity than did neutral stimuli. Additionally, negative stimuli depicting upper limbs produced stronger responses than did negative stimuli depicting lower limbs. These results suggest that emotional stimuli augment limb-specific responses in the spinal cord.
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Risk of pulmonary embolism in trauma patients: Not all created equal.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are assumed to be at an increased risk for pulmonary embolism (PE). Delay in the initiation of chemoprophylaxis and prophylactic placement of inferior vena cava filters have been advocated by some because of concerns for increased intracranial hemorrhage in the presence of prophylactic anticoagulation. We hypothesized that patients with isolated TBI would not be at increased risk for the development of PE compared with the general trauma population.
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Simultaneous bilateral real-time 3-d transcranial ultrasound imaging at 1 MHz through poor acoustic windows.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a rapid, portable alternative imaging modality to examine stroke patients in pre-hospital or emergency room settings. However, in performing transcranial ultrasound examinations, 8%-29% of patients in a general population may present with window failure, in which case it is not possible to acquire clinically useful sonographic information through the temporal bone acoustic window. In this work, we describe the technical considerations, design and fabrication of low-frequency (1.2 MHz), large aperture (25.3 mm) sparse matrix array transducers for 3-D imaging in the event of window failure. These transducers are integrated into a system for real-time 3-D bilateral transcranial imaging-the ultrasound brain helmet-and color flow imaging capabilities at 1.2 MHz are directly compared with arrays operating at 1.8 MHz in a flow phantom with attenuation comparable to the in vivo case. Contrast-enhanced imaging allowed visualization of arteries of the Circle of Willis in 5 of 5 subjects and 8 of 10 sides of the head despite probe placement outside of the acoustic window. Results suggest that this type of transducer may allow acquisition of useful images either in individuals with poor windows or outside of the temporal acoustic window in the field.
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Power spectral analysis of the effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dobutamine and dopexamine on microcirculation following free tissue transfer.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The use of pressor drugs after microsurgical free tissue transfer remains controversial because of potential vasoconstrictor effects on the free flap. Noninvasive monitoring of free flaps with laser Doppler flowmetry may provide further information regarding the local regulation of blood flow in the flap tissues during pressor infusions. This study evaluated the effects of four commonly used pressor agents.
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Low molecular weight heparin in patients undergoing free tissue transfer following head and neck ablative surgery: review of efficacy and associated complications.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Most microsurgeons report the use of anticoagulants in their routine practice. Anti-Xa concentrations are preferentially used to monitor treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). The aim of this retrospective study was to measure the therapeutic response to standard dosing with LMWH (using anti-Xa) in patients after ablative and reconstructive surgery for head and neck cancer, and to review the associated risk of bleeding. We retrospectively reviewed 153 patients who had undergone resection of primary or recurrent tumours of the head and neck with free flap reconstruction. In total, 173 free flap procedures were completed. Medical records were reviewed to find the anticoagulation regimen used, anti-Xa result, patients weight, and any associated complications. Fourteen patients returned to theatre because of bleeding; of these no cause was identified in 6 and a haematoma was evacuated. The distribution of unexplained haematoma was similar for all dose regimens of dalteparin. Anti-Xa results were available in 47 cases, and of these, 22 (47%) were within the prophylactic range (0.2 IU/ml or more). Our results highlight the high incidence of inadequate response to standard prophylactic doses of LMWH in patients with head and neck cancer. Increasing the dose of dalteparin does not seem to increase the risk of bleeding or formation of a haematoma. These findings may be transferable to other surgical specialties.
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Central versus local adjudication of myocardial infarction in a cardiac biomarker trial.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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The impact of regulatory requirements, which require central adjudication for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in cardiac biomarker studies, is unclear. We determined the impact of local (at the site of subject enrollment) versus central adjudication of AMI on final diagnosis.
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Identification of normal cranial sutures in infants on routine magnetic resonance imaging.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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There are increasing concerns relating to the ionizing effects of computed tomography imaging in infants with benign conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a potential alternative to ionizing radiation when determining patency of the cranial sutures; however, there is no documentation in the literature on the appearance of normal cranial sutures in infants on MRI. This study reviews the appearance of the cranial sutures, their widths, and accuracy of identification in the first year of life on MRI.The coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid sutures were evaluated by 5 assessors on 100 anonymized MRI scans in infants aged 1 to 361 days. The sutures were scored on a 3-point scale. The MRI sequences investigated were axial T1, axial T2, coronal fluid attenuated inversion recovery, axial short tau inversion recovery, and sagittal T1. The suture widths were measured in those cases where they were clearly identifiable, and agreement was obtained in the first aspect of the study (n = 38).A ? score of 0.6 was obtained for interrater agreement. An increasing total score for all sutures with advancing age was found (P < 0.05). The mean suture widths for the coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid sutures were 1.2 (SD, 0.4), 1.4 (SD, 0.4), and 1.3 (SD, 0.3) mm, respectively. There was no significant difference in suture width with age.The appearance of cranial sutures on MRI is as an area of signal void, which may be difficult to clearly define, thus making it unreliable as a standard investigation in the diagnosis of craniosynostosis.
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Starting the clock: defining nonoperative management of blunt splenic injury by time.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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There is no consensus when the designation of nonoperative management (NOM) for splenic injury (BSI) should start. We evaluated NOM success rates based on different time points after admission.
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A detailed anatomical assessment of the lateral tongue extrinsic musculature, and proximity to the tongue mucosal surface. Does this confirm the current TNM T4a muscular subclassification?
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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The current T4a subclassification of the TNM staging system for oral malignancies has been criticised as based almost exclusively on anatomical data. The aim of this study was to provide anatomical confirmation of the muscular constraints of T4a classification of oral tongue tumours.
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Magnetic resonance imaging-based tumor volume measurements predict outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The objectives of this study were to determine the benefit of pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based tumor volume (Tv) measurements in patients presenting with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) involving the oral cavity subsites most frequently associated with mandibular bone invasion.
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Estimates of marine debris accumulation on beaches are strongly affected by the temporal scale of sampling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical.
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MRI pre-treatment tumour volume in maxillary complex squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgical resection.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Tumour volume (Tv) measurements obtained from pre-treatment CT and MRI have increasingly shown to be more reliable predictors of outcome than TNM stage. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of MRI calculated maxillary complex tumour volume with patient outcome. METHODS: The medical records of 39 patients with squamous cell carcinoma involving the maxillary sinus, maxilla, hard palate and maxillary alveolus were reviewed and tumour volume measurements completed on pre-treatment MRI. RESULTS: The mean tumour volume was 12.79 ± 24.31 cm(3). Independent samples t test was significant for increasing overall all-cause survival and decreasing tumour volume (1 year: p = 0.003; 5-year: p = 0.031). Cox regression was significant for stratified tumour volume, nodal involvement and peri-neural invasion for predicting disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: MRI measured tumour volume assessment appears to be a reliable predictor of survival in patients with maxillary complex SCC treated by surgical resection.
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Wide complex tachycardia in a pediatric diphenhydramine overdose treated with sodium bicarbonate.
Pediatr Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine commonly implicated in overdose. It has many pharmacologic effects, including sodium channel blockade. Overdoses in toddlers causing QRS prolongation are only rarely reported and never with effective use of sodium bicarbonate. We report a diphenhydramine overdose in a toddler with multiple markers of sodium channel blockade effectively treated with sodium bicarbonate.
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The effects of valence and arousal on the emotional modulation of time perception: evidence for multiple stages of processing.
Emotion
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Previous research has demonstrated that both emotional valence and arousal can influence the subjective experience of time. The current research extends this work by (1) identifying how quickly this emotional modulation of time perception can occur and (2) examining whether valence and arousal have different effects at different stages of perception. These questions were addressed using a temporal bisection task. In each block of this task, participants are trained to distinguish between two different exposure durations. Participants are then shown stimuli presented at a number of durations that fall between the two learned times, and are asked to indicate whether the test stimulus was closer in duration to the shorter or longer learned item. In the current study, participants completed blocks of trials in which the durations were "Short" (100-300 ms) or "Long" (400-1600 ms). Stimuli consisted of neutral photographs as well as four categories of emotional images: high-arousal negative, high-arousal positive, low-arousal negative, and low-arousal positive. In Short blocks, arousing and nonarousing negative images were judged to have been shown for shorter durations than they actually were (i.e., the duration was underestimated); this effect occurred at durations as brief as 133 ms. In Long blocks, the display time for highly arousing negative items was overestimated, whereas durations were underestimated for highly arousing positive items and less arousing negative items. These data suggest that arousal and valence have different effects at different stages of perception, possibly due to the different neural structures involved at each stage of the emotional modulation of time perception.
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Microbial safety of air-dried and rewetted biosolids.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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To assess microbial safety of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), we examined the inactivation of microbial indicators for potential bacterial, viral and protozoan pathogens. The levels of indicators were determined throughout the air-drying and storage phases of anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Samples were collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS) in Victoria, Australia. Established methods were applied for analysis of bacteria and coliphages, based on membrane filtration and layered plates, respectively. In the pan drying phase, the prevalence of Escherichia coli was reduced by >5 log10 compared with sludge entering the pan. Thus, after pan drying of 8-11 months at WWTP A and 15 months at WWTP B, the numbers of E. coli were reduced to below 10(2) cfu/g dry solids (DS). This level is acceptable for unrestricted use in agriculture in Australia (P1 treatment grade), the UK (enhanced treatment status) and the USA (Class A pathogen reduction). Coliphage numbers also decreased substantially during the air-drying phase, indicating that enteric viruses are also likely to be destroyed during this phase. Clostridium perfringens appeared to be an overly conservative indicator. Survival, but not regrowth, of E. coli or Salmonella was observed in rewetted biosolids (15-20% moisture content), after being seeded with these species, indicating a degree of safety of stored biosolids upon rewetting by rain.
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Reducing developmental risk for emotional/behavioral problems: a randomized controlled trial examining the Tools for Getting Along curriculum.
J Sch Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Researchers have demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies - such as social problem solving - provided in school settings can help ameliorate the developmental risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. In this study, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of Tools for Getting Along (TFGA), a social problem-solving universally delivered curriculum designed to reduce the developmental risk for serious emotional or behavioral problems among upper elementary grade students. We analyzed pre-intervention and post-intervention teacher-report and student self-report data from 14 schools, 87 classrooms, and a total of 1296 students using multilevel modeling. Results (effect sizes calculated using Hedges g) indicated that students who were taught TFGA had a more positive approach to problem solving (g=.11) and a more rational problem-solving style (g=.16). Treated students with relatively poor baseline scores benefited from TFGA on (a) problem-solving knowledge (g=1.54); (b) teacher-rated executive functioning (g=.35 for Behavior Regulation and .32 for Metacognition), and proactive aggression (g=.20); and (c) self-reported trait anger (g=.17) and anger expression (g=.21). Thus, TFGA may reduce risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties by improving students cognitive and emotional self-regulation and increasing their pro-social choices.
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Progress in ring array transducers for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of cardiac interventional devices.
Ultrason Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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As a treatment for aortic stenosis, several companies have recently introduced prosthetic heart valves designed to be deployed through a catheter using an intravenous or transapical approach. This procedure can either take the place of open heart surgery with some ofthe devices or delay it with others. Real-time 3D ultrasound could enable continuous monitoring of these structures before, during and after deployment. We have developed a 2D ring array integrated with a 30 French catheter that is used for transapical prosthetic heart valve implantation. The transducer array was built using three 46 cm long flex circuits from MicroConnex (Snoqualmie, WA) which terminate in an interconnect that plugs directly into our system cable; thus, no cable soldering is required. This transducer consists of 210 elements at 0.157 mm interelement spacing and operates at 5 MHz. Average measured element bandwidth was 26% and average round-trip 50 ohm insertion loss was -58.1 dB after correcting for diffractive losses. The transducer was wrapped around the 1 cm diameter lumen of a heart-valve deployment catheter. Prosthetic heart valve images were obtained in water-tank studies.
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Hematology, leukocyte cytochemical analysis, plasma biochemistry, and plasma electrophoresis of wild-caught and captive-bred Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum).
Vet Clin Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), one of several venomous lizard species in the world, is found within the United States and Mexico and is recognized as an iconic symbol of the American Southwest. Thus, Gila monsters are of growing interest in the captive reptile trade and within zoological and educational institutions.
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Factorial validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)-Teacher form.
Child Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Deficits in executive function (self-regulatory mechanisms) have been linked with many childhood disorders including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, and conduct disorder. Executive functioning is typically assessed by individually administering performance-based measures in a clinical setting. However, performance-based methods are inefficient for school psychologists. A more feasibly implemented measure for applied settings is the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), but researchers have raised questions about the internal validity and the proposed factors. In this study, we examined the factor structure of the teacher form of the BRIEF in a sample of 2,044 general education elementary students and 131 teachers in a multilevel design. Results revealed support for a model with three factors at Level 1 and one general factor at Level 2. The results of our study do not support the current two-factor model of the published BRIEF protocol.
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Invertebrate resources on the internet.
ILAR J
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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The use of invertebrates in research laboratories, classroom teaching, and public displays has greatly increased over the past 20 years, accompanied by a corresponding increase in the amount of online information and literature about invertebrates. This brief overview of Internet resources is intended to aid both novice and experienced individuals in the search for such information.
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Culture and maintenance of selected invertebrates in the laboratory and classroom.
ILAR J
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Invertebrate species have been used for many years in the laboratory and teaching environment. We discuss some of the most commonly maintained invertebrates--the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans), the California sea hare (Aplysia californica), the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), terrestrial hermit crabs, the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), and cephalopods--and briefly describe general techniques for culturing them in captivity. The aim of this article is to give potential users an idea of the materials, methods, and effort required to maintain each type of organism in a laboratory or classroom setting.
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The ultrasound brain helmet: new transducers and volume registration for in vivo simultaneous multi-transducer 3-D transcranial imaging.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Because stroke remains an important and time-sensitive health concern in developed nations, we present a system capable of fusing 3-D transcranial ultrasound volumes acquired from two sides of the head. This system uses custom sparse array transducers built on flexible multilayer circuits that can be positioned for simultaneous imaging through both temporal acoustic windows, allowing for potential registration of multiple real-time 3-D scans of cerebral vasculature. We examine hardware considerations for new matrix arrays-transducer design and interconnects-in this application. Specifically, it is proposed that SNR may be increased by reducing the length of probe cables. This claim is evaluated as part of the presented system through simulation, experimental data, and in vivo imaging. Ultimately, gains in SNR of 7 dB are realized by replacing a standard probe cable with a much shorter flex interconnect; higher gains may be possible using ribbon-based probe cables. In vivo images are presented, showing cerebral arteries with and without the use of microbubble contrast agent; they have been registered and fused using a simple algorithm which maximizes normalized cross-correlation.
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Durable complete response to chemotherapy in an infant with a clival chordoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Chordomas are rare bone tumors of notochord remnants that may occur anywhere within the axial skeleton. The standard of care is complete surgical removal. Proton beam irradiation is commonly used when the tumor is inaccessible or has recurred. Chemotherapy has been used in the treatment of patients at relapse but it has been generally proven ineffective. We report a 7-month-old infant with a clival chordoma who responded to combination chemotherapy consisting of cycles of vincristine/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin alternating with etoposide/ifosfamide. She has been off chemotherapy for 2 years and is well at age 5.
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Disorders of the respiratory system in pet and ornamental fish.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The respiratory organ of fish is the gill. In addition to respiration, the gills also perform functions of acid-base regulation, osmoregulation, and excretion of nitrogenous compounds. Because of their intimate association with the environment, the gills are often the primary target organ of pollutants, poor water quality, infectious disease agents, and noninfectious problems, making examination of the gills essential to the complete examination of sick individual fish and fish populations. The degree of response of the gill tissue depends on type, severity, and degree of injury and functional changes will precede morphologic changes. Antemortem tests and water quality testing can, and should, be performed on clinically affected fish whenever possible.
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Utilizing a magnetic locator to search for buried firearms and miscellaneous weapons at a controlled research site.
J. Forensic Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Forensic personnel generally use basic all-metal detectors for weapon searches because of their ease of use and cost efficiency. For ferromagnetic targets, an alternative easy to use and low-cost geophysical tool is a magnetic locator. The following study was designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a common, commercially available magnetic locator in forensic weapon searches by determining the maximum depth of detection for 32 metallic forensic targets and testing the effects of metallic composition on detection. Maximum depth of detection was determined for 16 decommissioned street-level firearms, six pieces of assorted scrap metals, and 10 blunt or bladed weapons by burying each target at 5-cm intervals until the weapons were no longer detected. As expected, only ferromagnetic items were detected; weapons containing both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic components were generally detected to shallower depths. Overall, the magnetic locator can be a useful addition to weapon searches involving buried ferromagnetic weapons.
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