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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Oral and vaginal epithelial cell lines bind and transfer cell-free infectious HIV-1 to permissive cells but are not productively infected.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The majority of HIV-1 infections worldwide are acquired via mucosal surfaces. However, unlike the vaginal mucosa, the issue of whether the oral mucosa can act as a portal of entry for HIV-1 infection remains controversial. To address potential differences with regard to the fate of HIV-1 after exposure to oral and vaginal epithelium, we utilized two epithelial cell lines representative of buccal (TR146) and pharyngeal (FaDu) sites of the oral cavity and compared them with a cell line derived from vaginal epithelium (A431) in order to determine (i) HIV-1 receptor gene and protein expression, (ii) whether HIV-1 genome integration into epithelial cells occurs, (iii) whether productive viral infection ensues, and (iv) whether infectious virus can be transferred to permissive cells. Using flow cytometry to measure captured virus by HIV-1 gp120 protein detection and western blot to detect HIV-1 p24 gag protein, we demonstrate that buccal, pharyngeal and vaginal epithelial cells capture CXCR4- and CCR5-utilising virus, probably via non-canonical receptors. Both oral and vaginal epithelial cells are able to transfer infectious virus to permissive cells either directly through cell-cell attachment or via transcytosis of HIV-1 across epithelial cells. However, HIV-1 integration, as measured by real-time PCR and presence of early gene mRNA transcripts and de novo protein production were not detected in either epithelial cell type. Importantly, both oral and vaginal epithelial cells were able to support integration and productive infection if HIV-1 entered via the endocytic pathway driven by VSV-G. Our data demonstrate that under normal conditions productive HIV-1 infection of epithelial cells leading to progeny virion production is unlikely, but that epithelial cells can act as mediators of systemic viral dissemination through attachment and transfer of HIV-1 to permissive cells.
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Fifteen-minute consultation: a structured approach to the management of recurrent oral ulceration in a child.
Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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To present a structured approach for an outpatient consultation of a child with recurrent mouth ulcers.
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Clinical evidence for allergy in orofacial granulomatosis and inflammatory bowel disease.
Clin Transl Allergy
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) causes chronic, disfiguring, granulomatous inflammation of the lips and oral mucosa. A proportion of cases have co-existing intestinal Crohns disease (CD). The pathogenesis is unknown but has recently been linked to dietary sensitivity. Although allergy has been suggested as an aetiological factor in OFG there are few published data to support this link. In this study, we sought clinical evidence of allergy in a series of patients with OFG and compared this to a series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) without oral involvement and to population control estimates.
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Clinical assessment of disease severity in recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases in many parts of the world. However, there is very limited published clinical evidence for the therapies used in this condition. This could be partly due to the difficulty in evaluating the efficacy of oral ulcer treatment objectively. In this paper, we present a method for assessing and monitoring the severity of oral ulcers before and after treatment.
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A novel human IgA monoclonal antibody protects against tuberculosis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Abs have been shown to be protective in passive immunotherapy of tuberculous infection using mouse experimental models. In this study, we report on the properties of a novel human IgA1, constructed using a single-chain variable fragment clone (2E9), selected from an Ab phage library. The purified Ab monomer revealed high binding affinities for the mycobacterial ?-crystallin Ag and for the human Fc?RI (CD89) IgA receptor. Intranasal inoculations with 2E9IgA1 and recombinant mouse IFN-? significantly inhibited pulmonary H37Rv infection in mice transgenic for human CD89 but not in CD89-negative littermate controls, suggesting that binding to CD89 was necessary for the IgA-imparted passive protection. 2E9IgA1 added to human whole-blood or monocyte cultures inhibited luciferase-tagged H37Rv infection although not for all tested blood donors. Inhibition by 2E9IgA1 was synergistic with human rIFN-? in cultures of purified human monocytes but not in whole-blood cultures. The demonstration of the mandatory role of Fc?RI (CD89) for human IgA-mediated protection is important for understanding of the mechanisms involved and also for translation of this approach toward development of passive immunotherapy of tuberculosis.
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Experience with anti-TNF-? therapy for orofacial granulomatosis.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) can be challenging to treat and experience with anti-TNF-? therapy is limited. We report our experience with infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) for OFG in 14 patients, the largest reported series to date.
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Distinguishing orofacial granulomatosis from crohns disease: two separate disease entities?
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology sharing histological features with Crohns disease (CD). This study aimed to 1) define the clinical presentation of OFG, 2) establish differentiating features for those with CD, 3) examine if onset of OFG is predictive of CD, and 4) establish differentiating features for children.
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Protein and mucin retention on oral mucosal surfaces in dry mouth patients.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Oral homeostasis depends largely on proteins and mucins present in saliva that coat all oral surfaces. The present study compared the protein composition of residual fluid on mucosal surfaces in subjects with normal salivary flow with that of patients with dry mouth caused by salivary hypofunction. Samples of residual mucosal fluid were collected using paper strips and then analysed by protein electrophoresis and immunoblotting. In both patients and controls, residual fluids on mucosal surfaces (except the anterior tongue in control subjects) had higher protein concentrations than unstimulated whole-mouth saliva. High-molecular-weight mucin (MUC5B) was present in greater amounts on the anterior tongue than on other surfaces in control subjects. In dry mouth patients who were unable to provide a measurable saliva sample, MUC5B was often still present on all mucosal surfaces but in reduced amounts on the anterior tongue. The membrane-bound mucin, MUC1, was prominent on buccal and labial surfaces in patients and controls. Statherin was still present on surfaces that were dried to remove salivary fluid, suggesting that it may be adsorbed as a protein pellicle. It is concluded that oral mucosal surfaces in dry mouth patients can retain MUC5B and other salivary proteins, although the functional integrity of these proteins is uncertain.
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A biphasic innate immune MAPK response discriminates between the yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans in epithelial cells.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Discriminating between commensal and pathogenic states of opportunistic pathogens is critical for host mucosal defense and homeostasis. The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is also a constituent of the normal oral flora and grows either as yeasts or hyphae. We demonstrate that oral epithelial cells orchestrate an innate response to C. albicans via NF-?B and a biphasic MAPK response. Activation of NF-?B and the first MAPK phase, constituting c-Jun activation, is independent of morphology and due to fungal cell wall recognition. Activation of the second MAPK phase, constituting MKP1 and c-Fos activation, is dependent upon hypha formation and fungal burdens and correlates with proinflammatory responses. Such biphasic response may allow epithelial tissues to remain quiescent under low fungal burdens while responding specifically and strongly to damage-inducing hyphae when burdens increase. MAPK/MKP1/c-Fos activation may represent a "danger response" pathway that is critical for identifying and responding to the pathogenic switch of commensal microbes.
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Murine model of concurrent oral and vaginal Candida albicans colonisation.
Methods Mol. Biol.
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Investigations into the complex interaction between the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and its human host require the use of animals as in vivo models. A major advance is the creation of a low-oestrogen murine model of concurrent oral and vaginal C. albicans colonisation that resembles human candidal carriage at both mucosal sites. Weekly intramuscular (5 ?g) and subcutaneous (5 ?g) oestrogen administration was determined as optimal, enhancing oral colonisation but essential for vaginal colonisation. Using a clinical C. albicans oral isolate, persistent colonisation for up to 6 weeks can be achieved at both sites in two strains of mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6). This concurrent model of mucosal colonisation reduces the numbers of experimental mice by half, and opens up new avenues of research in assessing potential mucosal vaccine candidates and in studying delicate host-pathogen interactions during the most natural state of C. albicans epithelial colonisation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.