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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
HLA-C expression levels define permissible mismatches in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Life-threatening GVHD limits the use of HLA-C-mismatched unrelated donors in transplantation. Clinicians lack criteria for donor selection when HLA-C mismatched donors are a patient's only option for cure. We examined the role for HLA-C expression levels to identify permissible HLA-C mismatches. The median fluorescence intensity (MFI), a proxy of HLA-C expression, was assigned to each HLA-C allotype in 1975 patients and their HLA-C-mismatched unrelated transplant donors. The association of outcome with the level of expression of patients' and donors' HLA-C allotypes was evaluated in multivariable models. Increasing expression level of the patient's mismatched HLA-C allotype was associated with increased risks of grades III-IV acute GVHD [odds ratio (OR), 1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.62; P = .003], non-relapse mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.39; P = .005) and mortality (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27; P = .009). Increasing expression level among HLA-C mismatches with residue 116 or residues 77/80 mismatching was associated with increased non-relapse mortality (HR, 1.31 and 1.38, respectively; 95% CI, 1.09-1.58 and 1.14-1.67, respectively; P = .004 and .0009, respectively). The immunogenicity of HLA-C mismatches in unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by the expression level of the patient's mismatched HLA-C allotype. HLA-C expression levels, provide new information on mismatches that should be avoided, and extend understanding of HLA-C-mediated immune responses in human disease.
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Recommendations for Donor HLA Assessment and Matching for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Consensus Opinion of the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducts large, multi-institutional clinical trials with the goal of improving the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with life-threatening disorders. Well designed HCT trials benefit from standardized criteria for defining diagnoses, treatment plans and graft source selection. In this perspective, we summarize evidence supporting criteria for the selection of related and unrelated adult volunteer progenitor cell donors or umbilical cord blood units. These standardized criteria for graft source selection have been adopted by the BMT CTN to enhance the interpretation of clinical findings within and among future clinical protocols.
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Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch increases mortality after myeloablative unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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We examined current outcomes of unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to determine the clinical implications of donor-recipient HLA matching. Adult and pediatric patients who had first undergone myeloablative-unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2011 were included. All had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Of the total (n = 8003), cases were 8/8 (n = 5449), 7/8 (n = 2071), or 6/8 (n = 483) matched. HLA mismatch (6-7/8) conferred significantly increased risk for grades II to IV and III to IV acute graft vs host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall mortality compared with HLA-matched cases (8/8). Type (allele/antigen) and locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) of mismatch were not associated with overall mortality. Among 8/8 matched cases, HLA-DPB1 and -DQB1 mismatch resulted in increased acute GVHD, and HLA-DPB1 mismatch had decreased relapse. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 allele mismatch was associated with higher TRM compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch or HLA-DPB1 match and increased overall mortality compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch in 8/8 (and 10/10) matched cases. Full matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 is required for optimal unrelated donor HCT survival, and avoidance of nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in otherwise HLA-matched pairs is indicated.
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HLA match likelihoods for hematopoietic stem-cell grafts in the U.S. registry.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially lifesaving therapy for several blood cancers and other diseases. For patients without a suitable related HLA-matched donor, unrelated-donor registries of adult volunteers and banked umbilical cord-blood units, such as the Be the Match Registry operated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), provide potential sources of donors. Our goal in the present study was to measure the likelihood of finding a suitable donor in the U.S. registry.
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Donor killer cell Ig-like receptor B haplotypes, recipient HLA-C1, and HLA-C mismatch enhance the clinical benefit of unrelated transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) interact with HLA class I ligands to regulate NK cell development and function. These interactions affect the outcome of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We have shown previously that donors with KIR B versus KIR A haplotypes improve the clinical outcome for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia by reducing the incidence of leukemic relapse and improving leukemia-free survival (LFS). Both centromeric and telomeric KIR B genes contribute to the effect, but the centromeric genes are dominant. They include the genes encoding inhibitory KIRs that are specific for the C1 and C2 epitopes of HLA-C. We used an expanded cohort of 1532 T cell-replete transplants to examine the interaction between donor KIR B genes and recipient class I HLA KIR ligands. The relapse protection associated with donor KIR B is enhanced in recipients who have one or two C1-bearing HLA-C allotypes, compared with C2 homozygous recipients, with no effect due to donor HLA. The protective interaction between donors with two or more, versus none or one, KIR B motifs and recipient C1 was specific to transplants with class I mismatch at HLA-C (RR of leukemia-free survival, 0.57 [0.40-0.79]; p = 0.001) irrespective of the KIR ligand mismatch status of the transplant. The survival advantage and relapse protection in C1/x recipients compared with C2/C2 recipients was similar irrespective of the particular donor KIR B genes. Understanding the interactions between donor KIR and recipient HLA class I can be used to inform donor selection to improve outcome of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia.
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CD16xCD33 bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) activates NK cells against primary MDS and MDSC CD33+ targets.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are stem cell disorders that can progress to acute myeloid leukemia. Although hematopoietic cell transplantation can be curative, additional therapies are needed for a disease that disproportionally afflicts the elderly. We tested the ability of a CD16xCD33 BiKE to induce natural killer (NK) cell function in 67 MDS patients. Compared with age-matched normal controls, CD7(+) lymphocytes, NK cells, and CD16 expression were markedly decreased in MDS patients. Despite this, reverse antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays showed potent degranulation and cytokine production when resting MDS-NK cells were triggered with an agonistic CD16 monoclonal antibody. Blood and marrow MDS-NK cells treated with bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) significantly enhanced degranulation and tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? production against HL-60 and endogenous CD33(+) MDS targets. MDS patients had a significantly increased proportion of immunosuppressive CD33(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that negatively correlated with MDS lymphocyte populations and CD16 loss on NK cells. Treatment with the CD16xCD33 BiKE successfully reversed MDSC immunosuppression of NK cells and induced MDSC target cell lysis. Lastly, the BiKE induced optimal MDS-NK cell function irrespective of disease stage. Our data suggest that the CD16xCD33 BiKE functions against both CD33(+) MDS and MDSC targets and may be therapeutically beneficial for MDS patients.
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Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms are not associated with outcomes after unrelated donor transplantation: a center for international blood and marrow transplant research analysis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays an essential role in T cell homeostasis by restraining immune responses. AG and GG genotypes of donor CTLA-4 SNP rs4553808 in patients after unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) have been shown to be an independent predictor of inferior relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with those with the AA genotype, in single-center studies. We tested the hypothesis that SNP rs4553808 is associated with RFS, OS, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and the cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD in adults with acute myeloid leukemia and advanced myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing a first 8/8 or 7/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor HSCT. Multivariable analysis adjusting for relevant donor and recipient characteristics showed no significant association between SNP rs4553808 and OS, RFS, NRM, and incidence of acute and chronic GVHD. An exploratory analysis of other CTLA-4 SNPs, as well as studying the interaction with antithymocyte globulin, also demonstrated no significant associations. Our results indicate that CTLA-4 SNPs are not associated with HSCT outcomes.
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Identification of a permissible HLA mismatch in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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In subjects mismatched in the HLA alleles C*03:03/C*03:04 no allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses are detected in vitro. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with unrelated donors (UDs) showed no association between the HLA-C allele mismatches (CAMMs) and adverse outcomes; antigen mismatches at this and mismatches other HLA loci are deleterious. The absence of effect of the CAMM may have resulted from the predominance of the mismatch C*03:03/C*03:04. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving UD HSCT matched in 8/8 and 7/8 HLA alleles were examined. Transplants mismatched in HLA-C antigens or mismatched in HLA-A, -B, or -DRB1 presented significant differences (P < .0001) in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.37, 1.30), disease-free survival (HR = 1.33, 1.27), treatment-related mortality (HR = 1.54, 1.54), and grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (HR = 1.49, 1.77) compared with the 8/8 group; transplants mismatched in other CAMMs had similar outcomes with HR ranging from 1.34 to 172 for these endpoints. The C*03:03/C*03:04 mismatched and the 8/8 matched groups had identical outcomes (HR ranging from 0.96-1.05). The previous finding that CAMMs do not associate with adverse outcomes is explained by the predominance (69%) of the mismatch C*03:03/03:04 in this group that is better tolerated than other HLA mismatches.
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Evaluation of peripheral blood stem cell quality in products transported by traditional courier or commercial overnight shipping services.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) products have traditionally been transported from the collection center to a transplant center using validated volunteer courier-based procedures. Evolving airline service strategies and security policies have complicated this model of product transport. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of transporting PBSC products using commercial overnight shipping services, while maintaining product quality, compared to courier-transported products.
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Impact of allele-level HLA matching on outcomes after myeloablative single unit umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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We studied the effect of allele-level matching at human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in 1568 single umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantations for hematologic malignancy. The primary end point was nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Only 7% of units were allele matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1; 15% were mismatched at 1, 26% at 2, 30% at 3, 16% at 4, and 5% at 5 alleles. In a subset, allele-level HLA match was assigned using imputation; concordance between HLA-match assignment and outcome correlation was confirmed between the actual and imputed HLA-match groups. Compared with HLA-matched units, neutrophil recovery was lower with mismatches at 3, 4, or 5, but not 1 or 2 alleles. NRM was higher with units mismatched at 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 alleles compared with HLA-matched units. The observed effects are independent of cell dose and patient age. These data support allele-level HLA matching in the selection of single UCB units.
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Amino acid substitution at peptide-binding pockets of HLA class I molecules increases risk of severe acute GVHD and mortality.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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HLA disparity has a negative impact on the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied the independent impact of amino acid substitution (AAS) at peptide-binding positions 9, 99, 116, and 156, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor binding position 77 of HLA-A, B, or C, on the risks for grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, treatment-related mortality (TRM), relapse, and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, a mismatch at HLA-C position 116 was associated with increased risk for severe acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-1.82, P = .0016). Mismatch at HLA-C position 99 was associated with increased transplant-related mortality (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.1-1.69, P = .0038). Mismatch at HLA-B position 9 was associated with increased chronic GVHD (HR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.36-3.82, P = .0018). No AAS were significantly associated with outcome at HLA-A. Specific AAS pair combinations with a frequency >30 were tested for association with HCT outcomes. Cysteine to tyrosine substitution at position 99 of HLA-C was associated with increased TRM (HR = 1.78, 95% = CI 1.27-2.51, P = .0009). These results demonstrate that donor-recipient mismatch for certain peptide-binding residues of the HLA class I molecule is associated with increased risk for acute and chronic GVHD and death.
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Genetic risk variants in African Americans with multiple sclerosis.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To assess the association of established multiple sclerosis (MS) risk variants in 3,254 African Americans (1,162 cases and 2,092 controls).
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The impact of HLA unidirectional mismatches on the outcome of myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated donors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The impact of HLA homozygosity at mismatched (MM) loci on the outcome of 2687 myeloablative unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantations performed for malignant disease was evaluated among 4 groups: 7/8 bidirectional MM transplants (donor and recipient heterozygous MM, n = 1393), 7/8 host-versus-graft (HVG) vector MM (recipient homozygous, n = 112), 7/8 graft-versus-host (GVH) vector MM (donor homozygous, n = 119), and 8/8 matches (n = 1063). Multivariate analyses found 7/8 GVH (P = .001) and bidirectional MM groups (P < .0001) had significantly worse transplant-related mortality and overall and disease-free survival than the 8/8 match group, a difference not observed with the 7/8 HVG MM group (P > .01). The 3 7/8 groups differed only for grades III-IV acute GVH disease (GVHD), where HVG MM had less GVHD than the 7/8 bidirectional MM (hazard ratio [HR] 0.52, P = .0016) and GVH MM (HR 0.43, P = .0009) groups but not the 8/8 group (HR 0.83, P = .39). There were no differences between the 7/8 groups for relapse, chronic GVHD, neutrophil engraftment, or graft failure. GVH MM have the same risk as 7/8 bidirectional MM. 7/8 HVG MM confer a reduced risk of acute GVHD without an increased risk of disease relapse or graft failure compared with a 7/8 bidirectional MM.
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Multiple mismatches at the low expression HLA loci DP, DQ, and DRB3/4/5 associate with adverse outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A single mismatch in highly expressed HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci (HEL) is associated with worse outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, while less is known about the cumulative impact of mismatches in the lesser expressed HLA loci DRB3/4/5, DQ, and DP (LEL). We studied whether accumulation of LEL mismatches is associated with deleterious effects in 3853 unrelated donor transplants stratified according to number of matches in the HEL. In the 8/8 matched HEL group, LEL mismatches were not associated with any adverse outcome. Mismatches at HLA-DRB1 were associated with occurrence of multiple LEL mismatches. In the 7/8 HEL group, patients with 3 or more LEL mismatches scored in the graft-versus-host vector had a significantly higher risk of mortality (1.45 and 1.43) and transplant-related mortality (1.68 and 1.54) than the subgroups with 0 or 1 LEL mismatches. No single LEL locus had a more pronounced effect on clinical outcome. Three or more LEL mismatches are associated with lower survival after 7/8 HEL matched transplantation. Prospective evaluation of matching for HLA-DRB3/4/5, -DQ, and -DP loci is warranted to reduce posttransplant risks in donor-recipient pairs matched for 7/8 HEL.
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Significance of ethnicity in the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease and leukemia relapse after unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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The significance of patient and donor ethnicity on risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and disease relapse after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is not known. A total of 4335 patient-donor pairs from the International Histocompatibility Working Group in HCT met the following 3 criteria: (1) HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 allele matched donor, (2) diagnosis of leukemia, and (3) non-T cell depleted GVHD prophylaxis. Posttransplantation risks of acute GVHD and leukemia relapse were defined in Asian/Pacific Islander, white, African American, Hispanic, and Native American patients that underwent transplantation from donors with the same self-described background. Asian patients had a significantly lower incidence of acute GVHD (Japanese patients: 40.0% grades II to IV and 15.3% grades III to IV; non-Japanese Asian patients: 42.1% grades II to IV and 15.7% grades III to IV) compared with white patients (56.5% grades II to IV and 22.6% grades III to IV) (P < .001). The hazard ratio of acute GVHD for white patients was significantly higher than for Japanese patients. Unexpectedly, the hazard ratio of leukemia relapse in white patients with early disease status was also significantly higher than that in Japanese patients. These results provide a platform for future investigation into the genetic factors for unrelated donor HCT and clinical implications of diverse ethnic background.
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Birth order and transplantation outcome in HLA-identical sibling stem cell transplantation: an analysis on behalf of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the most effective treatment option for many hematologic malignancies, but graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of treatment failure. Along with well-established risk factors for transplantation outcomes, recent single-center studies have identified a birth order effect in HLA-identical sibling SCT, with lower rates of acute and chronic GVHD and improved overall survival when the donor is younger than the recipient. One hypothesized mechanism for this effect is microchimerism due to fetomaternal and transmaternal sibling cell trafficking during pregnancy as the donor is exposed to recipient antigens in utero. The aim of the present study was to validate previously reported single-center data in a large, multicenter cohort provided by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All adult and pediatric patients (n = 11,365) with a hematologic malignancy who underwent allogeneic SCT with a graft from an HLA-identical sibling donor between 1990 and 2007 were included. When donors were younger than recipients, there was a significantly lower rate of acute GVHD grade II-IV and chronic GVHD in children, as well as a lower rate of chronic GVHD in adolescents. However, the hypothesized overall positive effect of lower relapse and better survival when donors are younger than recipients was not observed. Our data suggest that if otherwise equally matched, a graft from a younger sibling may be superior to a graft from an older sibling for children and adolescents undergoing SCT.
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Mapping MHC haplotype effects in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Life-threatening risks associated with HLA-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation limit its general application for the treatment of blood diseases. The increased risks might be explained by undetected genetic variation within the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We retrospectively assessed each of 1108 MHC region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2628 patients and their HLA-mismatched unrelated donors to determine whether SNPs are associated with the risk of mortality, disease-free survival, transplant-related mortality, relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Multivariate analysis adjusted for HLA mismatching and nongenetic variables associated with each clinical end point. Twelve SNPs were identified as transplantation determinants. SNP-associated risks were conferred by either patient or donor SNP genotype or by patient-donor SNP mismatching. Risks after transplantation increased with increasing numbers of unfavorable SNPs. SNPs that influenced acute GVHD were independent of those that affected risk of chronic GVHD and relapse. HLA haplotypes differed with respect to haplotype content of (un)favorable SNPs. Outcome after HLA-mismatched unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by MHC region variation that is undetected with conventional HLA typing. Knowledge of the SNP content of HLA haplotypes provides a means to estimate risks prior to transplantation and to lower complications through judicious selection of donors with favorable MHC genetics.
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Awareness and acceptance of public cord blood banking among practicing obstetricians in the United States.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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This study measured: 1) levels of awareness and understanding among practicing obstetricians regarding umbilical cord blood (UCB) donation and the use of UCB in transplant therapy, 2) motivations for obstetricians to support donation and collection for donation to a public cord blood bank (CBB), and 3) current practices for discussing this option with their patients.
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Effect of donor-recipient HLA matching at HLA A, B, C, and DRB1 on outcomes after umbilical-cord blood transplantation for leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: a retrospective analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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The importance of matching at the HLA C locus has not been well defined for unrelated umbilical-cord blood transplantation. The selection algorithm for umbilical-cord blood units generally considers intermediate resolution HLA typing at A and B and allele-level typing at DRB1. We aimed to establish the relative importance of additional matching at HLA C.
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Risk factors associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and with poor overall survival in children with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that affect nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival among children that develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed multivariate analyses using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to identify risk factors for NRM and survival in 1117 pediatric subjects with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, transplanted from related donors, unrelated donors (URD), or unrelated cord blood between 1995 and 2004. We identified 4 variables associated with higher NRM: HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, peripheral blood cell graft, Karnofsky/Lansky score < 80 at cGVHD diagnosis, and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L at cGVHD diagnosis. Factors associated with significantly worse survival were: age > 10 years, transplantation from HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, advanced disease at transplantation, Karnofsky/Lansky < 80; and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L. Cumulative incidence of discontinuation of systemic immune suppression at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis of cGVHD were 22% (20%-25%), 34% (31%-37%), and 37% (34%-40%), respectively. This is the largest study elucidating variables affecting outcome after diagnosis of cGVHD in pediatric allograft recipients. These variables may be useful for risk stratification, development of future clinical trials, and family counseling in children with cGVHD.
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Scoring HLA class I mismatches by HistoCheck does not predict clinical outcome in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Currently, there is no well-accepted rating system for reliably predicting which HLA-mismatched (MM) unrelated donor should be selected for a patient without an HLA allele-matched donor. We evaluated the ability of an MM ranking system, HistoCheck, to predict the risk associated with HLA class I disparity in a population of 744 single allele or antigen HLA-A, -B, or -C MM myeloablative unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients with acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome, facilitated through the National Marrow Donor Program between 1988 and 2003. Multivariate models were used to adjust for other significant clinical risk factors. HLA MMs were scored using the HistoCheck Web-based tool, and the patients were divided into 4 quartiles: dissimilarity score (DSS) 1.04-2.84 (allele MM), DSS >2.84-13.75 (allele and antigen MM), DSS >13.75-19.39 (antigen MM), and DSS >19.39-36.62 (antigen MM). Using the lowest scoring quartile as the reference, the DSS groups were evaluated for associations with relapse, treatment-related mortality, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival in the entire cohort and also in subset analyses by disease and disease stage. No significant associations were found between DSS and any outcomes in the overall cohort using the quartile categories or treating DSS as a continuous variable. Higher DSS scores were associated with decreased engraftment in early-stage disease (P = .0003), but not in other disease stages. In summary, DSS does not correlate with transplantation outcomes, and the HistoCheck scoring system does not provide an effective technique for ranking HLA class I MM. The dataset used in this study is available to evaluate new algorithms proposed for donor selection.
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Chronic GVHD risk score: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Several risk factors are associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but there is considerable variability in the reported factors. Therefore, we evaluated patient, transplantation, and cGVHD characteristics to develop a risk score in 5343 patients with cGVHD. Ten variables were identified as being significant in multivariate analysis of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): age, prior acute GVHD, time from transplantation to cGVHD, donor type, disease status at transplantation, GVHD prophylaxis, gender mismatch, serum bilirubin, Karnofsky score, and platelet count. These 10 variables were used to build a cGVHD risk score, and 6 risk groups (RGs) were identified. The 5-year NRM was 5% (1%-9%) in RG1, 20% (19%-23%) in RG2, 33% (29%-37%) in RG3, 43% (40%-46%) in RG4, 63% (53%-74%) in RG5, and 72% (59%-85%) in RG6. The 5-year overall survival was highest at 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]:85%-97%) in RG1, followed by 67% (65%-69%) in RG2, 51% (46%-55%) in RG3, 40% (37%-43%) in RG4, 21% (12%-30%) in RG5, and 4% (0%-9%) in RG6 (all P < .01). This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of data from a large registry to develop risk-score categories for major transplantation outcomes. Validation of this cGVHD risk score is needed in a different population to ensure its broad applicability.
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Guidelines for the development and validation of new potency assays for the evaluation of umbilical cord blood.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The following commentary was developed by the National Marrow Donor Program Cord Blood Advisory Group and is intended to provide an overview of umbilical cord blood (UCB) processing, summarize the current state of potency assays used to characterize UCB, and define limitations of the assays and future needs of the cord blood banking and transplant community. The UCB banking industry is eager to participate in the development of standardized assays to uniformly characterize cellular therapy products that are manufactured in a variety of ways. This paper describes the desired qualities of these assays and how the industry proposes to co-operate with developers to bring relevant assays to market. To that end, the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) Cord Blood Bank Network is available to serve as a resource for UCB testing material, research and development consulting, and product/assay testing in an accredited UCB manufacturing environment.
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HLA mismatches and hematopoietic cell transplantation: structural simulations assess the impact of changes in peptide binding specificity on transplant outcome.
Immunome Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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The success of hematopoietic cell transplantation from an unrelated donor depends in part on the degree of Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matching between donor and patient. We present a structure-based analysis of HLA mismatching, focusing on individual amino acid mismatches and their effect on peptide binding specificity. Using molecular modeling simulations of HLA-peptide interactions, we find evidence that amino acid mismatches predicted to perturb peptide binding specificity are associated with higher risk of mortality in a large and diverse dataset of patient-donor pairs assembled by the International Histocompatibility Working Group in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation consortium. This analysis may represent a first step toward sequence-based prediction of relative risk for HLA allele mismatches.
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The outcomes of family haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in hematologic malignancies are not associated with patient age.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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Haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been used to treat hematologic malignancies, but it is unknown whether the procedure is more effective in adults or children. To address this question, we analyzed patients aged 1 to 65 years old receiving myeloablative conditioning regimens followed by family 2 to 3 antigen HLA-mismatched HCT and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR; n = 137) or performed in Dao-Pei Hospital in China, China (n = 181). The Dao-Pei cohort had more acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), less relapse, lower transplant-related mortality (TRM), and better leukemia-free survival (LFS) than the CIBMTR cohort. Overall survival (OS) and outcomes were similar between adults and children. In the CIBMTR cohort receiving ex vivo T cell depletion (TCD), adults had higher TRM (relative risk [RR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-5.69, P = .008) and lower OS (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08-2.84, P = .023) than children. In the CIBMTR subset that did not receive ex vivo TCD, relapse was lower in adults compared to children (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.80, P = .020), but TRM, LFS, and OS were similar. We conclude that outcomes in adults and children are similar overall, although children have better survival than adults if ex vivo TCD is used.
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Outcomes of pediatric bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and myelodysplasia using matched sibling, mismatched related, or matched unrelated donors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Although some trials have allowed matched or single human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched related donors (mmRDs) along with HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs) for pediatric bone marrow transplantation in early-stage hematologic malignancies, whether mmRD grafts lead to similar outcomes is not known. We compared patients < 18 years old reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic T-replete, myeloablative bone marrow transplantation between 1993 and 2006. In total, patients receiving bone marrow from 1208 MSDs, 266 8/8 allelic-matched unrelated donors (URDs), and 151 0-1 HLA-antigen mmRDs were studied. Multivariate analysis showed that recipients of MSD transplants had less transplantation-related mortality, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and chronic GVHD, along with better disease-free and overall survival than the URD and mmRD groups. No differences were observed in transplant-related mortality, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival between the mmRD and URD groups. These data show that mmRD and 8/8 URD outcomes are similar, whereas MSD outcomes are superior to the other 2 sources. Whether allele level typing could identify mmRD recipients with better outcomes will not be known unless centers alter practice and type mmRD at the allele level.
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HLA-C antigen mismatch is associated with worse outcome in unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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The association between HLA matching and outcome in unrelated-donor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation has not yet been established. In the present study, a total of 1933 unrelated donor-recipient pairs who underwent PBSC transplantation between 1999 and 2006 for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or chronic myelogenous leukemia and received high-resolution HLA typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 were included in the analysis. Outcomes were compared between HLA-matched and HLA-mismatched pairs, adjusting for patient and transplant characteristics. Matching for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 alleles (8/8 match) was associated with better survival at 1 year compared with 7/8 HLA-matched pairs (56% vs 47%). Using 8/8 HLA-matched patients as the baseline (n = 1243), HLA-C antigen mismatches (n = 189) were statistically significantly associated with lower leukemia-free survival (relative risk [RR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.64; P = .0010), and increased risk for mortality (RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70; P = .0005), treatment-related mortality (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.25-2.08; P = .0002), and grade III-IV graft-versus-host disease (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.50-2.62; P < .0001). HLA-B antigen or allele mismatching was associated with an increased risk for acute GVHD grade III-IV. No statistically significant differences in outcome were observed for HLA-C allele (n = 61), HLA-A antigen/allele (n = 136), HLA-DRB1 allele (n = 39), or HLA-DQ antigen/allele (n = 114) mismatches compared with 8/8 HLA-matched pairs. HLA mismatch was not associated with relapse or chronic GVHD. HLA-C antigen-mismatched unrelated PBSC donors were associated with worse outcomes compared with 8/8 HLA-matched donors. The studys limited power due to small sample size precludes conclusions about other mismatches.
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Donor selection for natural killer cell receptor genes leads to superior survival after unrelated transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes form a diverse, immunogenetic system. Group A and B KIR haplotypes have distinctive centromeric (Cen) and telomeric (Tel) gene-content motifs. Aiming to develop a donor selection strategy to improve transplant outcome, we compared the contribution of these motifs to the clinical benefit conferred by B haplotype donors. We KIR genotyped donors from 1409 unrelated transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML; n = 1086) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 323). Donor KIR genotype influenced transplantation outcome for AML but not ALL. Compared with A haplotype motifs, centromeric and telomeric B motifs both contributed to relapse protection and improved survival, but Cen-B homozygosity had the strongest independent effect. With Cen-B/B homozygous donors the cumulative incidence of relapse was 15.4% compared with 36.5% for Cen-A/A donors (relative risk of relapse 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.57; P < .001). Overall, significantly reduced relapse was achieved with donors having 2 or more B gene-content motifs (relative risk 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.86; P = .003) for both HLA-matched and mismatched transplants. KIR genotyping of several best HLA-matched potential unrelated donors should substantially increase the frequency of transplants by using grafts with favorable KIR gene content. Adopting this practice could result in superior disease-free survival for patients with AML.
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One-antigen mismatched related versus HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adults with acute leukemia: Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research results in the era of molecular HLA typing.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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Approximately 13% of patients lacking an HLA-identical sibling have a one-antigen-mismatched related donor (MMRD). Historically, outcomes from the use of a one-antigen MMRD were considered equivalent to those from the use of a matched unrelated donor (UD). Recent improvements in UD stem cell transplantation (SCT) resulting from better molecular HLA matching justifies investigating whether UD should be preferred over MMRD in adult patients with acute leukemia. Here, we compared the outcomes of MMRD (n = 89) and HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 allele-matched UD (n = 700) SCT reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1995 and 2005. The patients underwent transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first or second complete remission. Donor type was not associated with hematologic recovery. Univariate and multivariate comparisons of MMRD versus HLA-matched UD transplants showed no statistically significant differences in overall survival, disease-free survival, treatment-related mortality, relapse, or 100-day grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). MMRD SCT was associated with a lower rate of chronic GVHD at 1 year (35% vs 47%; P = .03), which was confirmed by multivariate analysis (relative risk, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.85; P < .01). According to our data, HLA-matched UD and MMRD SCT are associated with comparable survival. Given that less chronic GVHD was observed in the MMRD transplantations, this option, when available, remains the first choice in patients with acute leukemia without an HLA-identical sibling in need of allogeneic SCT.
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Decreased infections in recipients of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation from donors with an activating KIR genotype.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Infectious complications following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from unrelated donors (URD) result in significant morbidity. We hypothesized that recipients of a URD with an activating natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) (B/x) genotype would have decreased infectious complications because of enhanced natural killer (NK) cell function. We compared the infectious complications in 116 recipients of a graft from a donor with an A/A KIR (n = 44) genotype and a B/x KIR (n = 72) genotype. All recipients participated in the prospective National Marrow Donor Program infection project collecting infection data from conditioning until 6 months posttransplant. The cohort with a B/x donor had fewer initial bacterial infections by day 180 (A/A: 86%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 75-95; B/x: 68%; 95% CI, 57-78; P = .02). There was no difference in the incidence of viral or fungal infections. When accounting for multiple infections, fewer bacterial infections were seen in the B/x cohort (A/A: 3.55/patient; B/x: 2.63/patient; P = .09). During the study period, only 19 patients had no infections; of these, 15 had received cells from a B/x KIR donor. The role of donor KIR genotype on infection complications is intriguing and warrants further investigation.
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Insufficient evidence for association of NOD2/CARD15 or other inflammatory bowel disease-associated markers on GVHD incidence or other adverse outcomes in T-replete, unrelated donor transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Previous European studies suggest NOD2/CARD15 and interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R) donor or recipient variants are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We reexamined these findings as well as the role of another inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility gene (immunity-related GTPase family, M [IRGM]) on transplantation outcomes in 390 US patients and their matched unrelated donors, accrued between 1995 and 2004. Patients received T-replete grafts with mostly myeloablative conditioning regimens. Multivariate analyses were performed for overall survival, disease-free survival, transplantation-related mortality, relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Of 390 pairs, NOD2/CARD15 variant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in 14% of donors and 17% of recipients. In 3% both donor and recipient had a mutant SNP. Thirteen percent of donors and 16% of recipients had variant IL23R SNPs, with 3% having both donor and recipient variants. Twenty-three percent of both donors and recipients had variant IRGM SNPs. None of the 3 IBD-associated alleles showed a statistically significant association with any adverse clinical outcomes. Our results do not support an association between the 3 IBD-associated SNPs and adverse outcomes after matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantations in US patients.
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Donor activating KIR3DS1 is associated with decreased acute GVHD in unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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The natural killer cell receptor KIR3DS1 is associated with improved outcome in malignancies, infections, and autoimmune diseases, but data for the impact of KIR3DS1 in HSCT are inconsistent. Using genomic DNA from the National Marrow Donor Program, we performed donor KIR genotyping for 1087 patients who received an unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 33% of donors were KIR3DS1(+). Compared with KIR3DS1(-) donors, donor KIR3DS1 was associated with lower-grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; odds ratio = 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.92; P = .009), but not with relapse (hazard ratio = 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.29; P = .82). Furthermore, grade II-IV acute GVHD, overall mortality, and transplantation-related mortality all decreased as the number of copies of donor KIR3DS1 increased (P = .007, P = .03, and P = .02, respectively), with the lowest failure rate occurring among patients homozygous for donor KIR3DS1. Selection of donors with KIR3DS1 may decrease acute GVHD without compromising relapse-free survival, separating the graft-versus-tumor effect from unwanted GVHD.
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The detection of donor-directed, HLA-specific alloantibodies in recipients of unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation is predictive of graft failure.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Donor-directed human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-specific allo-antibodies (DSAs) cause graft failure in animal models of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Archived pretransplantation sera from graft failure patients (n = 37) and a matched case-control cohort (n = 78) were tested to evaluate the role of DSAs in unrelated donor HCT. Controls were matched for disease, disease status, graft type, patient age, and transplantation year. Patients had acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome; 98% received myeloablative conditioning regimens 100% received T-replete grafts, 97% received marrow, 95% HLA-mismatched, and 97% received calcineurin-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Among the 37 failed transplantations, 9 (24%) recipients possessed DSAs against HLA-A, B, and/or DP, compared with only 1 (1%) of 78 controls. Therefore, the presence of DSAs was significantly associated with graft failure (odds ratio = 22.84; 95% confidence interval, 3.57-infinity; P < .001). These results indicate that the presence of pretransplantation DSAs in recipients of unrelated donor HCT is associated with failed engraftment and should be considered in HCT donor selection.
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Donor and recipient chemokine receptor CCR5 genotype is associated with survival after bone marrow transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Despite continual improvement, morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remain high. The importance of chemokines in HSCT lies in their regulation of immune responses that determine transplantation outcomes. We investigated the role of recipient and donor chemokine system gene polymorphisms by using a candidate gene approach on the incidence of graft-versus-host disease and posttransplantation outcomes in 1370 extensively human leukocyte antigen-matched, unrelated donor-recipient pairs by using multivariate Cox regression models. Our analysis identified that recipients homozygous for a common CCR5 haplotype (H1/H1) had better disease-free survival (DFS; P = .005) and overall survival (P = .021). When the same genotype of both the donor and recipient were considered in the models, a highly significant association with DFS and overall survival was noted (P < .001 and P = .007, respectively) with absolute differences in survival of up to 20% seen between the groups at 3 years after transplantation (50% DFS for pairs with recipient CCR5 H1/H1 vs 30% for pairs with donor CCR5 H1/H1). This finding suggests that donor and/or recipient CCR5 genotypes may be associated with HSCT outcome and suggests new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for optimizing therapy.
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Race and socioeconomic status influence outcomes of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Success of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can vary by race, but the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) is not known. To evaluate the role of race and SES, we studied 6207 unrelated-donor myeloablative (MA) HCT recipients transplanted between 1995 and 2004 for acute or chronic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients were reported by transplant center to be White (n = 5253), African American (n = 368), Asian/Pacific-Islander (n = 141), or Hispanic (n = 445). Patient income was estimated from residential zip code at time of HCT. Cox regression analysis adjusting for other significant factors showed that African American (but not Asian or Hispanic) recipients had worse overall survival (OS) (relative-risk [RR] 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.68, P < .001) compared to Whites. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was higher in African Americans (RR 1.56; 95% CI 1.34-1.83, P < .001) and in Hispanics (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.11-1.51, P = .001). Across all racial groups, patients with median incomes in the lowest quartile (<$34,700) had worse OS (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.26, P = .005) and higher risks of TRM (RR 1.21; 1.07-1.36, P = .002). Inferior outcomes among African Americans are not fully explained by transplant-related factors or SES. Potential other mechanisms such as genetic polymorphisms that have an impact on drug metabolism or unmeasured comorbidities, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviors may be important. Low SES, regardless of race, has a negative impact on unrelated donor HCT outcomes.
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The graft-versus-leukemia effect using matched unrelated donors is not superior to HLA-identical siblings for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Do some patients benefit from an unrelated donor (URD) transplant because of a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect? We analyzed 4099 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) undergoing a myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from an URD (8/8 human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-matched, n=941) or HLA-identical sibling donor (n=3158) between 1995 and 2004 reported to the CIBMTR. In the Cox regression model, acute and chronic GVHD were added as time-dependent variables. In multivariate analysis, URD transplant recipients had a higher risk for transplantation-related mortality (TRM; relative risk [RR], 2.76; P< .001) and relapse (RR, 1.50; P< .002) in patients with AML, but not ALL or CML. Chronic GVHD was associated with a lower relapse risk in all diagnoses. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was decreased in patients with AML without acute GVHD receiving a URD transplant (RR, 2.02; P< .001) but was comparable to those receiving HLA-identical sibling transplants in patients with ALL and CML. In patients without GVHD, multivariate analysis showed similar risk of relapse but decreased LFS for URD transplants for all 3 diagnoses. In conclusion, risk of relapse was the same (ALL, CML) or worse (AML) in URD transplant recipients compared with HLA-identical sibling transplant recipients, suggesting a similar GVL effect.
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The effect of the composition of unrelated donor bone marrow and peripheral blood progenitor cell grafts on transplantation outcomes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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To test the hypothesis that the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) grafts is at least partially determined by the cellular composition of the graft, the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) analyzed the correlation of cellular phenotypes of unrelated grafts with graft outcome. Samples from 94 bone marrow (BM) and 181 peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) grafts for transplantations at 40 U.S. transplant centers between 2003 and 2005 were analyzed at a single immunophenotyping reference laboratory. Samples were shipped from transplant centers upon receipt of graft. Graft cellular composition included analysis of leukocyte total cell numbers, and subsets of myeloid [CD34(+), CD34(+) CD38(-)], lymphoid [CD3(+), CD3(+) CD4(+), CD3(+) CD8(+)], and activated lymphoid cells [CD3(+) CD25(+), CD3(+) CD69(+), CD3(+) HLA-DR(+)] coexpressing CD3(+). There was substantial variability in the cellular composition of BM and PBPC grafts before and after graft processing by red blood cell (RBC) removal or plasma depletion in preparation for transplant. With BM grafts, cellular composition was not associated with hematopoietic recovery, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or survival. With PBPC grafts, survival rates were higher with CD34(+)>5 x 10(6)/kg, 59% compared to 34% with CD34(+)< or =5 x 10(6)/kg at 1 year. Platelet recovery was higher with PBPC containing CD3(+) CD8(+) >8 x 10(7)/kg. Neutrophil recovery or GVHD could not be predicted by any cellular subsets of PBPC grafts. Although survival was superior with PBPC grafts containing >5 x 10(6) CD34(+)/kg, an optimal graft mix of myeloid, lymphoid, and activated lymphoid subsets was not identified.
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Sibling versus unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: refined HLA matching reveals more graft-versus-host disease but not less relapse.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can eradicate chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It has been postulated that greater donor-recipient histoincompatibility can augment the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. We previously reported similar, but not equivalent, outcomes of URD versus sibling donor HCT for CML using an older, less precise classification of HLA matching. Here, we used our recently refined HLA-matching classification, which is suitable for interpretation when complete allele-level typing is unavailable, to reanalyze outcomes of previous HCT for CML. We found that using our new matching criteria identifies substantially more frequent mismatching than older, less precise "6 of 6 antigen-matched" URD-HCT. Under the new criteria, only 37% of those previously deemed "HLA- matched" were HLA well matched, and 44% were partially matched. Using our refined matching criteria confirms the greater risk of graft failure in partially matched or mismatched URD-recipient pairs compared with either sibling or well-matched URD-recipient pairs. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) are significantly more frequent with all levels of recategorized URD HLA matching. Importantly, overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) remain significantly worse after URD-HCT at any matching level. No augmented GVL effect accompanied URD HLA mismatch. Compared with sibling donor transplants, we observed only marginally increased (not statistically significant) risks of relapse in well-matched, partially matched, and mismatched URD-HCT. These data confirm the applicability of revised HLA-matching scheme in analyzing retrospective data sets when fully informative, allele-level typing is unavailable. In this analysis, greater histoincompatibility can augment GVHD, but does not improve protection against relapse; thus the best donor remains the most closely matched donor.
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Prior rituximab correlates with less acute graft-versus-host disease and better survival in B-cell lymphoma patients who received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Prior therapy with rituximab might attenuate disparate histocompatibility antigen presentation by B cells, thus decreased the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and improved survival. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the outcomes of 435 B-cell lymphoma patients who received allogeneic transplantation from 1999 to 2004 in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database: 179 subjects who received rituximab within 6 months prior to transplantation (RTX cohort) and 256 subjects who did not receive RTX within 6 months prior to transplantation (No-RTX cohort). The RTX cohort had a significantly lower incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) [relative risk (RR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-1.0; P = 0.05], lower acute grade II-IV (RR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.97; P = 0.03) and III-IV GVHD (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.91; P = 0.02). There was no difference in the risk of chronic GVHD, disease progression or relapse. Progression-free survival (PFS) (RR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.50-0.92; P = 0.01) and overall survival (OS) (RR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.86; P = 0.004) were significantly better in the RTX cohort. Prior RTX therapy correlated with less acute GVHD, similar chronic GVHD, less TRM, better PFS and OS.
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HLA-identical sibling compared with 8/8 matched and mismatched unrelated donor bone marrow transplant for chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells from an unrelated donor (URD) is an option for many patients who do not have an HLA-identical sibling donor (MSD). Current criteria for the selection of URDs include consideration for HLA alleles determined by high resolution typing methods, with preference for allele-matched donors. However, the utility and outcome associated with transplants from URDs compared with those from MSDs remains undefined.
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HLA-A disparities illustrate challenges for ranking the impact of HLA mismatches on bone marrow transplant outcomes in the United States.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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HLA disparity between hematopoietic stem cell donors and recipients is one of the most important factors influencing transplant outcomes, but there are no well-accepted guidelines to aid in selecting the optimal donor among several HLA mismatched donors. In this report, HLA-A is used as a model to illustrate factors that are barriers to delineating the relationship between specific HLA mismatches and transplant outcomes in the United States. Patients in this investigation received transplants for hematologic malignancies that were facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1990 and 2002 (n = 4226). High-resolution HLA typing was performed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPA1, and -DPB1. HLA-A mismatches were observed in 745 donor-recipient pairs and 62% of these pairs also had disparities at HLA-B, -C, and/or -DRB1. The HLA-A mismatches involved 190 different combinations of HLA-A alleles and 51% of these were observed in only 1 pair. Addition of a single HLA-A disparity when HLA-B, -C, and -DRB1 were matched (n = 282) was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32, confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.63). When HLA-B, -C, and -DRB1 were matched, the most frequent HLA-A mismatches were HLA-A*0201:0205 (n = 28), HLA-A *0301:0302 (n = 15), HLA-A *0201:0206 (n = 15), HLA-A *0201:6801 (n = 12), HLA-A*0101:1101 (n = 11), and HLA-A*0101:0201 (n = 10). There were no statistically significant relationships between any of these disparities and transplant outcomes (engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease [aGVHD, cGVHD] relapse, treatment-related mortality [TRM], or overall survival [OS]) when adjustments for multiple comparisons were considered. Achieving 80% power to detect an effect of any 1 of these 6 HLA-A disparities on survival is estimated to require a total transplant population of 11,000 to more than 1 million U.S. donor-recipient pairs depending upon the HLA disparity. Thus, alternative approaches are required to develop a clinically relevant ranking system for specific HLA disparities in the United States.
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Allele-level haplotype frequencies and pairwise linkage disequilibrium for 14 KIR loci in 506 European-American individuals.
PLoS ONE
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The immune responses of natural killer cells are regulated, in part, by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The 16 closely-related genes in the KIR gene system have been diversified by gene duplication and unequal crossing over, thereby generating haplotypes with variation in gene copy number. Allelic variation also contributes to diversity within the complex. In this study, we estimated allele-level haplotype frequencies and pairwise linkage disequilibrium statistics for 14 KIR loci. The typing utilized multiple methodologies by four laboratories to provide at least 2x coverage for each allele. The computational methods generated maximum-likelihood estimates of allele-level haplotypes. Our results indicate the most extensive allele diversity was observed for the KIR framework genes and for the genes localized to the telomeric region of the KIR A haplotype. Particular alleles of the stimulatory loci appear to be nearly fixed on specific, common haplotypes while many of the less frequent alleles of the inhibitory loci appeared on multiple haplotypes, some with common haplotype structures. Haplotype structures cA01 and/or tA01 predominate in this cohort, as has been observed in most populations worldwide. Linkage disequilibrium is high within the centromeric and telomeric haplotype regions but not between them and is particularly strong between centromeric gene pairs KIR2DL5?KIR2DS3S5 and KIR2DS3S5?KIR2DL1, and telomeric KIR3DL1?KIR2DS4. Although 93% of the individuals have unique pairs of full-length allelic haplotypes, large genomic blocks sharing specific sets of alleles are seen in the most frequent haplotypes. These high-resolution, high-quality haplotypes extend our basic knowledge of the KIR gene system and may be used to support clinical studies beyond single gene analysis.
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation with cord blood for cure of HIV infections.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using CCR5-?32/?32 stem cells from an adult donor has resulted in the only known cure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, it is not feasible to repeat this procedure except rarely because of the low incidence of the CCR5-?32 allele, the availability of only a small number of potential donors for most patients, and the need for a very close human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match between adult donors and recipients. In contrast, cord blood (CB) transplantations require significantly less stringent HLA matching. Therefore, our hypothesis is that cure of HIV infections by HCT can be accomplished much more readily using umbilical CB stem cells obtained from a modestly sized inventory of cryopreserved CCR5-?32/?32 CB units. To test this hypothesis, we developed a screening program for CB units and are developing an inventory of CCR5-?32/?32 cryopreserved units available for HCT. Three hundred such units are projected to provide for white pediatric patients a 73.6% probability of finding an adequately HLA matched unit with a cell dose of ?2.5 × 10(7) total nucleated cells (TNCs)/kg and a 27.9% probability for white adults. With a cell dose of ?1 × 10(7) TNCs/kg, the corresponding projected probabilities are 85.6% and 82.1%. The projected probabilities are lower for ethnic minorities. Impetus for using CB HCT was provided by a transplantation of an adult with acute myelogenous leukemia who was not HIV infected. The HCT was performed with a CCR5-?32/?32 CB unit, and posttransplantation in vitro studies indicated that the patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells were resistant to HIV infection.
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HLA-C-dependent prevention of leukemia relapse by donor activating KIR2DS1.
N. Engl. J. Med.
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Of the cancers treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is most sensitive to natural killer (NK)-cell reactivity. The activating killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) 2DS1 has ligand specificity for HLA-C2 antigens and activates NK cells in an HLA-dependent manner. Donor-derived NK reactivity controlled by KIR2DS1 and HLA could have beneficial effects in patients with AML who undergo allogeneic HSCT.
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MHC-resident variation affects risks after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Sci Transl Med
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Blood malignancies can be cured with hematopoietic cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donors; however, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) affects up to 80% of patients and contributes to increased mortality. To test the hypothesis that undetected patient-donor differences for non-HLA genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) could confer risks after HLA-matched transplantation, we conducted a discovery-validation study of 4205 transplants for 1120 MHC region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two SNPs were identified as markers for disease-free survival and acute GVHD. Among patients with two or more HLA-matched unrelated donors identified on their search, SNP genotyping of patients and their potential donors demonstrated that most patients have a choice of SNP-matched donors. In conclusion, the success of HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation depends on non-HLA MHC region genetic variation. Prospective SNP screening and matching provides an approach for lowering risks to patients.
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Evaluation of HLA matching in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for nonmalignant disorders.
Blood
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The importance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching in unrelated donor transplantation for nonmalignant diseases (NMD) has yet to be defined. We analyzed data from 663 unrelated marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplants performed from 1995 to 2007 for treatment of NMD. Transplantation from a donor mismatched at the HLA-A, -B, -C, or -DRB1, but not -DQB1 or -DPB1, loci was associated with higher mortality in multivariate analyses (P = .002). The hazard ratio for mortality for single (7/8) and double mismatched (6/8) transplants was 1.29 (0.97-1.72; P = .079) and 1.82 (1.30-2.55; P = .0004), respectively, compared with 8/8 matched transplants. HLA mismatches were not associated with acute or chronic GVHD, but were strongly associated with graft failure. After adjustment for other factors, the odds ratio for graft failure for 7/8 and 6/8 (allele and/or antigen) matched pairs compared with 8/8 matched transplants was 2.81 (1.74-4.54; P < .0001) and 2.22 (1.26-3.97; P = .006), respectively. Patients with NMD should receive transplants from allele matched (8/8) donors if possible. Unlike the case with malignancies, HLA mismatching in NMD is associated with graft failure rather than GVHD.
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Effect of HLA-matching recipients to donor noninherited maternal antigens on outcomes after mismatched umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancy.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Transplantation-related mortality (TRM) is high after HLA-mismatched umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation (UCBT). In utero, exposure to noninherited maternal antigen (NIMA) is recognized by the fetus, which induces T regulator cells to that haplotype. It is plausible that UCBTs in which recipients are matched to donor NIMAs may alleviate some of the excess mortality associated with this treatment. To explore this concept, we used marginal matched-pair Cox regression analysis to compare outcomes in 48 NIMA-matched UCBTs (ie, the NIMA of the donor UCB unit matched to the patient) and in 116 non-NIMA-matched UCBTs. All patients had a hematologic malignancy and received a single UCB unit. Cases and controls were matched on age, disease, disease status, transplantation-conditioning regimen, HLA match, and infused cell dose. TRM was lower after NIMA-matched UCBTs compared with NIMA-mismatched UCBTs (relative risk, 0.48; P = .05; 18% versus 32% at 5 years posttransplantation). Consequently, overall survival was higher after NIMA-matched UCBT. The 5-year probability of overall survival was 55% after NIMA-matched UCBTs versus 38% after NIMA-mismatched UCBTs (P = .04). When faced with the choice of multiple HLA-mismatched UCB units containing adequate cell doses, selecting an NIMA-matched UCB unit may improve survival after mismatched UCBT.
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A perspective on the selection of unrelated donors and cord blood units for transplantation.
Blood
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Selection of a suitable graft for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation involves consideration of both donor and recipient characteristics. Of primary importance is sufficient donor-recipient HLA matching to ensure engraftment and acceptable rates of GVHD. In this Perspective, the National Marrow Donor Program and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research provide guidelines, based on large studies correlating graft characteristics with clinical transplantation outcomes, on appropriate typing strategies and matching criteria for unrelated adult donor and cord blood graft selection.
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A combined DPA1~DPB1 amino acid epitope is the primary unit of selection on the HLA-DP heterodimer.
Immunogenetics
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Here, we present results for DPA1 and DPB1 four-digit allele-level typing in a large (n = 5,944) sample of unrelated European American stem cell donors previously characterized for other class I and class II loci. Examination of genetic data for both chains of the DP heterodimer in the largest cohort to date, at the amino acid epitope, allele, genotype, and haplotype level, allows new insights into the functional units of selection and association for the DP heterodimer. The data in this study suggest that for the DPA1-DPB1 heterodimer, the unit of selection is the combined amino acid epitope contributed by both the DPA1 and DPB1 genes, rather than the allele, and that patterns of LD are driven primarily by dimer stability and conformation of the P1 pocket. This may help explain the differential pattern of allele frequency distribution observed for this locus relative to the other class II loci. These findings further support the notion that allele-level associations in disease and transplantation may not be the most important unit of analysis, and that they should be considered instead in the molecular context.
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HLA DR15 antigen status does not impact graft-versus-host disease or survival in HLA-matched sibling transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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The HLA class II DRB1 antigen DR15 is an important prognostic marker in immune-mediated marrow failure states. DR15 has also been associated with favorable outcomes (reduced acute graft-versus-host disease [aGVHD] and relapse) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. To elucidate the impact of DR15 on transplantation outcomes, we conducted a retrospective study of 2891 recipients of first allogeneic stem cell transplant from HLA-matched sibling donors for the treatment of acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) between 1990 and 2007. All patients received conventional myeloablative conditioning, T-replete grafts, and cyclosporine plus methotrexate-based GVHD prophylaxis. DNA-based HLA typing allowed categorization of 732 patients (25.3%) as positive and 2159 patients (74.7%) as negative for DRB1*15:01 or *15:02 (DR15). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the HLA DR15 positive and negative groups. In univariate analysis, HLA-DR15 status had no impact on neutrophil engraftment, aGVHD, chronic GVHD (cGVHD), treatment-related mortality, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, DR15 status showed no significant difference in aGVHD, cGVHD, OS, or relapse. In conclusion, DR15 status had no impact on major HLA-matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplant outcomes in this large and homogenous cohort of patients with leukemia and MDS.
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Unrelated donor cord blood transplantation for children with severe sickle cell disease: results of one cohort from the phase II study from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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The Sickle Cell Unrelated Donor Transplant Trial (SCURT trial) of the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) is a phase II study of the toxicity and efficacy of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. Here we report the results for the cord blood cohort of this trial. Eight children with severe SCD underwent unrelated donor cord blood transplantation (CBT) following alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Cyclosporine or tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were administered for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Donor/recipient HLA match status was 6 of 6 (n = 1) or 5 of 6 (n = 7), based on low/intermediate-resolution molecular typing at HLA -A, -B, and high-resolution typing at -DRB1. Median recipient age was 13.7 years (range: 7.4-16.2 years), and median weight was 35.0 kg (range: 25.2-90.2 kg). The median pre-cryopreservation total nucleated cell dose was 6.4 × 10(7) /kg (range: 3.1-7.6), and the median postthaw infused CD34 cell dose was 1.5 × 10(5) /kg (range: 0.2-2.3). All patients achieved neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count >500/mm(3)) by day 33 (median: 22 days). Three patients who engrafted had 100% donor cells by day 100, which was sustained, and 5 patients had autologous hematopoietic recovery. Six of 8 patients had a platelet recovery to >50,000/mm(3) by day 100. Two patients developed grade II acute GVHD. Of these, 1 developed extensive chronic GVHD and died of respiratory failure 14 months posttransplantation. With a median follow-up of 1.8 years (range: 1-2.6), 7 patients are alive with a 1-year survival of 100%, and 3 of 8 are alive without graft failure or disease recurrence. Based upon the high incidence of graft rejection after unrelated donor CBT, enrollment onto the cord blood arm of the SCURT trial was suspended. However, because this reduced-intensity regimen has demonstrated a favorable safety profile, this trial remains open to enrollment for unrelated marrow donor transplants. Novel approaches aimed at improving engraftment will be needed before unrelated CBT can be widely adopted for transplanting patients with severe SCD.
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Effect of T-cell-epitope matching at HLA-DPB1 in recipients of unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation: a retrospective study.
Lancet Oncol.
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The risks after unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation with matched HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 alleles between donor and recipient (10/10 matched) can be decreased by selection of unrelated donors who also match for HLA-DPB1; however, such donors are difficult to find. Classification of HLA-DPB1 mismatches based on T-cell-epitope groups could identify mismatches that might be tolerated (permissive) and those that would increase risks (non-permissive) after transplantation. We did a retrospective study to compare outcomes between permissive and non-permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation.
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Analysis of non-HLA genomic risk factors in HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is the main curative therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who do not respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It has been proposed that non-human leukocyte antigen gene polymorphisms influence outcome after hematopoietic cell transplantation and could be used alongside traditional patient-donor and transplant characteristics to create a recipient risk profile associated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
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