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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A single nucleotide polymorphism of bone morphogenic protein-15 is not associated with ovarian reserve or response to ovarian stimulation.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Is there any effect of the -9C>G variant in the bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15) gene on ovarian response and/or current markers of ovarian reserve in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment?
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Mortality following acute pancreatitis: social deprivation, hospital size and time of admission: record linkage study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Very little is known about whether mortality following acute pancreatitis may be influenced by the following five factors: social deprivation, week day of admission, recruitment of junior doctors in August each year, European Working Time Directives (EWTDs) for junior doctors' working hours and hospital size. The aim of this study was to establish how mortality following acute pancreatitis may be influenced by these five factors in a large cohort study.
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Common variants modify the age of onset for basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by multiple early-onset basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and jaw keratocysts. Through association studies in cohorts of sporadic BCC, nine genetic variants have previously been identified to increase the risk of BCC. The nine SNPs were genotyped by Taqman allelic discrimination in 125 individuals with Gorlin syndrome. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional-Hazard regression analysis were applied to determine the association between genotypes and age of first BCC in individuals with Gorlin syndrome. The p.(Arg151Cys) variant in MC1R (rs1805007) was associated with an earlier median age of onset of BCC of 27 years (95% CI: 20-34) compared with 34 years (95% CI: 30-40) for wild-type individuals (hazard ratio (HR)=1.64, 95% CI: 1.04-2.58, P=0.034). The risk allele of the variant at the chromosome 5p15 locus encompassing TERT-CLPTM1L (rs401681) was also associated with an earlier median onset of BCC, 31 years (95% CI: 28-37) compared with 41 years (95% CI: 32-48, HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.08-1.93, P=0.014). In individuals with a risk allele at either rs1805007 or rs401681 the median time to BCC was 31 years of age (95% CI: 28-34) compared with 44 years of age (95% CI: 38-53) in wild-type individuals (HR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.47-4.17, P=0.0002). Our findings may have implications for future personalized risk estimates and BCC screening strategies in individuals with Gorlin syndrome.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.167.
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Repeatability of visual function measures in age-related macular degeneration.
Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To assess repeatability of visual function measures in patients with early, intermediate or late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) without active neovascular disease in the study eye, but active neovascular AMD in the fellow eye.
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The effects of age and lifetime flight behavior on flight capacity in Drosophila melanogaster.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The effects of flight behavior on physiology and senescence may be profound in insects because of the extremely high metabolic costs of flight. Flight capacity in insects decreases with age; in contrast, limiting flight behavior extends lifespan and slows the age-related loss of antioxidant capacity and accumulation of oxidative damage in flight muscles. In this study, we tested the effects of age and lifetime flight behavior on flight capacity by measuring wingbeat frequency, the ability to fly in a hypo-dense gas mixture, and metabolic rate in Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, 5-day-old adult flies were separated into three life-long treatments: (1) those not allowed to fly (no flight), (2) those allowed - but not forced - to fly (voluntary flight) and (3) those mechanically stimulated to fly (induced flight). Flight capacity senesced earliest in flies from the no-flight treatment, followed by the induced-flight group and then the voluntary flight group. Wingbeat frequency senesced with age in all treatment groups, but was most apparent in the voluntary- and induced-flight groups. Metabolic rate during agitated flight senesced earliest and most rapidly in the induced flight group, and was low and uniform throughout age in the no-flight group. Early senescence in the induced-flight group was likely due to the acceleration of deleterious aging phenomena such as the rapid accumulation of damage at the cellular level, while the early loss of flight capacity and low metabolic rates in the no-flight group demonstrate that disuse effects can also significantly alter senescence patterns of whole-insect performance.
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Randomised controlled trial. Comparison Of iNfliximab and ciclosporin in STeroid Resistant Ulcerative Colitis: Trial design and protocol (CONSTRUCT).
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Many patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) present with acute exacerbations needing hospital admission. Treatment includes intravenous steroids but up to 40% of patients do not respond and require emergency colectomy. Mortality following emergency colectomy has fallen, but 10% of patients still die within 3 months of surgery. Infliximab and ciclosporin, both immunosuppressive drugs, offer hope for treating steroid-resistant UC as there is evidence of their short-term effectiveness. As there is little long-term evidence, this pragmatic randomised trial, known as Comparison Of iNfliximab and ciclosporin in STeroid Resistant Ulcerative Colitis: a Trial (CONSTRUCT), aims to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of infliximab and ciclosporin for steroid-resistant UC.
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The effects of artificial wing wear on the flight capacity of the honey bee Apis mellifera.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The wings of bees and other insects accumulate permanent wear, which increases the rate of mortality and impacts foraging behavior, presumably due to effects on flight performance. In this study, we investigated how experimental wing wear affects flight performance in honey bees. Variable density gases and high-speed videography were used to determine the maximum hovering flight capacity and wing kinematics of bees from three treatment groups: no wing wear, symmetric and asymmetric wing wear. Wing wear was simulated by clipping the distal-trailing edge of one or both of the wings. Across all bees from treatment groups combined, wingbeat frequency was inversely related to wing area. During hovering in air, bees with symmetric and asymmetric wing wear responded kinematically so as to produce wingtip velocities similar to those bees with no wing wear. However, maximal hovering flight capacity (revealed during flight in hypodense gases) decreased in direct proportion to wing area and inversely to wing asymmetry. Bees with reduced wing area and high asymmetry produced lower maximum wingtip velocity than bees with intact or symmetric wings, which caused a greater impairment in maximal flight capacity. These results demonstrate that the magnitude and type of wing wear affects maximal aerodynamic power production and, likely, the control of hovering flight. Wing wear reduces aerodynamic reserve capacity and, subsequently, the capacity for flight behaviors such as load carriage, maneuverability, and evading predators.
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Measurement of nanomaterials in foods: integrative consideration of challenges and future prospects.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The risks and benefits of nanomaterials in foods and food contact materials receive conflicting international attention across expert stakeholder groups as well as in news media coverage and published research. Current nanomaterial characterization is complicated by the lack of accepted approaches to measure exposure-relevant occurrences of suspected nanomaterials in food and by broad definitions related to food processing and additive materials. Therefore, to improve understanding of risk and benefit, analytical methods are needed to identify what materials, new or traditional, are "nanorelevant" with respect to biological interaction and/or uptake during alimentary tract transit. Challenges to method development in this arena include heterogeneity in nanomaterial composition and morphology, food matrix complexity, alimentary tract diversity, and analytical method limitations. Clear problem formulation is required to overcome these and other challenges and to improve understanding of biological fate in facilitating the assessment of nanomaterial safety or benefit, including sampling strategies relevant to food production/consumption and alimentary tract transit. In this Perspective, we discuss critical knowledge gaps that must be addressed so that measurement methods can better inform risk management and public policy.
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Differential interferences with clinical chemistry assays by gold nanorods, and gold and silica nanospheres.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Abstract Nanomaterials are known to cause interference with several standard toxicological assays. As part of an in vivo study of PEG-coated gold nanorods in mice, nanorods were added to reference serum, and results for standard clinical chemistry parameters were compared with serum analyzed without nanorods. PEG-coated gold nanorods produced several concentration-dependent interferences. Comparisons were then made with PEG-coated gold and silica nanospheres. Interferences were observed for both materials that differed from gold nanorods. Removal of the particles from serum by centrifugation prior to analysis resolved most, but not all of the interferences. Additional clinical chemistry analyzers were used to further investigate trends in assay interference. We conclude that PEG-coated gold and silica nanoparticles can interfere with standard clinical chemistry tests in ways that vary depending upon material, shape, and specific assay methodology employed. Assay interferences by nanomaterials cannot always be predicted, underscoring the need to verify that nanomaterials under study do not interfere with methods used to evaluate potential biological effects.
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Sociodemographic factors predicting mother's cervical screening and daughter's HPV vaccination uptake.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Achieving high human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage may reduce inequalities in cervical cancer prevention by mitigating the inequalities seen in the cervical screening programme. This paper assesses whether the same sociodemographic factors are associated with both cervical screening and HPV vaccination.
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Striking dichotomy in outcome of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma in the contemporary era.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The authors exploited a large database to investigate the outcomes of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in the contemporary era.
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Effect of permissive hypercapnia on background cerebral electrical activity in premature babies.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Permissive hypercapnia is routinely practiced in neonatal intensive care units. The effect of permissive hypercapnia on the preterm brain and brain electrical activity is unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of chronic changes in partial pressure of blood carbon dioxide (PcO2) on brain electrical activity in preterm newborn babies born at or before 32 wk gestation.
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The cost-effectiveness of a pharmacogenetic test: a trial-based evaluation of TPMT genotyping for azathioprine.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Thiopurine-methyl transferase (TPMT) testing prior to the prescription of azathioprine in autoimmune diseases is one of the few examples of a pharmacogenetic test that has made the transition from research into clinical practice. TPMT testing could lead to improved prescribing of azathioprine resulting in a reduction in adverse drug reactions as well as an improvement in effectiveness. When allocating scarce resources robust evidence on cost-effectiveness is required.
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The measurement of anti-Müllerian hormone: a critical appraisal.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Measurement of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is perceived as reliable, but the literature reveals discrepancies in reported within-subject variability and between-method conversion factors. Recent studies suggest that AMH may be prone to preanalytical instability. We therefore examined the published evidence on the performance of current and historic AMH assays in terms of the assessment of sample stability, within-patient variability, and comparability of the assay methods.
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A modelled comparison of prostate cancer control rates after high-dose-rate brachytherapy (3145 multicentre patients) combined with, or in contrast to, external-beam radiotherapy.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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To analyse biochemical relapse-free-survival results for prostate cancer patients receiving combined external beam and high-dose-rate brachytherapy, in comparison with expected results using projections based on dose/fractionation/response parameter values deduced from a previous external-beam-alone 5969-patient multicentre dataset.
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Calcium dependence of eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. However, it is unclear whether a toxic cytosolic Ca2+elevation mediates the fungicidal activity of eugenol. In the present study, no significant difference in yeast survival was observed following transient eugenol treatment in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, using yeast expressing apoaequorin to report cytosolic Ca2+ and a range of eugenol derivatives, antifungal activity did not appear to be coupled to Ca2+ influx or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol toxicity is not dependent on a toxic influx of Ca2+. In contrast, careful control of extracellular Ca2+ (using EGTA or BAPTA) revealed that tolerance of yeast to eugenol depended on Ca2+ influx via Cch1p. These findings expose significant differences between the antifungal activity of eugenol and that of azoles, amiodarone and carvacrol. This study highlights the potential to use eugenol in combination with other antifungal agents that exhibit differing modes of action as antifungal agents to combat drug resistant infections.
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Rounding of birth weights in a neonatal intensive care unit over 20 years: an analysis of a large cohort study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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To determine the frequency of birth weight digit preference for infants admitted to a large neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the scale of rounding and its dependence on birth weight, and time and the impact on prescribing accuracy.
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The Demented Patient Who Declines to Be Dialyzed and the Unhappy Armed Police Officer Son: What Should Be Done?
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Dialysis personnel are responsible for ensuring that patients rights and physical safety are protected in dialysis centers. Treatment of patients with cognitive impairment, including patients with dementia, presents special challenges. These patients may attempt to pull out their dialysis needles during treatment, potentially endangering themselves, dialysis center personnel, and other patients. Such patients may also compromise the care of other patients in the center by upsetting them and requiring a disproportionate amount of staff attention during treatment. Dialysis centers have learned to require families of such patients to provide a sitter to ensure that the patient remains safe during the dialysis treatment; however, some patients may exhibit unsafe behaviors despite a sitter, and not all families are willing to provide a sitter. In some instances, family members respond to the stress of a loved one who is unsafe on dialysis by being verbally or physically abusive to dialysis staff. This article presents a case in which the family member was a police officer who was not only verbally and physically intimidating to the staff but also insisted on bringing his police service weapon into the dialysis center. It describes the psychosocial, ethical, and legal responses to a family member who is disrupting what should be a calm environment in the dialysis center and recommends that dialysis centers proactively develop policies concerning safety for patients, family members, and other visitors that make no exceptions. The case also highlights the importance of adopting a no weapons policy and posting and enforcing a no weapons sign.
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Epidemiology of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in adult renal transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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There is little information in the literature describing the relationship between posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) incidence and presentation with both recipient Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serostatus and EBV status of PTLD histology, particularly in the late posttransplantation period.
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FSH receptor genotype does not predict metaphase-II oocyte output or fertilization rates in ICSI patients.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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The objective of this study was to assess the role of the variant p.Asn680Ser in the FSH receptor gene (FSHR) in determining oocyte maturity. It also assessed the relationship between this FSHR variant with metaphase-II oocyte output rate (MOR) and the fertilization rate. This was a prospective observational study based at a tertiary referral centre for reproductive medicine. Women (n=212) undergoing their first cycle of ovarian stimulation for IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were included in the study. Baseline pelvic ultrasound and blood tests were taken on day 2 or 3 of the cycle for assessment of baseline hormones and for DNA extraction. Genotypes for FSHR p.Asn680Ser was determined using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. The outcome measures were the total dose of exogenous gonadotrophins used, antral follicle count (AFC), number of mature (metaphase-II) oocytes retrieved, MOR and fertilization rate. No statistically significant differences were found between the number of mature oocytes retrieved, MOR or fertilization rates among the patients with different p.Asn680Ser FSHR genotypes. No significant difference was noted in the clinical pregnancy rates per transfer. There is no evidence that the p.Asn680Ser FSHR genotype predicts oocyte maturity.
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Calcium imaging of the cyclic nucleotide response.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a key component of the signalling network by which plant cells respond to developmental and environmental signals. A change in guard cell cytosolic free Ca(2+)([Ca(2+)]cyt) is an early event in the response of stomata to both opening and closing stimuli, and cyclic nucleotide-mediated Ca(2+) signalling has been implicated in the regulation of stomatal aperture. A range of techniques have been used to measure [Ca(2+)]cyt in plant cells. Here we describe a potential method for imaging cyclic nucleotide-induced changes in [Ca(2+)]cyt in guard cells using the cameleon ratiometric Ca(2+) reporter protein.
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How should we assess the safety of IVF technologies?
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Clinical IVF treatment was established over 30years ago through pioneering work by Edwards and Steptoe and other teams around the world and is now considered routine treatment. However, the pace of scientific and technological advances means that IVF practitioners can now access an increasing array of new and invasive technologies. The examples are many but include: extended embryo culture, development of media to include growth factors, developments in genetic screening, use of time-lapse technology and the advent of vitrification of embryos and oocytes. In parallel, wider scientific and medical advances are raising our awareness of the potential impact of assisted reproduction technology on areas such as embryonic development, gene expression and genomic imprinting and the developmental origins of health and disease. A recently suggested paradigm for assessing new technologies in IVF includes development in animal models such as rodents and large animals, preclinical research with human gametes and embryos donated to research, prospective clinical trials in IVF and, finally, follow-up studies of IVF children. In this paper, we describe efforts to address key areas of this pathway, namely preclinical research using human gametes/embryos and long-term, follow-up studies of the health of assisted reproduction children.
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in neuroblastoma patients receiving anti-GD2 3F8 monoclonal antibody.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) comprises clinical and radiologic findings with rapid onset and potentially dire consequences. Patients experience hypertension, seizures, headache, visual disturbance, and/or altered mentation. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals edematous changes in the brain (especially in the parietal and occipital lobes). In this report, the authors describe PRES associated with antidisialoganglioside (anti-GD2 ) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) immunotherapy, which is now standard for high-risk neuroblastoma but has not previously been implicated in PRES.
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The impact of aluminium smelter shut-down on the concentration of fluoride in vegetation and soils.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Although a great deal is known about the deposition of fluoride on vegetation, and the hazards associated with uptake by grazing herbivores, little is known about what happens to the concentration of fluoride in vegetation and soil at polluted sites once deposition ceases. The closure of Anglesey Aluminium Metals Ltd smelter, in September 2009, provided a unique opportunity to study fluoride loading once deposition stopped. Fluoride was monitored in plants and soil within 1 km of the former emission source. Fluoride concentrations in a range of plant material had decreased to background levels of 10 mg F kg(-1) after 36 weeks. Concentrations of fluoride in mineral-rich soils decreased steadily demonstrating their limited potential to act as contaminating sources of fluoride for forage uptake. There were significant differences in the rate of decline of fluoride concentrations between plant species.
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Randomized, controlled trial evaluating a baby wash product on skin barrier function in healthy, term neonates.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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To examine the hypothesis that the use of a wash product formulated for newborn (<1 month of age) bathing is not inferior (no worse) to bathing with water only.
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Derivation of a chronic reference concentration for decalin.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Decalin is found naturally in crude oil and as a product of combustion. It is used commercially as a solvent due to its ability to solubilize oils and fats. Despite its widespread occurrence in consumer products and the environment that lead to inhalation exposures, an inhalation toxicity value is not currently available for decalin. To derive a reference concentration (RfC) for decalin, inhalation toxicity studies were reviewed using a weight-of-evidence approach. A 2-year mouse inhalation study was chosen as the critical study for the derivation of the chronic RfC. Benchmark dose modeling was utilized to derive a point of departure for hepatic necrosis, syncytial alteration, eosinophilic focus, and erythrophagocytosis. A BMDL10 of 44mg/m(3) was modeled for the most sensitive adverse effect, syncytial alteration. A chronic RfC for decalin of 0.08mg/m(3) was calculated by conversion of the BMDL10 to a human equivalent continuous inhalation dose of 7.9mg/m(3) and application of a total uncertainty factor of 100. Future research is needed to better characterize the toxicity associated with the chronic inhalation of decalin and refine the development of toxicity values.
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Using common random numbers in health care cost-effectiveness simulation modeling.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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To identify the problem of separating statistical noise from treatment effects in health outcomes modeling and analysis. To demonstrate the implementation of one technique, common random numbers (CRNs), and to illustrate the value of CRNs to assess costs and outcomes under uncertainty.
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A randomised controlled trial comparing standard or intensive management of reduced fetal movements after 36 weeks gestation--a feasibility study.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Women presenting with reduced fetal movements (RFM) in the third trimester are at increased risk of stillbirth or fetal growth restriction. These outcomes after RFM are related to smaller fetal size on ultrasound scan, oligohydramnios and lower human placental lactogen (hPL) in maternal serum. We performed this study to address whether a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the management of RFM was feasible with regard to: i) maternal recruitment and retention ii) patient acceptability, iii) adherence to protocol. Additionally, we aimed to confirm the prevalence of poor perinatal outcomes defined as: stillbirth, birthweight <10th centile, umbilical arterial pH <7.1 or unexpected admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.
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Anti-PLA2R antibodies measured by ELISA predict long-term outcome in a prevalent population of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Antibodies to the phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) have been reported in 70% of cases of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The genetic susceptibility of IMN has been accounted for by HLA DQA1 and PLA2R1 genes. Here we retrospectively quantified PLA2R antibodies by ELISA, and genotyped DQ alleles and PLA2R1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with clinical criteria for disease activity at the time of first sample and with outcome over a median total follow-up of 90 months. In 90 prevalent patients with biopsy-proven IMN, anti-PLA2R antibodies were present in 75% of patients with IMN with active disease and were significantly higher than in patients in partial or complete remission at the time of antibody measurement. There was a differential IgG subclass response (4>2>3>1) at an early stage, i.e., within 6 months of biopsy. Levels of PLA2R antibodies were significantly linked to DQA1*05:01 and DQB1*02:01. Survival analysis of patients with IMN showed that PLA2R antibodies are significantly linked with outcome. Thus, high levels of PLA2R antibodies are linked with active disease and a higher risk of declining renal function during follow-up. Future therapeutic trials in IMN should monitor anti-PLA2R, as patients with a high antibody burden may benefit from earlier therapeutic intervention.
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The translocator protein (TSPO) ligand PK11195 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and sensitizes to chemotherapy treatment in pre- and post-relapse neuroblastoma cell lines.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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High-risk neuroblastoma (NB) has a poor prognosis. Even with intensive myeloablative chemotherapy, relapse is common and almost uniformly fatal, and new treatments are needed. Translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) ligands have been studied as potential new therapeutic agents in many cancers, but not in NB. We studied the effects of TSPO ligands on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis using paired cell lines derived from the same patient at the time of initial surgery and again after development of progressive disease or relapse post-chemotherapy. We found that TSPO expression was significantly increased 2- to 10-fold in post-relapse cell lines compared with pre-treatment lines derived from the same individual. Subsequently, these cell lines were treated with the specific TSPO ligand 1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide (PK11195) (0-160µM) as a single agent, with cytotoxic chemotherapy agents alone (carboplatin, etoposide or melphalan), or with combinations of PK11195 and chemotherapy drugs. We found that PK11195 inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, induced apoptosis and caused G 1/S cell cycle arrest in all tested NB cell lines at micromolar concentrations. In addition, PK11195 significantly decreased mRNA expression of the chemotherapy resistance efflux pumps ABCA3, ABCB1 and ABCC1 in two post-relapse NB cell lines. We also found that pre-treatment with PK11195 sensitized these cell lines to treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy agents. These results suggest that PK11195 alone or in combination with standard chemotherapeutic drugs warrants further study for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
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Using Bonferroni, BIC and AIC to assess evidence for alternative biological pathways: covariate selection for the multilevel Embryo-Uterus model.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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IVF treatments for infertility involve the transfer of multiple embryos in any one treatment cycle. When data is available on individual embryos the outcomes of each embryo are only partially observed, as treatment outcome (live birth) is assessed at the patient level. Two-level Embryo-Uterus (EU) models have been developed which assume a biologically plausible mechanism and assume that effects are mediated directly through the embryo (E) and also through the uterine environment (U), represented by two sub-models. This approach potentially allows inference as to the association of patient variables with outcome. However, when the variable is measured at the patient level either additional decisions have to be made in the modelling process as to in which sub-model the variable should be included or some model selection algorithm has to be invoked. These uncertainties have limited the practical application of these models.
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Reality mining of animal social systems.
Trends Ecol. Evol. (Amst.)
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The increasing miniaturisation of animal-tracking technology has made it possible to gather exceptionally detailed machine-sensed data on the social dynamics of almost entire populations of individuals, in both terrestrial and aquatic study systems. Here, we review important issues concerning the collection of such data, and their processing and analysis, to identify the most promising approaches in the emerging field of reality mining. Automated technologies can provide data sensing at time intervals small enough to close the gap between social patterns and their underlying processes, providing insights into how social structures arise and change dynamically over different timescales. Especially in conjunction with experimental manipulations, reality mining promises significant advances in basic and applied research on animal social systems.
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Mothers screening histories influence daughters vaccination uptake: an analysis of linked cervical screening and human papillomavirus vaccination records in the North West of England.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Achieving high human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is important because cervical screening coverage is declining. As key decision makers, mothers experiences of, and participation in, the cervical screening programme could affect vaccination consent. We investigate whether mothers screening history influences daughters participation in the HPV vaccination programme.
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Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".
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The non-independence of treatment outcomes from repeat IVF cycles: estimates and consequences.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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It is generally acknowledged that the outcomes of IVF treatments are correlated between repeat cycles in the same couple and that these effects need to be allowed for in the analysis of such treatments. However, there are few studies that have attempted to estimate the magnitude of these effects or their clinical consequences.
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Sudden cardiac event on a sea-going ship and recognition of a work-related accident.
Int Marit Health
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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OBJECTIVES. Evaluation of the effect of selected work environment factors on a sea-going ship on the occurrence of a sudden cardiac event and its recognition as a work-related accident. BACKGROUND. Sudden cardiac events, myocardial infarction in particular, among crews of seagoing ships are the most frequent reasons for fatal morbid events. In more than 20% of such cases, conditions and organization of work at sea are found to be of essential importance. Problems with certification are related with the assessment of the significance and impact of specific work environment factors overlapping with classic genetic and environmental factors of diseases of atherosclerotic origin. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The analysis embraced medical documentation on the state of health and working conditions at sea concerning 30 crewmembers of Polish sea-going vessels, who had suffered from sudden cardiac events in the years 1998-2009. The impact of selected work environment factors on the legitimacy of legal recognition of the event as a work-related accident was analysed by Fishers test and multi-factorial regression. RESULTS. The presence of classic genetic and environmental risk factors of cardiovascular events was confirmed in all persons examined. A significant effect on destabilization of the disease, deterioration of health, and the occurrence of a sudden circulation event was shown to be strictly related with isometric and dynamic effort, particularly with heat discomfort in the maritime work environment. This satisfied the legal criteria for recognition of a work-related accident in half of the cases examined. CONCLUSIONS. Isometric and dynamic effort associated with work under heat stress conditions may be regarded as a decisive causative factor for a sudden cardiac event and the recognition of a work-related accident at sea.
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Payment contracts in a preventive health care system: a perspective from operations management.
J Health Econ
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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We consider a health care system consisting of two noncooperative parties: a health purchaser (payer) and a health provider, where the interaction between the two parties is governed by a payment contract. We determine the contracts that coordinate the health purchaser-health provider relationship; i.e. the contracts that maximize the populations welfare while allowing each entity to optimize its own objective function. We show that under certain conditions (1) when the number of customers for a preventive medical intervention is verifiable, there exists a gate-keeping contract and a set of concave piecewise linear contracts that coordinate the system, and (2) when the number of customers is not verifiable, there exists a contract of bounded linear form and a set of incentive-feasible concave piecewise linear contracts that coordinate the system.
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The use of single embryo transfer to reduce the incidence of twins: Implications and questions for practice from the towardSET? project.
Hum Fertil (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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In vitro fertilisation treatments where multiple embryos are transferred are associated with high multiple birth rates leading to a corresponding high infant morbidity. Here we review the results from a multidisciplinary project which aimed to combine state of the art statistical modelling of routine clinical data with consideration of patient perspectives to explore options for reducing multiple birth incidence by increased use of single embryo transfer (SET). Modelling was based on a large multicentre cohort, supplemented by analysis of HFEA register data. Patient perspectives were explored in qualitative interviews and focus groups. The data confirm the reduction of around one-third in the chance of a live birth for any couple in moving from double embryo transfer (DET) to SET in a fresh cycle. This can be somewhat offset by appropriate patient and cycle selection for SET, with many suggested schemes performing similarly, although many patients perceive such selection as unfair. If we take a complete cycle perspective, and consider the transfer of all good-quality embryos with cryopreservation then it is possible for SET to match or even outperform DET. However, the additional treatment cycles are seen by patients as physically and emotionally burdensome. Such treatments will require optimisation of embryo freezing policies and a number of options are explored.
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Modelling dermal drug distribution after topical application in human.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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To model and interpret drug distribution in the dermis and underlying tissues after topical application which is relevant to the treatment of local conditions.
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Bayesian inference for an adaptive Ordered Probit model: an application to Brain Computer Interfacing.
Neural Netw
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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This paper proposes an algorithm for adaptive, sequential classification in systems with unknown labeling errors, focusing on the biomedical application of Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI). The method is shown to be robust in the presence of label and sensor noise. We focus on the inference and prediction of target labels under a nonlinear and non-Gaussian model. In order to handle missing or erroneous labeling, we model observed labels as a noisy observation of a latent label set with multiple classes (? 2). Whilst this paper focuses on the methods application to BCI systems, the algorithm has the potential to be applied to many application domains in which sequential missing labels are to be imputed in the presence of uncertainty. This dynamic classification algorithm combines an Ordered Probit model and an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF estimates the parameters of the Ordered Probit model sequentially with time. We test the performance of the classification approach by processing synthetic datasets and real experimental EEG signals with multiple classes (2, 3 and 4 labels) for a Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI) experiment.
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Characterisation of AnBEST1, a functional anion channel in the plasma membrane of the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Two distant homologues of the bestrophin gene family have been identified in the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans (anbest1 and anbest2). AnBEST1 was functionally characterised using the patch clamp technique and was shown to be an anion selective channel permeable to citrate. Furthermore, AnBEST1 restored the growth of the pdr12? yeast mutant on inhibitory concentrations of extracellular propionate, benzoate and sorbate, also consistent with carboxylated organic anion permeation of AnBEST1. Similar to its animal counterparts, AnBEST1 currents were activated by elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) with a K(d) of 1.60?M. Single channel currents showed long (>10s) open and closed times with a unitary conductance of 16.3pS. Transformation of A. nidulans with GFP-tagged AnBEST1 revealed that AnBEST1 localised to the plasma membrane. An anbest1 null mutant was generated to investigate the possibility that AnBEST1 mediated organic anion efflux across the plasma membrane. Although organic anion efflux was reduced from anbest1 null mutants, this phenotype was linked to the restoration of uracil/uridine-requiring A. nidulans strains to uracil/uridine prototrophy. In conclusion, this study identifies a new family of organic anion-permeable channels in filamentous fungi. We also reveal that uracil/uridine-requiring Aspergillus strains exhibit altered organic anion metabolism which could have implications for the interpretation of physiological studies using auxotrophic Aspergillus strains.
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Perinatal and early life risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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To investigate associations between perinatal risk factors and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and young adults.
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Overlapping community detection using Bayesian non-negative matrix factorization.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Identifying overlapping communities in networks is a challenging task. In this work we present a probabilistic approach to community detection that utilizes a Bayesian non-negative matrix factorization model to extract overlapping modules from a network. The scheme has the advantage of soft-partitioning solutions, assignment of node participation scores to modules, and an intuitive foundation. We present the performance of the method against a variety of benchmark problems and compare and contrast it to several other algorithms for community detection.
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Delineation of two clinically and molecularly distinct subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Despite the histological similarity of ependymomas from throughout the neuroaxis, the disease likely comprises multiple independent entities, each with a distinct molecular pathogenesis. Transcriptional profiling of two large independent cohorts of ependymoma reveals the existence of two demographically, transcriptionally, genetically, and clinically distinct groups of posterior fossa (PF) ependymomas. Group A patients are younger, have laterally located tumors with a balanced genome, and are much more likely to exhibit recurrence, metastasis at recurrence, and death compared with Group B patients. Identification and optimization of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers for PF ependymoma subgroups allowed validation of our findings on a third independent cohort, using a human ependymoma tissue microarray, and provides a tool for prospective prognostication and stratification of PF ependymoma patients.
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Dose-fractionation sensitivity of prostate cancer deduced from radiotherapy outcomes of 5,969 patients in seven international institutional datasets: ?/? = 1.4 (0.9-2.2) Gy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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There are reports of a high sensitivity of prostate cancer to radiotherapy dose fractionation, and this has prompted several trials of hypofractionation schedules. It remains unclear whether hypofractionation will provide a significant therapeutic benefit in the treatment of prostate cancer, and whether there are different fractionation sensitivities for different stages of disease. In order to address this, multiple primary datasets have been collected for analysis.
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The school nurse, the school and HPV vaccination: a qualitative study of factors affecting HPV vaccine uptake.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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School nurses in the United Kingdom are largely responsible for delivering the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to 12-13 year old girls. In order to assess the impact of HPV vaccination on school nurses roles, we gave a questionnaire to all 33 school nurses who offered Cervarix ™ in two Primary Care Trusts one year ahead of the national vaccine programme. Key organisational issues raised by the school nurses were the size of the team and its skill mix. A few found their schools uncooperative and were dissatisfied with mechanisms for problem resolution. On average, nurses spent an additional 69 h (0.80 h per child) on vaccine-related activities. In semi-qualitative interviews (n=17), school nurses complained of work overload and described the difficulties of establishing good relationships with some of their schools. Nurses expected schools to take some responsibility for ensuring good uptake and were frustrated when help was not forthcoming. We conclude that variation in uptake between schools in part reflects a difficult relationship with the school nurse which may be attributed to characteristics of the school, schools attitudes towards health interventions, organisational problems, multiple school nurse roles and/or personal ability. Some of these issues will need to be addressed to ensure continued high vaccine coverage as HPV vaccination becomes a less prioritised, routine activity.
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Prognostic factors influencing fresh and frozen IVF outcomes: An analysis of the UK national database.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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National registry data provides a valuable resource to quantify factors which influence the outcomes of IVF treatments. Multilevel logistic regression analyses for live birth and multiple births given a live birth were undertaken using data from the UK Human Fertilization and Embryology Authoritys registry of treatments conducted between 2000 and 2005. This study analysed 119,930 fresh and 19,918 frozen transfers from 85,349 patients in 84 centres. As well as quantifying the effects of a range of previously identified prognostic factors, the analyses showed that embryo cryopreservation reduced the live birth rate substantially (odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-0.64) compared with typical fresh cycles. Prognostic factors for transfers following cryopreservation were largely similar to those for fresh cycles, with some evidence that female age is less important, and there were small differences in the effects of the numbers of embryos transferred and previous IVF attempts that can be ascribed to selection effects. No factors were identified which specifically predicted twin outcomes; patients with a high twin risk were those with a high chance of treatment success. After allowing for all prognostic factors, there remained clinically important variability between centres (median OR 1.4) and between patients (median OR 1.8). National registry data provides a valuable resource which can be used to determine to what extent clinical and patient characteristics influence the outcomes of IVF treatments. We fitted complex statistical models for live birth and multiple births to data from the UK national registry of treatments conducted between 2000 and 2005. The analysis included 119,930 fresh and 19,918 frozen transfers from 85,349 patients in 84 centres. As well as quantifying the effects of a range of previously identified prognostic factors, we were able to estimate the magnitude of the losses due to embryo freezing and thawing. The effects of clinical and patient characteristics on the outcomes for frozen transfers were largely similar to those for fresh cycles. No factors were identified which specifically predicted twin outcomes; patients with a high twin risk were those with a high chance of success. After allowing for all the identified prognostic factors, there remained clinically important variability between centres and between patients which may suggest that the patients and clinics differ in their chances of success due to characteristics which are not currently being measured.
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Valuing pharmacogenetic testing services: a comparison of patients and health care professionals preferences.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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The study compared the preferences of patients and health-care professionals for the key attributes of a pharmacogenetic testing service to identify a patients risk of developing a side effect (neutropenia) from the immunosuppressant, azathioprine.
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Reducing the incidence of twins from IVF treatments: predictive modelling from a retrospective cohort.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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IVF treatments carry a high risk of twin pregnancy which confers a higher risk to the mother and child than singletons. Increased use of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) can reduce this twin rate. We aimed to utilize a previously published data set and statistical model based on routinely collected clinical data to predict the outcomes of policies that increase the proportion of eSET.
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Human and fishing vessel losses in sea accidents in the UK fishing industry from 1948 to 2008.
Int Marit Health
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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To investigate long-term trends in mortality rates for accidents to fishing vessels in the UK fishing industry from 1948 to 2008; to investigate the circumstances and causes of these fishing vessel accidents and trends in fishing vessel losses.
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Cardiovascular disease mortality in British merchant shipping and among British seafarers ashore in Britain.
Int Marit Health
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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The objective was to investigate trends in work-related mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping from 1919 to 2005, to compare CVD mortality among British seafarers at work in British shipping - and ashore in Britain - with that in the general British population, and to investigate work-related CVD mortality in British shipping during recent years according to factors such as rank, nationality, location, and type of ship.
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Do the effects of testosterone on muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and quality of life persist six months after treatment in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men?
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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Short-term testosterone (T) treatment in frail elderly men improves muscle mass and strength. It is unclear whether these effects can be maintained post treatment.
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Efficacy and safety of posaconazole for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a severe, progressive respiratory infection characterized by multiple pulmonary cavities and increased levels of antibodies to Aspergillus species. We report the first use of posaconazole in patients with CPA.
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Human papillomavirus 16 E6 increases the radiosensitivity of p53-mutated cervical cancer cells, associated with up-regulation of aurora A.
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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To examine the effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16-E6 (HPV early gene) oncoprotein on in vitro radiosensitivity of HPV-negative/p53 mutant C33a cervical cancer cells.
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Objectively identifying landmark use and predicting flight trajectories of the homing pigeon using Gaussian processes.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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Pigeons home along idiosyncratic habitual routes from familiar locations. It has been suggested that memorized visual landmarks underpin this route learning. However, the inability to experimentally alter the landscape on large scales has hindered the discovery of the particular features to which birds attend. Here, we present a method for objectively classifying the most informative regions of animal paths. We apply this method to flight trajectories from homing pigeons to identify probable locations of salient visual landmarks. We construct and apply a Gaussian process model of flight trajectory generation for pigeons trained to home from specific release sites. The model shows increasing predictive power as the birds become familiar with the sites, mirroring the animals learning process. We subsequently find that the most informative elements of the flight trajectories coincide with landscape features that have previously been suggested as important components of the homing task.
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Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and Markov models.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Feather pecking in laying hens is a major welfare and production problem for commercial egg producers, resulting in mortality, loss of production as well as welfare issues for the damaged birds. Damaging outbreaks of feather pecking are currently impossible to control, despite a number of proposed interventions. However, the ability to predict feather damage in advance would be a valuable research tool for identifying which management or environmental factors could be the most effective interventions at different ages. This paper proposes a framework for forecasting the damage caused by injurious pecking based on automated image processing and statistical analysis. By frame-by-frame analysis of video recordings of laying hen flocks, optical flow measures are calculated as indicators of the movement of the birds. From the optical flow datasets, measures of disturbance are extracted using hidden Markov models. Based on these disturbance measures and age-related variables, the levels of feather damage in flocks in future weeks is predicted. Applying the proposed method to real-world datasets, it is shown that the disturbance measures offer improved predictive values for feather damage thus enabling an identification of flocks with probable prevalence of damage and injury later in lay.
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The reproducibility of serum anti-Müllerian hormone in subfertile women: within and between patient variability.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations vary significantly over time and this should be taken into account when tailoring treatment protocols for patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Compared with FSH, serum anti-Müllerian hormone may have greater discriminatory power because of its modest intrapatient variation and the larger interpatient variation.
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Effects of testosterone on skeletal muscle architecture in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Testosterone increases lean mass and may help to counter the changes in muscle architecture associated with sarcopenia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on skeletal muscle architecture in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men.
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Failed IVF cycles and the risk of subsequent preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction: a case-control exploratory study.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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To investigate the hypothesis that women achieving pregnancy after two or more failed embryo transfers (ETs) of good quality embryos have increased incidence of preeclamptic toxemia (PET) or fetal growth restriction (FGR) compared with those conceiving in the first ET after in vitro fertilization (IVF).
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Retinal hemorrhages as a presenting sign in an adolescent patient with hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma is a very rare, aggressive form of peripheral lymphoma first recognized in 1990. Patients often present with organomegaly, anemia, adenopathy, and B symptoms. Rarely in the literature is a pediatric patient described with this subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Also, retinal hemorrhages have never been described as a presenting symptom of hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma. We describe an adolescent patient with hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma who presented with retinal hemorrhages, massive splenomegaly, bone marrow involvement, and B symptoms.
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Replication and meta-analysis of 13,000 cases defines the risk for interleukin-23 receptor and autophagy-related 16-like 1 variants in Crohns disease.
Can. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Variants in the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) and the autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) genes have been associated with an increased risk of Crohns disease (CD). Both genes were identified through genome-wide association scans and subsequent studies have validated these associations. To assess the effect size of these variants, an independent case-control association study and meta-analysis were performed.
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Female genital injuries resulting from consensual and non-consensual vaginal intercourse.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of genital injury following penile-vaginal penetration with and without consent.
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Dyadic OPTION: Measuring perceptions of shared decision-making in practice.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Current models of the medical consultation emphasize shared decision-making (SDM), whereby the expertise of both the doctor and the patient are recognised and seen to equally contribute to the consultation. The evidence regarding the desirability and effectiveness of the SDM approach is often conflicting. It is proposed that the conflicts are due to the nature of assessment, with current assessments from the perspective of an outside observer.
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Influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospitalisation for asthma in children: evidence from the Oxford record linkage study.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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There is much interest in the possibility that perinatal factors may influence the risk of disease in later life. We investigated the influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for asthma in children.
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Nanoparticle characterization for cancer nanotechnology and other biological applications.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Nanotechnology is actively being used to develop promising diagnostics and therapeutics tools for the treatment of cancer and many other diseases. The unique properties of nanomaterials offer an exciting frontier of possibilities for biomedical researchers and scientists. Because existing knowledge of macroscopic materials does not always allow for adequate prediction of the characteristics and behaviors of nanoscale materials in controlled environments, much less in biological systems, careful nanoparticle characterization should accompany biomedical applications of these materials. Informed correlations between adequately characterized nanomaterial properties and reliable biological endpoints are essential for guiding present and future researchers toward clinical nanotechnology-based solutions for cancer. Biological environments are notoriously dynamic; hence, nanoparticulate interactions within these environments will likely be comparatively diverse. For this reason, we recommend that an interactive and systematic approach to material characterization be taken when attempting to elucidate or measure biological interactions with nanoscale materials. We intend for this chapter to be a practical guide that could be used by researchers to identify key nanomaterial characteristics that require measurement for their systems and the appropriate techniques to perform those measurements. Each section includes a basic overview of each measurement and notes on how to address some of the common difficulties associated with nanomaterial characterization.
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Evaluation of a primary care musculoskeletal clinical assessment service: a preliminary study.
Physiotherapy
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2010
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To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a primary care musculoskeletal clinical assessment service (MCAS). The MCAS is a triage and treatment service for the management of patients with musculoskeletal conditions.
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A game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchasers willingness-to-pay for health and for expansion.
Health Care Manag Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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A health purchasers willingness-to-pay (WTP) for health is defined as the amount of money the health purchaser (e.g. a health maximizing public agency or a profit maximizing health insurer) is willing to spend for an additional unit of health. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchasers WTP for health in markets where the health purchaser offers a menu of medical interventions, and each individual in the population selects the intervention that maximizes her prospect. We discuss how the WTP for health can be employed to determine medical guidelines, and to price new medical technologies, such that the health purchaser is willing to implement them. The framework further introduces a measure for WTP for expansion, defined as the amount of money the health purchaser is willing to pay per person in the population served by the health provider to increase the consumption level of the intervention by one percent without changing the intervention price. This measure can be employed to find how much to invest in expanding a medical program through opening new facilities, advertising, etc. Applying the proposed framework to colorectal cancer screening tests, we estimate the WTP for health and the WTP for expansion of colorectal cancer screening tests for the 2005 US population.
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Derived Reference Doses (RfDs) for the environmental degradates of the herbicides alachlor and acetochlor: results of an independent expert panel deliberation.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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An independent peer expert panel was convened under the auspices of the Alliance for Risk Assessment (ARA) to review toxicology data and derive oral Reference Doses (RfDs) for four environmental degradates of the acetanilide herbicides, alachlor and acetochlor. The degradates included in this evaluation were (1) alachlor tertiary-ethanesulfonic acid (ESA), (2) alachlor tertiary-oxanilic acid (OXA), (3) acetochlor ESA, and (4) acetochlor OXA. Each degradate was judged to have sufficient data for developing low to medium confidence RfD, with use of an additional uncertainty factor (UF) to cover data gaps. Body weight decreases were identified as the most sensitive treatment-related adverse effect for RfD development. A composite UF of 1000 (10 for human variability in sensitivity, 10 for interspecies differences in sensitivity, and 10 for subchronic to chronic and database deficiency combined; i.e., 10(A)x10(H)x10(S&D)) for each degradate was considered reasonable, while noting that an argument could be made for an UF of 3000 (10(A)x10(H)x30(S&D)). Based on the available data, an oral RfD of 0.2 mg/kg-day is recommended for both acetochlor ESA and acetochlor OXA and an oral RfD of 0.8 mg/kg-day is recommended for both alachlor ESA and alachlor OXA.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.