Epidermal Langerhans cells (eLCs) uniquely express the C-type lectin receptor langerin in addition to the HIV entry receptors CD4 and CCR5. They are among the first target cells to encounter HIV in the anogenital stratified squamous mucosa during sexual transmission. Previous reports on the mechanism of HIV transfer to T cells and the role of langerin have been contradictory. In this study, we examined HIV replication and langerin-mediated viral transfer by authentic immature eLCs and model Mutz-3 LCs. eLCs were productively infected with HIV, whereas Mutz-3 LCs were not susceptible because of a lack of CCR5 expression. Two successive phases of HIV viral transfer to T cells via cave/vesicular trafficking and de novo replication were observed with eLCs as previously described in monocyte-derived or blood dendritic cells, but only first phase transfer was observed with Mutz-3 LCs. Langerin was expressed as trimers after cross-linking on the cell surface of Mutz-3 LCs and in this form preferentially bound HIV envelope protein gp140 and whole HIV particles via the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Both phases of HIV transfer from eLCs to T cells were inhibited when eLCs were pretreated with a mAb to langerin CRD or when HIV was pretreated with a soluble langerin trimeric extracellular domain or by a CRD homolog. However, the langerin homolog did not inhibit direct HIV infection of T cells. These two novel soluble langerin inhibitors could be developed to prevent HIV uptake, infection, and subsequent transfer to T cells during early stages of infection.
Dendritic cells (DC) present in the genital tract are one of the first cells to encounter HIV during sexual mucosal transmission. In addition they are able to efficiently transfer the virus to its main target cells, CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. As such an understanding of how HIV interacts with and manipulates DCs is of key importance for the design of mucosal vaccines and microbicides. However working with these cells is difficult for several reasons. Firstly, immature DCs are difficult to infect due to their high endocytic capacity and mature DCs are usually resistant to infection. Secondly, tissue DCs are inherently difficult to isolate, which results in small yields and the cells are prone to maturation as a result of extraction. Here we describe how to isolate CD1a expressing Langerhans cells from the epidermis and CD1a(+), CD14(+) and perhaps BDCA3(+) DCs from the dermis. We also describe how to produce the model monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) by cytokine stimulation of CD14(+) monocytes, which results in the production of large numbers of immature cells. We also describe methods by which high titer HIV stocks can be generated to infect a significant proportion of DCs and also methods for determining the titer of such stocks.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A is essential for viral genome replication within cytoplasmic replication complexes and virus assembly at the lipid droplet (LD) surface, although its definitive functions are poorly understood. We developed approaches to investigate NS5A dynamics during a productive infection. We report here that NS5A motility and efficient HCV RNA replication require the microtubule network and the cytoplasmic motor dynein and demonstrate that both motile and relatively static NS5A-positive foci are enriched with host factors VAP-A and Rab5A. Pulse-chase imaging revealed that newly synthesized NS5A foci are small and distinct from aged foci, while further studies using a unique dual fluorescently tagged infectious HCV chimera showed a relatively stable association of NS5A foci with core-capped LDs. These results reveal new details about the dynamics and maturation of NS5A and the nature of potential sites of convergence of HCV replication and assembly pathways.
Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to be protective against heterosexual HIV transmission and is being explored in some parts of the world as a means of combating the epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that MC be considered as an important component of HIV prevention in high prevalence settings. We review evidence that demonstrates that the inner foreskin is likely to be the main portal of entry for the HIV virus in males. Whether removal of the inner foreskin accounts for all the protection afforded by circumcision is yet to be established. The proposed mechanisms of protection range from inherent immunohistological factors of foreskin such as difference in thickness of keratin layer and density of target cells for HIV between inner and outer foreskin to physiological mechanisms that follow male circumcision such as drying of secretions underneath foreskin after sexual intercourse, loss of microbiome that attract target cells to the genital mucosa and lack of priming the genital mucosa with less abundant sexual transmitted infections among circumcised men. The aim of this review is to give an updated account on the mechanisms proposed so far on the demonstrated 50-70% protection from HIV transmission through heterosexual intercourse, by male circumcision.
Astrocytes are extensively infected with HIV-1 in vivo and play a significant role in the development of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Despite their extensive infection, little is known about how astrocytes become infected, since they lack cell surface CD4 expression. In the present study, we investigated the fate of HIV-1 upon infection of astrocytes. Astrocytes were found to bind and harbor virus followed by biphasic decay, with HIV-1 detectable out to 72 hours. HIV-1 was observed to associate with CD81-lined vesicle structures. shRNA silencing of CD81 resulted in less cell-associated virus but no loss of co-localization between HIV-1 and CD81. Astrocytes supported trans-infection of HIV-1 to T-cells without de novo virus production, and the virus-containing compartment required 37°C to form, and was trypsin-resistant. The CD81 compartment observed herein, has been shown in other cell types to be a relatively protective compartment. Within astrocytes, this compartment may be actively involved in virus entry and/or spread. The ability of astrocytes to transfer virus, without de novo viral synthesis suggests they are capable of sequestering and protecting virus and thus, they could potentially facilitate viral dissemination in the CNS.
HIV-1 is taken up by immature monocyte derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs) into tetraspanin rich caves from which the virus can either be transferred to T lymphocytes or enter into endosomes resulting in degradation. HIV-1 binding and fusion with the DC membrane results in low level de novo infection that can also be transferred to T lymphocytes at a later stage. We have previously reported that HIV-1 can induce partial maturation of iMDDCs at both stages of trafficking. Here we show that CD45? microvesicles (MV) which contaminate purified HIV-1 inocula due to similar size and density, affect DC maturation, de novo HIV-1 infection and transfer to T lymphocytes. Comparing iMDDCs infected with CD45-depleted HIV-1BaL or matched non-depleted preparations, the presence of CD45? MVs was shown to enhance DC maturation and ICAM-1 (CD54) expression, which is involved in DC?T lymphocyte interactions, while restricting HIV-1 infection of MDDCs. Furthermore, in the DC culture HIV-1 infected (p24?) MDDCs were more mature than bystander cells. Depletion of MVs from the HIV-1 inoculum markedly inhibited DC?T lymphocyte clustering and the induction of alloproliferation as well as limiting HIV-1 transfer from DCs to T lymphocytes. The effects of MV depletion on these functions were reversed by the re-addition of purified MVs from activated but not non-activated SUPT1.CCR5-CL.30 or primary T cells. Analysis of the protein complement of these MVs and of these HIV-1 inocula before and after MV depletion showed that Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and nef were the likely DC maturation candidates. Recombinant HSP90? and ? and nef all induced DC maturation and ICAM-1 expression, greater when combined. These results suggest that MVs contaminating HIV-1 released from infected T lymphocytes may be biologically important, especially in enhancing T cell activation, during uptake by DCs in vitro and in vivo, particularly as MVs have been detected in the circulation of HIV-1 infected subjects.
Lentiviruses are characterized by their ability to infect resting cells, such as CD4 T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). Cells of myeloid lineage, which herein we include including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, play a pivotal role in HIV infection by not only promoting transmission and spread but also serving as viral reservoirs. However, the recent discovery of the HIV restriction factor SAMHD1 within myeloid cells has again led us to question the role of this lineage both in HIV transmission and pathogenesis. Herein we will summarize what the potential role of myeloid cells in HIV pathogenesis is and how recent observations have or havent reshaped this view. Finally we highlight the idea that cells of myeloid lineage are quality rather than quantity HIV substrates. Thus, whilst is may indeed be difficult for a lentivirus like HIV to infect a resting cell like a macrophage and/or Dendritic cell, there are significant benefits in doing so, even at low frequency.
HIV-1 establishes infection in astrocytes and macroage-lineage cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Certain antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) can penetrate the CNS, and are therefore often used in neurologically active combined antiretroviral therapy (Neuro-cART) regimens, but their relative activity in the different susceptible CNS cell populations is unknown. Here, we determined the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of CNS-penetrating ARVs in astrocytes and macrophage-lineage cells. Primary human fetal astrocytes (PFA) and the SVG human astrocyte cell line were used as in vitro models for astrocyte infection, and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were used as an in vitro model for infection of macrophage-lineage cells. The CNS-penetrating ARVs tested were the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) abacavir (ABC), lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine (ZDV), the non-NRTIs efavirenz (EFV), etravirine (ETR) and nevirapine (NVP), and the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL). Drug inhibition assays were performed using single-round HIV-1 entry assays with luciferase viruses pseudotyped with HIV-1 YU-2 envelope or vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). All the ARVs tested could effectively inhibit HIV-1 infection in macrophages, with EC90s below concentrations known to be achievable in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Most of the ARVs had similar potency in astrocytes, however the NRTIs 3TC, d4T and ZDV had insufficient HIV-1 inhibitory activity in astrocytes, with EC90s 12-, 187- and 110-fold greater than achievable CSF concentrations, respectively. Our data suggest that 3TC, d4T and ZDV may not adequately target astrocyte infection in vivo, which has potential implications for their inclusion in Neuro-cART regimens.
Many viruses have developed mechanisms to evade the IFN response. Here, HIV-1 was shown to induce a distinct subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), without detectable type I or II IFN. These ISGs all contained an IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) binding site in their promoters, and their expression was shown to be driven by IRF-1, indicating this subset was induced directly by viral infection by IRF-1. IRF-1 and -7 protein expression was enriched in HIV p24 antigen-positive DCs. A HIV deletion mutant with the IRF-1 binding site deleted from the long terminal repeat showed reduced growth kinetics. Early and persistent induction of IRF-1 was coupled with sequential transient up-regulation of its 2 inhibitors, IRF-8, followed by IRF-2, suggesting a mechanism for IFN inhibition. HIV-1 mutants with Vpr deleted induced IFN, showing that Vpr is inhibitory. However, HIV IFN inhibition was mediated by failure of IRF-3 activation rather than by its degradation, as in T cells. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 2 markedly induced IFN? and a broader range of ISGs to higher levels, supporting the hypothesis that HIV-1 specifically manipulates the induction of IFN and ISGs to enhance its noncytopathic replication in DCs.
It is widely recognized that sialic acid (SA) can mediate attachment of influenza virus to the cell surface, and yet the specific receptors that mediate virus entry are not known. For many viruses, a definitive demonstration of receptor function has been achieved when nonpermissive cells are rendered susceptible to infection following transfection of the gene encoding a putative receptor. For influenza virus, such approaches have been confounded by the abundance of SA on mammalian cells so that it has been difficult to identify cell lines that are not susceptible to infection. We examined influenza virus infection of Lec2 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a mutant cell line deficient in SA. Lec2 CHO cells were resistant to influenza virus infection, and stable cell lines expressing either DC-SIGN or L-SIGN were generated to assess the potential of each molecule to function as SA-independent receptors for influenza A viruses. Virus strain BJx109 (H3N2) bound to Lec2 CHO cells expressing DC-SIGN or L-SIGN in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and transfected cells were susceptible to virus infection. Treatment of Lec2-DC-SIGN and Lec2-L-SIGN cells with mannan, but not bacterial neuraminidase, blocked infection, a finding consistent with SA-independent virus attachment and entry. Moreover, virus strain PR8 (H1N1) bears low levels of mannose-rich glycans and was inefficient at infecting Lec2 CHO cells expressing either DC-SIGN or L-SIGN, whereas other glycosylated H1N1 subtype viruses could infect cells efficiently. Together, these data indicate that human C-type lectins (DC-SIGN and L-SIGN) can mediate attachment and entry of influenza viruses independently of cell surface SA.
Macroautophagy, a homeostatic process that shuttles cytoplasmic constituents into endosomal and lysosomal compartments, has recently been shown to deliver antigens for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Skeletal muscle fibers show a high level of constitutive macroautophagy and express MHC class II molecules upon immune activation. We found that tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), a monokine overexpressed in inflammatory myopathies, led to a marked up-regulation of macroautophagy in skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, TNF-? augmented surface expression of MHC class II molecules in interferon-? (IFN-?)-treated myoblasts. The synergistic effect of TNF-? and IFN-? on the induction of MHC class II surface expression was not reflected by higher intracellular human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR levels and was reversed by macroautophagy inhibition, suggesting that TNF-? facilitates antigen processing via macroautophagy for more efficient MHC class II loading. Muscle biopsies from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis, a well defined myopathy with chronic inflammation, showed that over 20% of fibers that contained autophagosomes costained for MHC class II molecules and that more than 40% of double-positive muscle fibers had contact with CD4(+) and CD8(+) immune cells. These findings establish a mechanism through which TNF-? regulates both macroautophagy and MHC class II expression and suggest that macroautophagy-mediated antigen presentation contributes to the immunological environment of the inflamed human skeletal muscle.
Viruses manipulate the function of dendritic cells (DCs) to enhance their entry, spread, survival and transmission. This review summarises recently published work identifying how viruses alter the expression of receptors, antiviral molecules, disrupt signalling pathways, subvert trafficking pathways and even affect DC function via interactions with second or third cell types. Different viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses may have widely divergent and even opposite effects on DC function, determined by the need for transfer to a primary target cell, replication within the DC or various immunoevasive mechanisms.
Langerhans cells (LCs) are the resident dendritic cells (DCs) of epidermis in human mucosal stratified squamous epithelium and the skin. A phenotypically similar DC has recently been discovered as a minor population in the murine dermis. In epidermis, LCs function as sentinel antigen-presenting cells that can capture invading viruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This interaction between LCs and viruses results in highly variable responses, depending on the virus as discussed in this review. For example, HSV induces apoptosis in LCs but HIV does not. LCs seem to be the first in a complex chain of antigen presentation to T cells in lymph nodes for HSV and possibly VZV, or they transport virus to T cells, as described for HIV and maybe VZV. Together with epidermal keratinocytes they may also have a role in the initial innate immune response at the site of infection in the epidermis, although this is not fully known. The full spectrum of biological responses of LCs even to these viruses has yet to be understood and will require complementary studies in human LCs in vitro and in murine models in vivo.
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. HIV interacts with these cells through 2 pathways in 2 temporal phases, initially via endocytosis and then via de novo replication. Here the transcriptional response of human DCs to HIV-1 was studied in these phases and at different stages of the virus replication cycle using purified HIV-1 envelope proteins, and inactivated and viable HIV-1. No differential gene expression was detected in response to envelope. However, more than 100 genes were differentially expressed in response to entry of viable and inactivated HIV-1 in the first phase. A completely different set of genes was differentially expressed in the second phase, predominantly in response to viable HIV-1, including up-regulation of immune regulation genes, whereas genes encoding lysosomal enzymes were down-regulated. Cathepsins B, C, S, and Z RNA and protein decreased, whereas cathepsin L was increased, probably reflecting a concomitant decrease in cystatin C. The net effect was markedly diminished cathepsin activity likely to result in enhanced HIV-1 survival and transfer to contacting T lymphocytes but decreased HIV-1 antigen processing and presentation to these T cells.
C-type lectin receptors expressed on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages are able to bind glycoproteins of microbial pathogens via mannose, fucose, and N-acetylglucosamine. Langerin on Langerhans cells, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin on dendritic cells, and mannose receptor (MR) on dendritic cells and macrophages bind the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 principally via high mannose oligosaccharides. These C-type lectin receptors can also oligomerize to facilitate enhanced ligand binding. This study examined the effect of oligomerization of MR on its ability to bind to mannan, monomeric gp120, native trimeric gp140, and HIV type 1 BaL. Mass spectrometry analysis of cross-linked MR showed homodimerization on the surface of primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Both monomeric and dimeric MR were precipitated by mannan, but only the dimeric form was co-immunoprecipitated by gp120. These results were confirmed independently by flow cytometry analysis of soluble monomeric and trimeric HIV envelope and a cellular HIV virion capture assay. As expected, mannan bound to the carbohydrate recognition domains of MR dimers mostly in a calcium-dependent fashion. Unexpectedly, gp120-mediated binding of HIV to dimers on MR-transfected Rat-6 cells and macrophages was not calcium-dependent, was only partially blocked by mannan, and was also partially inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate. Thus gp120-mediated HIV binding occurs via the calcium-dependent, non-calcium-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains and the cysteine-rich domain at the C terminus of MR dimers, presenting a much broader target for potential inhibitors of gp120-MR binding.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is taken up by and replicates in immature dendritic cells (imDCs), which can then transfer virus to T cells, amplifying the infection. Strategies known to boost DC function were tested for their ability to overcome this exploitation when added after HIV exposure. Poly(I:C), but not single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) or a standard DC maturation cocktail, elicited type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70 production and the appearance of unique small (15- to 20-kDa) fragments of APOBEC3G (A3G) and impeded HIV(Bal) replication in imDCs when added up to 60 h after virus exposure. Comparable effects were mediated by recombinant alpha/beta IFN (IFN-alpha/beta). Neutralizing the anti-IFN-alpha/beta receptor reversed poly(I:C)-induced inhibition of HIV replication and blocked the appearance of the small A3G proteins. The poly(I:C)-induced appearance of small A3G proteins was not accompanied by significant differences in A3G mRNA or A3G monomer expression. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of A3G could not be used to reverse the poly(I:C)-induced protective effect, since siRNAs nonspecifically activated the DCs, inducing the appearance of the small A3G proteins and inhibiting HIV infection. Notably, the appearance of small A3G proteins coincided with the shift of high-molecular-mass inactive A3G complexes to the low-molecular-mass (LMM) active A3G complexes. The unique immune stimulation by poly(I:C) with its antiviral effects on imDCs marked by the expression of IFN-alpha/beta and active LMM A3G renders poly(I:C) a promising novel strategy to combat early HIV infection in vivo.
A group of over 200 international scientists came together on April 15 in Sydney, Australia just before the 2012 International Microbicides Conference as a part of a workshop to address the basic concepts and factors that modulate HIV infection at the mucosal surface. The meeting focused on defining the interaction between virus, prevailing host physiology, microbiota, and innate and adaptive immune responses and how they combine to impact the outcome at the moment of potential viral transmission. Speakers examined the biology of HIV entry during transmission, innate and natural antiviral mechanisms at the mucosa, microbicide efficacy, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamics, animal models, and opportunities for combining HIV prevention strategies. Other viral infection models both in vivo and in vitro were considered for the insights they provided into HIV transmission events. The workshop raised important questions that we need to answer to further our basic understanding of host and viral factors influencing HIV transmission to inform the development of novel prevention strategies.
Paramount to the success of persistent viral infection is the ability of viruses to navigate hostile environments en route to future targets. In response to such obstacles, many viruses have developed the ability of establishing actin rich-membrane bridges to aid in future infections. Herein through dynamic imaging of HIV infected dendritic cells, we have observed how viral high-jacking of the actin/membrane network facilitates one of the most efficient forms of HIV spread. Within infected DC, viral egress is coupled to viral filopodia formation, with more than 90% of filopodia bearing immature HIV on their tips at extensions of 10 to 20 µm. Live imaging showed HIV filopodia routinely pivoting at their base, and projecting HIV virions at µm.sec?¹ along repetitive arc trajectories. HIV filopodial dynamics lead to up to 800 DC to CD4 T cell contacts per hour, with selection of T cells culminating in multiple filopodia tethering and converging to envelope the CD4 T-cell membrane with budding HIV particles. Long viral filopodial formation was dependent on the formin diaphanous 2 (Diaph2), and not a dominant Arp2/3 filopodial pathway often associated with pathogenic actin polymerization. Manipulation of HIV Nef reduced HIV transfer 25-fold by reducing viral filopodia frequency, supporting the potency of DC HIV transfer was dependent on viral filopodia abundance. Thus our observations show HIV corrupts DC to CD4 T cell interactions by physically embedding at the leading edge contacts of long DC filopodial networks.
Macrophages are key target cells for HIV-1. HIV-1(BaL) induced a subset of interferon-stimulated genes in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), which differed from that in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and CD4 T cells, without inducing any interferons. Inhibition of type I interferon induction was mediated by HIV-1 inhibition of interferon-regulated factor (IRF3) nuclear translocation. In MDMs, viperin was the most up-regulated interferon-stimulated genes, and it significantly inhibited HIV-1 production. HIV-1 infection disrupted lipid rafts via viperin induction and redistributed viperin to CD81 compartments, the site of HIV-1 egress by budding in MDMs. Exogenous farnesol, which enhances membrane protein prenylation, reversed viperin-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 production. Mutagenesis analysis in transfected cell lines showed that the internal S-adenosyl methionine domains of viperin were essential for its antiviral activity. Thus viperin may contribute to persistent noncytopathic HIV-1 infection of macrophages and possibly to biologic differences with HIV-1-infected T cells.
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