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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Solution formulation development and efficacy of MJC13 in a preclinical model of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Abstract MJC13, a novel FKBP52 targeting agent, has potential use for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. The purpose of this work was to develop a solution formulation of MJC13, and obtain its efficacy profile in a human prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. Preformulation studies were conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties. Co-solvent systems were evaluated for aqueous solubility and tolerance. A human prostate cancer xenograft mouse model was established by growing 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells in C.B-17 SCID mice. The optimal formulation was used to study the efficacy of MJC13 in this preclinical model of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. We found that MJC13 was stable (at least for 1 month), highly lipophilic (logP?=?6.49), poorly soluble in water (0.28?µg/mL), and highly plasma protein bound (>98%). The optimal formulation consisting of PEG 400 and Tween 80 (1:1, v/v) allowed us to achieve a MJC13 concentration of 7.5?mg/mL, and tolerated an aqueous environment. After twice weekly intratumoral injection with 10?mg/kg MJC13 in this formulation for four consecutive weeks, tumor volumes were significantly reduced compared to vehicle-treated controls.
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De-acetylation and degradation of HSPA5 is critical for E1A metastasis suppression in breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Elevated expression of heat shock protein 5 (HSPA5) promotes drug resistance and metastasis and is a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Adenovirus type 5 E1A gene therapy has demonstrated antitumor efficacy but the mechanisms of metastasis-inhibition are unclear. Here, we report that E1A interacts with p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and blocks p300-mediated HSPA5 acetylation at K353, which in turn promotes HSPA5 ubiquitination by GP78 (E3 ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Our findings point out the Ying-Yang regulation of two different post-translational modifications (ubiquitination and acetylation) of HSPA5 in tumor metastasis.
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miR326 Maturation Is Crucial for VEGF-C-Driven Cortactin Expression and Esophageal Cancer Progression.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Esophageal cancer is an aggressive human malignancy with increasing incidence in the developed world. VEGF-C makes crucial contributions to esophageal cancer progression that are not well understood. Here, we report the discovery of regulatory relationship in esophageal cancers between the expression of VEGF-C and cortactin (CTTN), a regulator of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Upregulation of CTTN expression by VEGF-C enhanced the invasive properties of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic investigations showed that VEGF-C increased CTTN expression by downregulating Dicer-mediated maturation of miR326, thereby relieving the suppressive effect of miR326 on CTTN expression. Clinically, expression of Dicer and miR326 correlated with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer. Our findings offer insights into how VEGF-C enhances the robust invasive and metastatic properties of esophageal cancer, which has potential implications for the development of new biomarkers or therapies in this setting. Cancer Res; 74(21); 6280-90. ©2014 AACR.
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Current concepts in the pathogenesis of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis.
Head Face Med
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Traumatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis can be classified into fibrous, fibro-osseous and bony ankylosis. It is still a huge challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons due to the technical difficulty and high incidence of recurrence. The poor outcome of disease may be partially attributed to the limited understanding of its pathogenesis. The purpose of this article was to comprehensively review the literature and summarise results from both human and animal studies related to the genesis of TMJ ankylosis.
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[Causes and managements of postoperative neurological complications in internal fixation for the treatment of degenerative scoliosis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To investigate the causes and managements of postoperative neurological complications in pedicle screw internal fixation for the treatment of degenerative scoliosis (DS).
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Determination of proline in human serum by a robust LC-MS/MS method: application to identification of human metabolites as candidate biomarkers for esophageal cancer early detection and risk stratification.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Altered serum proline levels are related to cancer metabolism. This study developed and validated a LC-MS/MS method to analyze proline in human serum. Surrogate blank serum, coupled with stable isotope L-proline-(13) C5 ,(15) ?N as internal standard, was used for generating standard curves ranging from 2.5 to 100??g/mL. Proline was extracted from serum samples using methanol. A Phenomenex Lux 5u Cellulose-1 column (250?×?4.6?mm) was used for chromatographic separation with 40% methanol in 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution as a mobile phase. Mass detection was performed under positive ionization electrospray. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were <10%. The extraction recovery and matrix factor were 99.17 and 1.47%, respectively. Our study showed that the chiral column had high specificity and selectivity for separating proline from serum components. The assay was successfully applied for the quantification of human serum proline levels from 30 esophageal cancer patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Statistical analyses showed significantly lower levels of serum proline in the patients as compared with the healthy volunteers (p-value?=?0.011). We report here a simple, specific and reproducible LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of proline in human serum as a potential screening biomarker for esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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DJ-1: a promising marker in metastatic uveal melanoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Overexpression of DJ-1 was associated with metastatic uveal melanoma (UM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of serum DJ-1 as a biomarker for metastasis of uveal melanoma.
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Cerebral metabolism in major depressive disorder: a voxel-based meta-analysis of positron emission tomography studies.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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BackgroundMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental illness with high lifetime prevalence close to 20%. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have reported decreased prefrontal, insular and limbic cerebral glucose metabolism in depressed patients compared with healthy controls. However, the literature has not always been consistent. To evaluate current evidence from PET studies, we conducted a voxel-based meta-analysis of cerebral metabolism in MDD.MethodData were collected from databases including PubMed and Web of Science, with the last report up to April 2013. Voxel-based meta-analyses were performed using the revised activation likelihood estimation (ALE) software.ResultsTen whole-brain-based FDG-PET studies in MDD were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 188 MDD patients and 169 healthy controls. ALE analyses showed the brain metabolism in bilateral insula, left lentiform nucleus putamen and extra-nuclear, right caudate and cingulate gyrus were significantly decreased. However, the brain activity in right thalamus pulvinar and declive of posterior lobe, left culmen of vermis in anterior lobe were significantly increased in MDD patients.ConclusionOur meta-analysis demonstrates the specific brain regions where possible dysfunctions are more consistently reported in MDD patients. Altered metabolism in insula, limbic system, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and thus these regions are likely to play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression.
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A toolbox of oligopeptide-modified polymers for tailored elastomers.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Biomaterials are constructed from limited sets of building blocks but exhibit extraordinary and versatile properties, because hierarchical structure formation lets them employ identical supramolecular motifs for different purposes. Here we exert a similar degree of structural control in synthetic supramolecular elastomers and thus tailor them for a broad range of thermomechanical properties. We show that oligopeptide-terminated polymers selectively self-assemble into small aggregates or nanofibrils, depending on the length of the oligopeptides. This process is self-sorting if differently long oligopeptides are combined so that different nanostructures coexist in bulk mixtures. Blends of polymers with oligopeptides matching in length furnish reinforced elastomers that exhibit shear moduli one order of magnitude higher than the parent polymers. By contrast, novel interpenetrating supramolecular networks that display excellent vibration damping properties are obtained from blends comprising non-matching oligopeptides or unmodified polymers. Hence, blends of oligopeptide-modified polymers constitute a toolbox for tailored elastomers with versatile properties.
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Novel peptides suppress VEGFR-3 activity and antagonize VEGFR-3-mediated oncogenic effects.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) supports tumor lymphangiogenesis. It was originally identified as a lymphangiogenic factor expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. VEGFR-3 was detected in advanced human malignancies and correlated with poor prognosis. Our previous studies show that activation of the VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 axis promotes cancer metastasis and is associated with clinical progression in patients with lung cancer, indicating that VEGFR-3 is a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, we developed eight peptides targeting VEGFR-3. Two peptides strongly inhibited the kinase activity of VEGFR-3 and suppressed VEGF-C-mediated invasion of cancer cells. Moreover, these peptides abolished VEGF-C-induced drug resistance and tumor initiating cell formation. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of VEGFR-3-targeting peptides.
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[Research advance in autistic traits in non-affected population of autism spectrum disorder].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Autistic traits including social reciprocal deficits, communication deficits and stereotyped behaviors, are manifested not only in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families, but also in general population. In recent years, there has much research related to autistic traits. This article summarizes research advance of autistic traits in ASD relations and general population.
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a chinese population: a meta-analysis.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Although many epidemiologic studies have investigated the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and their association with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. To clarify the effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of ALL, a meta-analysis was performed in a Chinese population.
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Sulfone-mediated syntheses of crocetin derivatives: regioselectivity of highly functionalized building blocks.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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New C5 sulfone building blocks containing a masked polar end group have been devised for the efficient synthesis of carotenoids with polar termini. Chemoselectivity or the regiochemical issue of the highly functionalized units has been carefully addressed depending on the soft or hard nature of electrophiles. These building blocks have been successfully applied to the syntheses of crocetin derivatives, crocetin dial and the novel crocetin dinitrile.
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Signaling adaptor protein SH2B1 enhances neurite outgrowth and accelerates the maturation of human induced neurons.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of adult mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iNs) under defined conditions. However, human cells appear to be less plastic and have a higher epigenetic hurdle for reprogramming to both iPSCs and iNs. Here, we show that SH2B adaptor protein 1? (SH2B1) can enhance neurite outgrowth of iNs reprogrammed from human fibroblasts as early as day 14, when combined with miR124 and transcription factors BRN2 and MYT1L (IBM) under defined conditions. These SH2B1-enhanced iNs (S-IBM) showed canonical neuronal morphology, and expressed multiple neuronal markers, such as TuJ1, NeuN, and synapsin, and functional proteins for neurotransmitter release, such as GABA, vGluT2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Importantly, SH2B1 accelerated mature process of functional neurons and exhibited action potentials as early as day 14; without SH2B1, the IBM iNs do not exhibit action potentials until day 21. Our data demonstrate that SH2B1 can enhance neurite outgrowth and accelerate the maturation of human iNs under defined conditions. This approach will facilitate the application of iNs in regenerative medicine and in vitro disease modeling.
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Suppression of dicer increases sensitivity to gefitinib in human lung cancer cells.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Accumulating evidence is revealing an important role of microRNA (miRNA) in tumor progression and chemotherapeutic resistance. Dicer is a cytoplasmic endoribonuclease type III crucial for production of mature miRNAs. The aberrant expression of Dicer has also been reportedly associated with clinical aggressiveness, prognosis, and patient survival in various cancer types. However, the molecular mechanisms of Dicer in acquired gefitinib resistance are still not clear.
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E1A-Mediated Inhibition of HSPA5 Suppresses Cell Migration and Invasion in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by reduced expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2. TNBC is an especially aggressive group of breast cancers with poor prognosis. There are currently no validated molecular targets to effectively treat this disease. Thus, it is necessary to identify effective molecular targets and therapeutic strategies for TNBC patients.
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Live-cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Live-cell surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) endoscopy is developed by using plasmonic nanowire waveguides as endoscopic probes. It is demonstrated that the probe insertion does not stress the cell. Opposed to conventional SERS endoscopy, with excitation at the hotspot within the cell, the remote excitation method yields low-background SERS spectra from specific cell compartments with minimal associated photodamage.
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Prehypertension and the risk of stroke: a meta-analysis.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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In this meta-analysis, we sought to evaluate the association between prehypertension and the risk of stroke.
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Prognostic implications for high expression of MiR-25 in lung adenocarcinomas of female non-smokers.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the most common histological type of lung cancer and its proportion is rising, especially in Asian non-smoking women. Recent studies suggest miR-25 may have diverse effects on the pathogenesis of different types of cancer. However, the role of miR-25 in lung cancer is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical value of miR-25 in non-smoking women with lung ADC.
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Arsenic Trioxide Inhibits CXCR4-Mediated Metastasis by Interfering miR-520h/PP2A/NF-?B Signaling in Cervical Cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Arsenic apparently affects numerous intracellular signal transduction pathways and causes many alterations leading to apoptosis and differentiation in malignant cells. We and others have demonstrated that arsenic inhibits the metastatic capacity of cancer cells. Here we present additional mechanistic studies to elucidate the potential of arsenic as a promising therapeutic inhibitor of metastasis.
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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Upregulates Cortactin and Promotes Metastasis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) plays an important role during cancer progression and metastasis through activation of VEGF receptors. However, the role of VEGF-C in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear.
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Comparison of family functioning in families of depressed patients and nonclinical control families in China using the Family Assessment Device and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales II.
Ann Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Family functioning influences the course and long-term outcome for patients with depression. It is important to understand the family functioning of depressed patients from the viewpoint both of patients and their family members. The objective of this study was to explore the association between family functioning and depression in a sample of Chinese families, using the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales II (FACES II).
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Mechanisms for enhanced performance of platinum-based electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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As a new generation of power sources, fuel cells have shown great promise for application in transportation. However, the expensive catalyst materials, especially the cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), severely limit the widespread commercialization of fuel cells. Therefore, this review article focuses on platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts for ORR with better catalytic performance and lower cost. Major breakthroughs in the improvement of activity and durability of electrocatalysts are discussed. Specifically, on one hand, the enhanced activity of Pt has been achieved through crystallographic control, ligand effect, or geometric effect; on the other hand, improved durability of Pt-based cathode catalysts has been realized by means of the incorporation of another noble metal or the morphological control of nanostructures. Furthermore, based on these improvement mechanisms, rationally designed Pt-based nanoparticles are summarized in terms of different synthetic strategies such as wet-chemical synthesis, Pt-skin catalysts, electrochemically dealloyed nanomaterials, and Pt-monolayer deposition. These nanoparticulate electrocatalysts show greatly enhanced catalytic performance towards ORR, aiming not only to outperform the commercial Pt/C, but also to exceed the US Department of Energy 2015 technical target ($30/kW and 5000?h).
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Association of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality with prehypertension: a meta-analysis.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Studies of prehypertension and mortality are controversial after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors. This meta-analysis sought to evaluate the association of prehypertension with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.
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The anti-tumor activity of E1A and its implications in cancer therapy.
Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.)
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The adenovirus type 5 E1A protein (E1A) plays a critical role in anti-cancer gene therapy and has been tested in clinical trials. The expression of E1A significantly reduces tumorigenesis, promotes cell death, and inhibits cancer cell mobility. Chemosensitization is one of the anti-tumor effects of E1A, increasing in vitro and in vivo sensitization of anti-cancer drugs, including cisplatin, gemcitabine, etoposide, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and histone deacetylase inhibitors in different types of cancer cells. E1A also demonstrates anti-metastasis activity through various molecular mechanisms such as the repression of protease expression, suppression of HER2/neu and downregulation of microRNA (miR-520h). Moreover, E1A has been reported to reprogram transcription in tumor cells and stabilize tumor suppressors such as PP2A/C, p21 and p53. Because E1A plays a potentially significant role in anti-tumor therapy, there exists an urgent need to study the anti-cancer activities of E1A. This paper presents a review of our current understanding of the tumor-suppressive functions and molecular regulation of E1A, as well as the potential clinical applications of E1A.
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Association of Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms with gout.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Gout is the most common autoinflammatory arthritis characterized by elevated serum urate and recurrent attacks of intra-articular crystal deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) in tissues. The pathogenesis of gout has not been fully determined, although certain genetic factors are involved in the development of gout. Accumulated data suggested that MSU crystal-induced inflammation is a paradigm of innate immunity. As Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the underlying mechanisms of the innate immune response, the present study aimed to investigate whether TLR2 polymorphisms are associated with gout. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Arg677Trp and Arg753Gln, rs5743708) in TLR2 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the -196 to -174 del polymorphism was investigated using the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in 431 individuals (215 patients with gout and 216 healthy controls). TLR2 Arg677Trp and Arg753Gln genotyping indicated that all the positive samples were of the wild-type genotype. No significant differences in genotype (?(2)=1.686, P=0.430) and allele (?(2)=1.430, P=0.232) frequencies of the -196 to -174 del polymorphism between the patients with gout and the control groups was observed. Our results suggested that the TLR2 Arg677Trp, Arg753Gln and the -196 to -174 del polymorphisms were not associated with susceptibility to primary gouty arthritis.
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BMP-7 Enhances Cell Migration and ?v?3 Integrin Expression via a c-Src-Dependent Pathway in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-7 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, which is originally identified based on its ability to induce cartilage and bone formation. In recent years, BMP-7 is also defined as a potent promoter of cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. However, there is little knowledge of the role of BMP-7 and its cellular function in chondrosarcoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the biological impact of BMP-7 on cell motility using transwell assay. In addition, the intracellular signaling pathways were also investigated by pharmacological and genetic approaches. Our results demonstrated that treatment with exogenous BMP-7 markedly increased cell migration by activating c-Src/PI3K/Akt/IKK/NF-?B signaling pathway, resulting in the transactivation of ?v?3 integrin expression. Indeed, abrogation of signaling activation, by chemical inhibition or expression of a kinase dead form of the protein attenuated BMP-7-induced expression of integrin ?v?3 and cell migration. These findings may provide a useful tool for diagnostic/prognostic purposes and even therapeutically in late-stage chondrosarcoma as an anti-metastatic agent.
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Excretion of urinary orosomucoid 1 protein is elevated in patients with chronic heart failure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Easily screening markers for early detection of chronic heart failure (CHF) are lacking. We identified twenty differently expressed proteins including orosomucoid 1(ORM1) in urine between patients with CHF and normal controls by proteomic methods. Bioinformatics analyses suggested ORM1 could be used for further analysis. After verification by western blotting, the urinary levels of ORM1 were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by correcting for creatinine expression. The ORM1-Cr was significantly elevated in CHF patients than normal controls (6498.83 ± 4300.21 versus 2102.26 ± 1069.24 ng/mg). Furthermore, a Spearman analysis indicated that the urinary ORM1 levels had a high positive correlation with the classification of CHF, and the multivariate analysis suggested that the urinary ORM1 content was associated with the plasma amino-terminal pro- brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (OR: 2.106, 95% CI: 1.213-3.524, P = 0.002) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification (OR: 3.019, 95% CI: 1.329-4.721, P<0.001). In addition, receiving operating curve (ROC) analyses suggested that an optimum cut-off value of 2484.98 ng/mg with 90.91% sensitivity and 85.48% specificity, respectively, could be used for the diagnosis of CHF. To sum up, our findings indicate that ORM1 could be a potential novel urinary biomarker for the early detection of CHF.
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1H-NMR-based metabolic analysis of human serum reveals novel markers of myocardial energy expenditure in heart failure patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Elevated myocardial energy expenditure (MEE) is related with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and has also been documented as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. However, the serum small-molecule metabolite profiles and pathophysiological mechanisms of elevated MEE in heart failure (HF) are still lacking. Herein, we used 1H-NMR-based metabolomics analysis to screen for potential biomarkers of MEE in HF.
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Both PAR1 and PAR2 Promote Seedling Photomorphogenesis in Multiple Light Signaling Pathways.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Arabidopsis seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of several photomorphogenesis promoting factors, including ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), through a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED 1 (PAR1) was first detected as an early repressed gene in both phytochrome (phy) A-mediated far-red (FR) and phyB-mediated red (R) signaling pathways, and subsequent studies showed that both PAR1 and PAR2 are negative factors of shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of PAR1 and PAR2 in seedling de-etiolation and their relationships with other photomorphogenesis promoting and repressing factors are largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that both PAR1 and PAR2 redundantly enhance seedling de-etiolation in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways. Their transcript abundances are repressed by phyA, phyB, and cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) under FR, R, and blue (B) light conditions, respectively. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act downstream of COP1, and COP1 mediates the degradation of PAR1 and PAR2 through the 26S proteasome pathway. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act in a separate pathway from HY5 and HFR1 under different light conditions, except for sharing in the same pathway with HFR1 under FR light. Together, our results substantiate that PAR1 and PAR2 are positive factors functioning in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways during seedling de-etiolation.
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Dual drug-eluting stents coated with multilayers of hydrophobic heparin and sirolimus.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Polymer coatings for stents are considered one of the key factors that lead to adverse cardiac events after coronary arterial stenting. This study presents a dual drug-eluting stent (DES) that is coated with multilayers of Duraflo heparin and sirolimus but containing no other organic polymers. The hydrophobic Duraflo heparin coating was used to improve the hemocompatibility of the stent and serve as a drug reservoir for the controlled release of sirolimus, thus avoiding inflammatory reactions induced by the conventional polymers. The Duraflo heparin and sirolimus were coated layer-by-layer onto the stent surface using a homemade spray-coating device. The drug loading amount can be easily controlled by adjusting the numbers of layers applied and the concentration of the drug solution, indicating the developed coating process is reproducible and well-controlled. After balloon expansion, the coating did not crack or peel off, which demonstrates that the sirolimus/Duraflo heparin coating layers tightly adhere to the stent surface. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay showed that the Duraflo heparin coating significantly prolonged the APTT from 27.3 ± 0.3 s to 69.7 ± 6.2 s, demonstrating the anticoagulant ability of the coated stents. The dual DES exhibited a nearly linear sustained-release profile of Duraflo heparin and an initial burst release followed by a slow release of sirolimus. Less than 15% of heparin was released from the DES within 14 days, indicating the stent can maintain its antithrombotic surface for a long time. Because of the layer-by-layer structure, the most outer layer of Duraflo heparin coating may act as a diffusion barrier to retard sirolimus release from the stent. These results confirm that the dual DESs enable simultaneous delivery of antithrombotic and antiproliferative drugs and have potential for the treatment of coronary artery disease.
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[Effects of fluid resuscitation programs on the levels of inflammatory mediators during burn shock stage].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To explore the effects of different methods of fluid resuscitation on the levels of inflammatory mediators during burn shock stage.
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Properties of strained structures and topological defects in graphene.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Strain and defect engineering of graphene can modify the topological features of electronic states, leading to novel properties such as pseudomagnetism in bubbles and metallicity in extended topological defects. A consequence of graphene being a soft membrane is that it can be strain-engineered to become highly corrugated by modifying its adhesion to the substrate. Extended grain boundaries in graphene can be constructed from periodic combinations of nonhexagonal rings (5-7 pairs). However, a controlled method of producing these defects is not currently available. In this Perspective, we discuss some of the recent advances in studying the properties and formation mechanisms of strained structures and defects in graphene, extending across both physics and chemistry.
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[Effects of resuscitation with different kinds of colloids on pulmonary edema in swine in shock stage of severe burn injury].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To observe and compare the effects of natural colloid and artificial colloid on pulmonary edema of swine during shock stage of severe burn injury.
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Effect of artificial colloids on blood coagulation during shock stage of severe burn injury.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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There are controversies about the use of artificial colloids. This research was aimed to determine the effect of various artificial colloids on blood coagulation in the shock stage of severe burn injury.
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In vivo ultrasound molecular imaging of inflammatory thrombosis in arteries with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-modified microbubbles targeted to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Ultrasound molecular imaging has the potential to detect activated platelets, thus identifying atherosclerotic plaque instability before onset of serious clinical events. However, it has not been well defined in inflammatory arterial thrombosis. We hypothesized that microbubbles (MBs) target glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) could achieve a noninvasive in vivo detection of inflammatory thrombosis in large arteries through contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging.
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Stem cell-based therapy in neural repair.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Cell-based therapy could aid in alleviating symptoms or even reversing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and nerve injuries. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has been shown to maintain the survival of neurons and induce neurite outgrowth. Accumulating evidence suggests that combination of FGF1 and cell-based therapy is promising for future therapeutic application. Neural stem cells (NSCs), with the characteristics of self-renewal and multipotency, can be isolated from embryonic stem cells, embryonic ectoderm, and developing or adult brain tissues. For NSC clinical application, several critical problems remain to be resolved: (1) the source of NSCs should be personalized; (2) the isolation methods and protocols of human NSCs should be standardized; (3) the clinical efficacy of NSC transplants must be evaluated in more adequate animal models; and (4) the mechanism of intrinsic brain repair needs to be better characterized. In addition, the ideal imaging technique for tracking NSCs would be safe and yield high temporal and spatial resolution, good sensitivity and specificity. Here, we discuss recent progress and future development of cell-based therapy, such as NSCs, induced pluripotent stem cells, and induced neurons, in neurodegenerative diseases and peripheral nerve injuries.
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Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (?) and lambda (?) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free ? and ? light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free ? and ? light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free ? and ? light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free ? and ? light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p < 0.05). Further, the AUC values in patients with active RA were 0.871 for free ? light chain and 0.781 for free ? light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum ? light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum ? light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free ? and ? light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, high serum levels of free ? and ? light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free ? and ? light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.
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[Shock modeling of large area third-degree burn in miniature swine].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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To report a novel method of establishing a stable shock model of swine.
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The economic value of personalized medicine tests: what we know and what we need to know.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Purpose:There is uncertainty about when personalized medicine tests provide economic value. We assessed evidence on the economic value of personalized medicine tests and gaps in the evidence base.Methods:We created a unique evidence base by linking data on published cost-utility analyses from the Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry with data measuring test characteristics and reflecting where value analyses may be most needed: (i) tests currently available or in advanced development, (ii) tests for drugs with Food and Drug Administration labels with genetic information, (iii) tests with demonstrated or likely clinical utility, (iv) tests for conditions with high mortality, and (v) tests for conditions with high expenditures.Results:We identified 59 cost-utility analyses studies that examined personalized medicine tests (1998-2011). A majority (72%) of the cost/quality-adjusted life year ratios indicate that testing provides better health although at higher cost, with almost half of the ratios falling below $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained. One-fifth of the results indicate that tests may save money.Conclusion:Many personalized medicine tests have been found to be relatively cost-effective, although fewer have been found to be cost saving, and many available or emerging medicine tests have not been evaluated. More evidence on value will be needed to inform decision making and assessment of genomic priorities.Genet Med advance online publication 14 November 2013Genetics in Medicine (2013); doi:10.1038/gim.2013.122.
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Surface hydrophilic modification of polyethersulfone membranes by surface-initiated ATRP with enhanced blood compatibility.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) was used to tailor the functionality of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes. A two-step method including nitration reaction and amination reaction was used to synthesize aminated polyethersulfone (PES-NH2) for the preparation of PES/PES-NH2 membranes. Covalently tethered hydrophilic polymer brushes of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) were prepared via SI-ATRP at low temperature in an aqueous solvent. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and water contact angle were used to characterize the modified membranes surfaces. The PVP-grafted PES membranes showed lower protein adsorption and suppressed platelet adhesion compared with the pristine PES membrane. Moreover, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) for the PVP-grafted PES membranes was increased. These results indicated that the surface hydrophilic modification by grafting PVP brushes provided practical application for the PES membranes with good blood compatibility.
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The role of short daily hemodialysis in the control of hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and anemia.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and anemia are common secondary complications in hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Compared with conventional hemodialysis (CHD), short daily hemodialysis (sDHD) has been found to be more effective in patients with ESRD. The objective of this study was to determine whether sDHD could improve hyperphosphatemia, SHPT and anemia in patients with ESRD.
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In situ synthesis of silver nanoparticle decorated vertical nanowalls in a microfluidic device for ultrasensitive in-channel SERS sensing.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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A microfluidic device with integrated novel silver nanoparticle (Ag NPs) decorated nanowall structures was fabricated via in situ electrodeposition of Cu-core/C-sheath nanowalls, followed by a facile in-channel silver galvanic replacement reaction method at room temperature. The integrated microfluidic devices with Ag NPs decorated nanowalls, serving as a highly active Raman substrate, were then applied for in-channel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing using crystal violet as the model compound. The results show that the presence of a PDMS microfluidic channel does not significantly affect the Raman signal and crystal violet as low as 50 pM is prominently detected. The calculated apparent enhancement factor is 1.1 × 10(9), which allows for the ultra-sensitive detection of analytes in microfluidic devices. The superior enhancement of the in-channel Raman signal and excellent analyte sensitivity can be attributed to the synergistic effect of several distinct traits of the Ag NPs decorated nanowalls - a large available surface for analyte adsorption, a large number of nanocavities surrounded by nanowalls laterally confining the surface plasmons, and numerous "hot spots" resulting from close-contacted Ag NPs and/or the proximate edges of Ag decorated nanowalls. Because preparation of the active SERS substrate and subsequent finger-print SERS detection is completed within a microfluidic device, the developed method opens a new venue to integrate active SERS substrate within microfluidic channels and provides an excellent microfluidic SERS sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective chemical and biological sensing.
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Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Suppresses Proliferation and Survival of TW2.6 Human Oral Cancer Cells via Inhibition of Akt Signaling.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive component extracted from honeybee hive propolis. Our observations indicated that CAPE treatment suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation of TW2.6 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells dose-dependently. CAPE treatment decreased G1 phase cell population, increased G2/M phase cell population, and induced apoptosis in TW2.6 cells. Treatment with CAPE decreased protein abundance of Akt, Akt1, Akt2, Akt3, phospho-Akt Ser473, phospho-Akt Thr 308, GSK3?, FOXO1, FOXO3a, phospho-FOXO1 Thr24, phospho-FoxO3a Thr32, NF-?B, phospho-NF-?B Ser536, Rb, phospho-Rb Ser807/811, Skp2, and cyclin D1, but increased cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip. Overexpression of Akt1 or Akt2 in TW2.6 cells rescued growth inhibition caused by CAPE treatment. Co-treating TW2.6 cells with CAPE and 5-fluorouracil, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for oral cancers, exhibited additive cell proliferation inhibition. Our study suggested that administration of CAPE is a potential adjuvant therapy for patients with OSCC oral cancer.
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Angiopoietin-like protein 1 suppresses SLUG to inhibit cancer cell motility.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Angiopoietin-like protein 1 (ANGPTL1) is a potent regulator of angiogenesis. Growing evidence suggests that ANGPTL family proteins not only target endothelial cells but also affect tumor cell behavior. In a screen of 102 patients with lung cancer, we found that ANGPTL1 expression was inversely correlated with invasion, lymph node metastasis, and poor clinical outcomes. ANGPTL1 suppressed the migratory, invasive, and metastatic capabilities of lung and breast cancer cell lines in vitro and reduced metastasis in mice injected with cancer cell lines overexpressing ANGPTL1. Ectopic expression of ANGPTL1 suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by reducing the expression of the zinc-finger protein SLUG. A microRNA screen revealed that ANGPTL1 suppressed SLUG by inducing expression of miR-630 in an integrin ?(1)?(1)/FAK/ERK/SP1 pathway-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that ANGPTL1 represses lung cancer cell motility by abrogating the expression of the EMT mediator SLUG.
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SWAP-70: a new type of oncogene.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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SWAP-70 is a protein that has been suggested to be involved in regulation of actin rearrangement. Having discovered that an artificially-derived mutant of SWAP-70 can transform mouse embryo fibroblasts, we searched for naturally-occurring mutations in the SWAP-70 gene, finding listings for several on the Web at www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/, including three mutations found in ovarian cancers. (The number of such mutations has now reached 13 out of 228 tumors). We created expression vectors for the mutant SWAP-70 proteins and introduced these into NIH3T3 cells. The cells expressing the mutant SWAP-70 constructs exhibited faster growth than the parental or wild-type SWAP-70-expressing cells. In most instances, cells that are able to grow in soft agar will form tumors in nude mice. While SWAP-70-transformed cells grew in soft agar, they failed to form tumors in nude mice. This result implies that transformation by the SWAP-70 mutants is unique. The cells bearing the mutant SWAP-70 genes were sensitive to nutrient starvation, supporting the idea that they are transformed cells. However, they failed to pile up and demonstrated contact inhibition, unlike most normal transformed cells. Upon expression of human SWAP-70 genes, MEK1 was activated. This activation appeared to contribute to the saturation density of the cells. As SWAP-70 has been shown to be the last protein to receive signals from cytokines, it is likely that there is a putative feedback signaling pathway, and that disorder of this signaling pathway can transform cells. Accordingly, this may explain why SWAP-70-transformed cells have different characteristics than most transformed cells.
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Arabidopsis phytochrome B promotes SPA1 nuclear accumulation to repress photomorphogenesis under far-red light.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Phytochrome A (phyA) is the primary photoreceptor mediating deetiolation under far-red (FR) light, whereas phyB predominantly regulates light responses in red light. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA1) forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which is responsible for the degradation of various photomorphogenesis-promoting factors, resulting in desensitization to light signaling. However, the role of phyB in FR light signaling and the regulatory pathway from light-activated phytochromes to the COP1-SPA1 complex are largely unknown. Here, we confirm that PHYB overexpression causes an etiolation response with reduced ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) accumulation under FR light. Notably, phyB exerts its nuclear activities and promotes seedling etiolation in both the presence and absence of phyA in response to FR light. PhyB acts upstream of SPA1 and is functionally dependent on it in FR light signaling. PhyB interacts and forms a protein complex with SPA1, enhancing its nuclear accumulation under FR light. During the dark-to-FR transition, phyB is rapidly imported into the nucleus and facilitates nuclear SPA1 accumulation. These findings support the notion that phyB plays a role in repressing FR light signaling. Activity modulation of the COP1-SPA E3 complex by light-activated phytochromes is an effective and pivotal regulatory step in light signaling.
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Caffeic Acid phenethyl ester as a potential treatment for advanced prostate cancer targeting akt signaling.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cancer overall in the world. Androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, most prostate cancer patients receiving the androgen ablation therapy ultimately develop recurrent castration-resistant tumors within 1-3 years after treatment. The median overall survival time is 1-2 years after tumor relapse. Chemotherapy shows little effect on prolonging survival for patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. More than 80% of prostate tumors acquire mutation or deletion of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt signaling, indicating that inhibition of PI3K/Akt might be a potential therapy for advanced prostate tumors. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. CAPE is a well-known NF-?B inhibitor. CAPE has been used in folk medicine as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment suppresses tumor growth and Akt signaling in human prostate cancer cells. We discuss the potential of using CAPE as a treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer targeting Akt signaling pathway in this review article.
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Roles of levo-tetrahydropalmatine in modulating methamphetamine reward behavior.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), as an alkaloid purified from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Corydalis and Stephania, has been widely used to produce many traditional Chinese herbal preparations. The effect of l-THP on methamphetamine-induced reward learning still remains unclear although it has been proved to be effective on treating allodynia and drug addiction. This experiment has been designed to examine the effect of l-THP on the acquisition, expression, extinction, and reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. The results show that methamphetamine (METH) could induce CPP in mice at doses of 0.5mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg and 2.0mg/kg respectively, but l-THP alone could not do so. Meanwhile, l-THP could not induce conditioned place aversion at doses of 1.25mg/kg to 20.0mg/kg in mice, but it could attenuate the acquisition and expression of METH-induced CPP and facilitate the extinction of METH-induced CPP in mice. Besides, l-THP could inhibit the reinstatement of METH-induced CPP at the dose of 10.0mg/kg whether it was given in the extinction training phase or 30min before the reinstatement. These results suggest that l-THP can globally suppress the rewarding properties of METH on all phases of the CPP task and it may have potential effects on the treatment of METH abuse.
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Effects of NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphisms on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility and clinicopathological features.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Constitutive activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B is frequently observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The current study examined associations of polymorphisms within promoter regions of NFKB1 encoding NF-?B1 and NFKBIA encoding I?B? with the susceptibility of developing HCC and clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors.
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Development of PLGA-based itraconazole injectable nanospheres for sustained release.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Itraconazole (ITZ) is a synthetic triazole antifungal agent, which is widely used for treatment and prevention of fungal infections. The purpose of this study is to develop ITZ-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanospheres (PLGA-ITZ-NS) as a new sustained-release formulation for intravenous ITZ administration.
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Cholestane-3?, 5?, 6?-triol suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Oxysterols are oxidation products of cholesterol. Cholestane-3?, 5?, 6?-triol (abbreviated as triol) is one of the most abundant and active oxysterols. Here, we report that triol exhibits anti-cancer activity against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment of cells with triol dose-dependently suppressed proliferation of LNCaP CDXR-3, DU-145, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells and reduced colony formation in soft agar. Oral administration of triol at 20 mg/kg daily for three weeks significantly retarded the growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that triol treatment at 10-40 µM caused G1 cell cycle arrest while the TUNEL assay indicated that triol treatment at 20-40 µM induced apoptosis in all three cell lines. Micro-Western Arrays and traditional Western blotting methods indicated that triol treatment resulted in reduced expression of Akt1, phospho-Akt Ser473, phospho-Akt Thr308, PDK1, c-Myc, and Skp2 protein levels as well as accumulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip). Triol treatment also resulted in reduced Akt1 protein expression in PC-3 xenografts. Overexpression of Skp2 in PC-3 cells partially rescued the growth inhibition caused by triol. Triol treatment suppressed migration and invasion of DU-145, PC-3, and CDXR-3 cells. The expression levels of proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition as well as focal adhesion kinase were affected by triol treatment in these cells. Triol treatment caused increased expression of E-cadherin protein levels but decreased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, Slug, FAK, phospho-FAK Ser722, and phospho-FAK Tyr861 protein levels. Confocal laser microscopy revealed redistribution of ?-actin and ?-tubulin at the periphery of the CDXR-3 and DU-145 cells. Our observations suggest that triol may represent a promising therapeutic agent for advanced metastatic prostate cancer.
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[The pathogenesis of CD4(+)T cells infiltrated into the spinal cord in rat SNL model].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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To explore the infiltration pathogenesis of CD4(+);T cells following the spinal nerve ligation.
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[Primary malignant airway neoplasms in 4 children].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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Primary airway neoplasms are extremely rare in the pediatric age group. This paper reports 4 children with primary airway neoplasms to explore the clinical manifestations, safety and efficacy of bronchoscopic interventions.
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Polarization dependent solar cell conversion efficiency at oblique incident angles and the corresponding improvement using surface nanoparticle coating.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Despite tremendous efforts on improving the solar cell conversion efficiency at normal incidence, improvement at oblique angles has not been widely addressed, not to mention the corresponding light absorption behaviors at different polarizations. Here we report the characterization of the solar cell conversion efficiency and the spectra of photoresponsivity at various tilted angles. The results show that TM (transverse magnetic) polarized light possesses higher photoresponsivity than TE (transverse electric) polarized light and the difference becomes larger with the incidence angle. To address the issue, a monolayer of silica nanoparticles on the solar cell surface was employed to improve the light absorption. Even though both TE and TM waves show a decrease in the surface reflectivity with the presence of nanoparticles, the interaction between the silica particles and the TE wave is more significant. The improvement of the conversion efficiency for obliquely incident light is explained from the refractive index difference of the nanoparticles for the TE and TM polarizations.
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[Study on industrialization production technology of decoction pieces shuangfei of Platycodon grandiflorum].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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To establish industrialization production technology parameter for decoction pieces shuangfei of Platycodon grandiflorum.
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Ultrasensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose detection using copper nanowires.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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In the pursuit of more economical electrocatalysts for non-enzymatic glucose sensors, one-dimensional Cu nanowires (Cu NWs) with uniform size distribution and a large aspect ratio (>200) were synthesized by a facile, scalable, wet-chemistry approach. The morphology, crystallinity, and surface property of the as-prepared Cu NWs were examined by SEM, XRD, and XPS, respectively. The electrochemical property of Cu NWs for glucose electrooxidation was thoroughly investigated by cyclic voltammetry. In the amperometric detection of glucose, the Cu NWs modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited an extraordinary limit of detection as low as 35 nM and a wide dynamic range with excellent sensitivity of 420.3 ?A cm(-2) mM(-1), which was more than 10,000 times higher than that of the control electrode without Cu NWs. The performance of the developed glucose sensor was also independent to oxygen concentration and free from chloride poisoning. Furthermore, the interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, fructose, and sucrose at the level of their physiological concentration were insignificant, indicating excellent selectivity. Finally, good accuracy and high precision for the quantification of glucose concentration in human serum samples implicate the applicability of Cu NWs in sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose detection.
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Mapping of surface-enhanced fluorescence on metal nanoparticles using super-resolution photoactivation localization microscopy.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) was applied to study surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) on metal nanostructures (SEF-PALM). The detection of fluorescence from individual single molecules can be used to image the point-spread-function and spatial distribution of the fluorescence emitted in the vicinity of a metal surface. Due to the strong scattering effect, the angular distribution of the fluorescence is altered by metals, resulting in a spatial shift of fluorescence spots with respect to the metal nanostructures, and has to be taken into account in the analysis. SEF-PALM can be used to discriminate effects of labelling density when estimating the enhancement factor in SEF. Furthermore, nanostructures with sizes below the diffraction limit can be resolved using this technique. SEF-PALM is established as a powerful tool to study plasmon-mediated phenomena on metal nanostructures.
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[Change of coagulation functions and its significance in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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To explore the changes and clinical significances of plasma D-dimer, factor X and tissue factor in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and analyze the in-depth changes of these indicators in AECOPD with co-current deep venous thrombosis (DVT).
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FOXO3a-Dependent Mechanism of E1A-Induced Chemosensitization.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Gene therapy trials in human breast, ovarian, and head and neck tumors indicate that adenovirus E1A can sensitize cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo. Resistance to paclitaxel has been reported to occur in cells expressing low levels of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a. In this article, we report that FOXO3a is critical for E1A-mediated chemosensitization to paclitaxel. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FOXO3a abolished E1A-induced sensitivity to paclitaxel. Mechanistic investigations indicated that E1A indirectly stabilized FOXO3a by acting at an intermediate step to inhibit a ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis pathway involving the E3 ligase ?TrCP and the FOXO3a inhibitory kinase IKK?. E1A derepressed this inhibitory pathway by stimulating expression of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/C protein phosphatases, which by binding to the TGF-?-activated kinase TAK1, inhibited its ability to activate IKK? and, thereby, to suppress ?TrCP-mediated degradation of FOXO3a. Thus, by stimulating PP2A/C expression, E1A triggers a signaling cascade that stabilizes FOXO3a and mediates chemosensitization. Our findings provide a leap forward in understanding paclitaxel chemosensitization by E1A, and offer a mechanistic rational to apply E1A gene therapy as an adjuvant for improving therapeutic outcomes in patients receiving paclitaxel treatment.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor C as a predictor of early recurrence and poor prognosis of resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is potentially curable after completely resection, but early recurrence may infl uence prognosis. This study hypothesises that vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) plays a key role in predicting early recurrence and poor survival of patients with stage I NSCLC.
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Androgen suppresses proliferation of castration-resistant LNCaP 104-R2 prostate cancer cells through androgen receptor, Skp2, and c-Myc.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, this therapy is associated with several undesired side-effects, including increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. To study if termination of long-term androgen ablation and restoration of testosterone levels could suppress the growth of relapsed hormone-refractory prostate tumors, we implanted testosterone pellets in castrated nude mice carrying androgen receptor (AR)-positive LNCaP 104-R2 cells, which relapsed from androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells after long-term androgen deprivation. 104-R2 tumor xenografts regressed after testosterone pellets were implanted. Of 33 tumors, 24 adapted to elevation of testosterone level and relapsed as androgen-insensitive tumors. Relapsed tumors (R2Ad) expressed less AR and prostate-specific antigen. We then studied the molecular mechanism underlying the androgenic regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation. Androgen suppresses proliferation of 104-R2 by inducing G(1) cell cycle arrest through reduction of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and c-Myc, and induction of p27(Kip1). 104-R2 cells adapted to androgen treatment and the adapted cells, R2Ad, were androgen-insensitive cells with a slower growth rate and low protein level of AR, high levels of c-Myc and Skp2, and low levels of p27(Kip1). Nuclear AR and prostate-specific antigen expression is present in 104-R2 cells but not R2Ad cells when androgen is absent. Overexpression of AR in R2Ad cells regenerated an androgen-repressed phenotype; knockdown of AR in 104-R2 cells generated an androgen-insensitive phenotype. Overexpression of Skp2 and c-Myc in 104-R2 cells blocked the growth inhibition caused by androgens. We concluded that androgens cause growth inhibition in LNCaP 104-R2 prostate cancer cells through AR, Skp2, and c-Myc.
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[Expression of TLR8 in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the effect of TLR8 agonist on the cell proliferation and apoptosis].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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To observe the expression of Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) in human cervical cancer cell-line HeLa cells, and the effects of TLR8 agonist CL075 on the survival and proliferation of HeLa cells.
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[Comparison of eight equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in patients with cardiovascular diseases].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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To assess the diagnostic value of 8 equations using different variables for determining the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
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Androgens as therapy for androgen receptor-positive castration-resistant prostate cancer.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed non-cutaneous tumor of men in Western countries. While surgery is often successful for organ-confined prostate cancer, androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, this therapy is associated with several undesired side-effects, including increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Shortening the period of androgen ablation therapy may benefit prostate cancer patients. Intermittent Androgen Deprivation therapy improves quality of life, reduces toxicity and medical costs, and delays disease progression in some patients. Cell culture and xenograft studies using androgen receptor (AR)-positive castration-resistant human prostate cancers cells (LNCaP, ARCaP, and PC-3 cells over-expressing AR) suggest that androgens may suppress the growth of AR-rich prostate cancer cells. Androgens cause growth inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest in these cells by regulating c-Myc, Skp2, and p27Kip via AR. Higher dosages of testosterone cause greater growth inhibition of relapsed tumors. Manipulating androgen/AR signaling may therefore be a potential therapy for AR-positive advanced prostate cancer.
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The incremental value of regional dyssynchrony in determining functional mitral regurgitation beyond left ventricular geometry after narrow QRS anterior myocardial infarction: a real time three-dimensional echocardiography study.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Determinants of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) severity after acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI) remained unclear. Our aim was to: (1) test whether LV dyssynchrony upon real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) is independently associated with FMR severity; and (2) to investigate the role of regional systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) in identifying FMR severity.
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Genomic testing and therapies for breast cancer in clinical practice.
Am J Manag Care
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Given the likely proliferation of targeted testing and treatment strategies for cancer, a better understanding of the utilization patterns of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing and trastuzumab and newer gene expression profiling (GEP) for risk stratification and chemotherapy decision making are important.
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Pt nanoflower/polyaniline composite nanofibers based urea biosensor.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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Hybrid materials with special structures are of great interest because of their superior properties compared with their pure counterparts. Hybrid polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers with integrated Pt nanoflowers are studied in this research. PANi is prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline on an electrospun nanofiber template in an acidic solution with ammonium persulfate (APS) as the oxidant. Pt nanoflowers are further electrodeposited onto the PANi nanofibers backbone by cyclic voltammetry (CV), resulting in novel functionalized hybrid nanofibers. The coverage of Pt nanoflowers on PANi nanofibers can be facilely controlled by adjusting the electrodeposition conditions. The factors affecting Pt nanoflowers formation are further investigated. As a demonstration, urease is immobilized onto the Pt/PANi hybrid nanofibers and the composite was employed as the sensing platform for urea detection in a flow-injection-analysis (FIA) system. The detection of urea shows a wide linear range (up to 20 mM), a good limit of detection of 10 ?M (S/N=3), and an excellent anti-interference property against chloride ion. In addition, it was found that the response to urea was attributed not only to the conductivity change of PANi due to the interaction between PANi and ammonia (liberated from the enzymatic reaction), but also to the interaction between Pt nanoflowers and amine groups in urea. The strategy developed in this study can be extended to synthesize other composite nanofibers consisting of conducting polymer and metal nanoparticles for a wide range of sensing applications.
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miR-107 promotes tumor progression by targeting the let-7 microRNA in mice and humans.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) influence many biological processes, including cancer. They do so by posttranscriptionally repressing target mRNAs to which they have sequence complementarity. Although it has been postulated that miRNAs can regulate other miRNAs, this has never been shown experimentally to our knowledge. Here, we demonstrate that miR-107 negatively regulates the tumor suppressor miRNA let-7 via a direct interaction. miR-107 was found to be highly expressed in malignant tissue from patients with advanced breast cancer, and its expression was inversely correlated with let-7 expression in tumors and in cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-107 in human cancer cell lines led to destabilization of mature let-7, increased expression of let-7 targets, and increased malignant phenotypes. In contrast, depletion of endogenous miR-107 dramatically increased the stability of mature let-7 and led to downregulation of let-7 targets. Accordingly, miR-107 expression increased the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of a human breast cancer cell line in mice via inhibition of let-7 and upregulation of let-7 targets. By mutating individual sites within miR-107 and let-7, we found that miR-107 directly interacts with let-7 and that the internal loop of the let-7/miR-107 duplex is critical for repression of let-7 expression. Altogether, we have identified an oncogenic role for miR-107 and provide evidence of a transregulational interaction among miRNAs in human cancer development.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.