Analysis and evaluation of the source of heavy metals in water of the River Changjiang.
In order to analyze and evaluate different trace metals on surface water of the Changjiang River, concentrations of dissolved trace metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Sc, Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Cr, and Hg), major elements (Ca and Mg), and nutrient (NO3- were measured. Samples were taken at 76 positions along Changjiang River in flood and dry seasons during 2007-2008. Spatial distributions identified two main large zones mainly influenced by mineral erosion (sites 1-22) and anthropogenic action (sites 23-76), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify the variance distinguishing the origin of water. Four significant components were extracted by PCA, explaining 74.91% of total variable. Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Sc, Al, Ca, and Mg were mainly associated with the weathering and erosion of various rocks and minerals, while an anthropogenic source was identified for Cd and As. Although erosion was one source of Pb and Zn, they were also input by atmospheric deposition and industrial pollutions. NO3- and Se were mainly associated with agriculture activities. However, Hg and Cr showed different sources. CA confirmed and completed the results obtained by PCA, classifying the data into two large groups representing different areas. Group 1 referred to the upper reaches which represented samples mainly corresponding to natural background areas. Group 2 referred to the middle and lower reaches including samples under anthropogenic influence. Meanwhile, group 2 was subdivided into three new groups, representing agricultural, industrial, and various artificial pollution sources, respectively.