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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40-79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals.
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Cognitive function and 10 year mortality in an 85 year-old community-dwelling population.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The relationship between mortality and impaired cognitive function has not been thoroughly investigated in a very elderly community-dwelling population, and little is known about the association of disease-specific mortality with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subscale scores. Here we evaluated these data in Japanese community-dwelling elderly. In 2003, 85 year-olds (n=207) were enrolled; 205 completed the MMSE for cognitive function and were followed-up for 10 years, during which time 120 participants died, 70 survived, and 17 were lost to follow-up. Thirty-eight deaths were due to cardiovascular disease, 22 to senility, 21 to respiratory disease, and 16 to cancer. All-cause mortality decreased by 4.3% with a 1-point increase in the global MMSE score without adjustment, and it decreased by 6.3% with adjustment for both sex and length of education. Cardiovascular mortality decreased by 7.6% and senility mortality decreased by 9.2% with a 1-point increase in the global MMSE score with adjustment for sex and education. No association was found between respiratory diseases or cancer mortality and global MMSE score. All-cause mortality also decreased with increases in MMSE subscale scores for time orientation, place orientation, delayed recall, naming objects, and listening and obeying. Cardiovascular mortality was also associated with the MMSE subscale of naming objects, and senility mortality was associated with the subscales of time orientation and place orientation. Thus, we found that impaired cognitive function determined by global MMSE score and some MMSE subscale scores were independent predictors of all-cause mortality or mortality due to cardiovascular disease or senility in 85 year-olds.
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Serum total cholesterol concentration and 10-year mortality in an 85-year-old population.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Little is known about the association between total cholesterol (TC) and all-cause mortality in the elderly (especially the very elderly). Here we examined the association between TC and all-cause mortality in 207 very elderly (85-year-old) participants. In 2003, we performed a baseline laboratory blood examination, and blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) measurements, and lifestyle questionnaires were completed by the participants. The participants were followed for the subsequent 10 years. As of 2013, of the 207 participants in 2003, 70 participants had survived, 120 individuals had died, and 17 were lost to follow up. The TC values were divided into high-TC (?209 mg/dL), intermediate-TC (176-208 mg/dL), and low-TC (?175 mg/dL) categories. With the Kaplan-Meier method, we found that both the high-TC and intermediate-TC participants survived longer than the low-TC participants. The men with high TC survived longer than those with low TC, but no corresponding difference was found for the women. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model, with adjustment for gender, smoking, alcohol intake, history of stroke or heart disease, serum albumin concentration, BMI, and systolic BP, revealed that the total mortality in the low-TC group was 1.7-fold higher than that in the high-TC group. Mortality, adjusted for the same factors, decreased 0.9% with each 1 mg/dL increase in the serum TC concentration and decreased 0.8% with each 1 mg/dL increase in the serum (low-density lipoprotein) LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Our results indicate an association between lower serum TC concentrations and increased all-cause mortality in a community-dwelling, very elderly population. Mortality decreased with the increases in both TC and LDL-C concentrations, after adjustment for various confounding factors. These findings suggest that low TC and low LDL-C may be independent predictors of high mortality in the very elderly.
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Gender differences in the association between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease: the Hisayama Study.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome (MS) are more prevalent in males than in females. However, whether there is a gender difference in the association between these health conditions has not yet been investigated. This study examined the gender difference in this association, considering the definition of periodontal disease.
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Activities of daily living dependency and disease-specific mortality during 12-year follow-up in an 80-year-old population.
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Although total mortality is likely to be higher in elderly individuals with frailty or impaired activities of daily living (ADL), little is known about the relationships between disease-specific mortality and ADL dependency in the elderly. Therefore, we examined whether 12-year disease-specific mortality may be associated with ADL dependency in an 80-year-old population.
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Body mass index and disease-specific mortality in an 80-year-old population at the 12-year follow-up.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Although many investigations examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality, little is known about the possible associations between BMI and disease-specific mortality in very elderly people. Here we evaluated this association in an 80-year-old population. In 1998, 675 residents in Japans Fukuoka Prefecture participated. They were followed up for 12 years after the baseline examination; 37 subjects (5.5%) were lost to follow-up. The subjects were divided into six groups by their BMI values: <19.5 (most-thin), 19.5 to <21.1 (relatively thin), 21.1 to <22.5 (thin/normal), 22.5 to <23.8 (normal/overweight), 23.8 to <26.0 (relatively obese), ?26.0 (most-obese). The most-thin group had the highest mortality from all-causes, and from respiratory disease. The normal/overweight group had the lowest overall mortality among the six BMI groups. These associations were found in the men, but not in the women. The most-obese group did not have higher mortality from all-causes or cardiovascular disease compared to the normal/overweight group. Respiratory disease-related mortality was lowest in the most-obese group. No association was found between BMI group and mortality from cancer. In conclusion, in an 80-year-old Japanese population, mortality from all-causes or respiratory disease was highest in the most-lean group (BMI <19.5), and mortality from all-causes or cardiovascular disease was lowest in the group with BMI 22.5 to <23.8.
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High-level activities of daily living and disease-specific mortality during a 12-year follow-up of an octogenarian population.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Little is known about the relationship between disease-specific mortality and high-level activities of daily living in the elderly. We examined whether mortality is associated with high-level activities of daily living in an octogenarian population.
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Involvement of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 in globular adiponectin-induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in RAW 264 cell.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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We previously demonstrated that treatment with a globular type of adiponectin (gAd) induced expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) via the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264. In the present study, we investigated whether suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) has roles in the regulation of gAd-induced G-CSF generation. Intracellular G-CSF generation induced by gAd treatment peaked after 10h and then attenuated. SOCS1 mRNA and protein were expressed at 1h and 4h after gAd treatment, respectively. Overexpression of SOCS1 reduced G-CSF generation and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in gAd-treated cells. While gAd treatment induced the translocation of STAT3 to the nucleus under control conditions, STAT3 stayed in the cytosol when SOCS1 was overexpressed. Additionally, knockdown of SOCS1 by interfering RNA caused levels of G-CSF to continue to rise beyond 10h after gAd treatment. These results suggest that SOCS1 is involved in providing negative feedback for gAd-induced production of G-CSF.
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Relationship between receiving a workplace oral health examination including oral health instruction and oral health status in the Japanese adult population.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Dental caries and periodontal disease are highly prevalent in the Japanese adult population. Oral examination is an effective method to find various oral health problems in their early stages. However, workplace oral examination is not common in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receiving workplace oral health examination, including oral health instruction, and oral health status in the Japanese adult population.
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Effectiveness of the salivary occult blood test as a screening method for periodontal status.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Community-based periodontal examinations are not popular despite the high prevalence of periodontal disease among adults. This study examines the effectiveness of a novel salivary occult blood test (SOBT) as a screening method for periodontal status.
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Diacylglycerol kinase alpha regulates globular adiponectin-induced reactive oxygen species.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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It has previously been reported that the globular form of adiponectin (gAd), mature adipocyte-derived cytokine, induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264. This study investigated whether diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), enzymes functioning in sub-cellular signalling pathways, had a role on gAd-induced ROS generation in RAW 264 cells. Administration of R59022, a specific inhibitor for DGK, reduced gAd-induced ROS generation and NO release. RAW 264 cell expressed DGK? mRNA. Depression of DGK? mRNA by RNA interference significantly reduced the ROS generation in response to gAd treatment. Interestingly, transfection with the DGK?-specific small interfering RNA attenuated the expression level of Nox1 mRNA in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. In addition, the DGK? knockdown with siRNA suppressed gAd-induced NO release.
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Involvement of the JAK-STAT pathway and SOCS3 in the regulation of adiponectin-generated reactive oxygen species in murine macrophage RAW 264 cells.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by differentiating adipocytes and has been proposed to have anti-diabetic and immunosuppressive properties. We previously reported that the globular form of adiponectin (gAd) induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), followed by caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in RAW 264 cells. Here, we demonstrate that gAd-induced ROS generation and apoptosis were diminished by suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). The phosphorylation level of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 detected by Western blotting was highest at 20 min in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. This phosphorylation was inhibited by AG490, a specific inhibitor of janus-activator kinase (JAK). The gAd-induced ROS and NO were reduced by administration of AG490 and Jak-2-specific siRNA in RAW 264 cells. The gAd stimulation transiently induced SOCS3 mRNA expression and protein production. We examined SOCS3-overexpressing RAW 264 cells to investigate the role of the JAK-STAT pathway in gAd-induced ROS and NO generation. SOCS3 overexpression significantly reduced both ROS and NO generation. Additionally, gAd-induced caspase activation and apoptotic cell death were reduced in SOCS3 transfectants compared with vector control transfectants. These results suggest that the JAK-STAT pathway, which can be suppressed by SOCS3 expression, is involved in gAd-induced ROS and NO generation followed by apoptotic cell death.
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Relationship between obesity and physical fitness and periodontitis.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Obesity and exercise are important elements associated with lifestyle-related diseases, and studies suggested that these factors may also be related to periodontitis. This study investigates the relationship between obesity and physical fitness and periodontitis.
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Serum albumin levels as an independent predictor of 4-year mortality in a community-dwelling 80-year-old population.
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Although serum albumin levels are associated with mortality in non-institutionalized elderly people under 80 years old, as well as in the institutionalized very elderly, little is known about the relationship in community-dwelling very elderly people. We, therefore, examined the association in a Japanese population of 80-year-old community residents.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of a globular adiponectin function on RAW 264 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Adiponectin is an adipokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We previously reported that a globular adiponectin (gAd) suppresses Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of gAd. In this study, we investigated whether gAd is able to modulate the effect of A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide on cytokine induction in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264). The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and IkappaB kinase alpha/beta and the degradation of IkappaB, which were induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide intoxication, were clearly reduced in gAd-pretreated RAW 264 cells compared with the untreated cells. Expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA were assessed by real-time PCR. Cell-free supernatants were collected after 12 h of stimulation and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TNF-alpha and IL-10. Pretreatment with gAd significantly inhibited the A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha mRNA expression and protein secretion. In contrast, pretreatment with gAd significantly enhanced the A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-10 mRNA expression and protein secretion. These data suggest a mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of gAd in local inflammatory lesions, such as periodontitis.
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Globular adiponectin-induced RAW 264 apoptosis is regulated by a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway involving Bcl-2.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Globular adiponectin (gAd), a truncated form of adipocyte-derived cytokine, stimulates RAW 264 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which trigger an apoptotic cascade. In this study, we investigated the generation of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in gAd-stimulated RAW 264 cells. Treatment with gAd efficiently induced the generation of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS, as detected by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and MitoSOX fluorescence, respectively. Furthermore, gAd treatment significantly increased 8-oxoguanine, a specific indicator of oxidative DNA damage. The transfection of RAW 264 cells with iNOS- and gp91(phox)-specific small interfering RNA reduced markedly the generation of intracellular, but not mitochondrial, ROS. Quantitative PCR revealed that the expression ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax was reduced in a time-dependent manner in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. The overexpression of Bcl-2 markedly inhibited gAd-induced apoptosis in RAW 264 cells and also reduced both the intracellular and the mitochondrial ROS generation induced by gAd treatment. Moreover, the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly suppressed gAd-induced NO secretion and NOS activity. In addition, the inhibition of NOS activity partially reduced the oxidative DNA damage induced by gAd. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the gAd-induced apoptotic pathway acting via ROS/RNS generation involves Bcl-2.
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Involvement of Ca(2+) in globular adiponectin-induced reactive oxygen species.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Globular adiponectin (gAd) induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264. We investigated the role of Ca(2+) in gAd-induced ROS and NO generation. Pretreatment with BAPTA-AM, a selective chelator of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), partially reduced gAd-induced generation of ROS and NO in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. The lowest [Ca(2+)](i) occurred 30min after gAd treatment, after which [Ca(2+)](i) increased continually and exceeded the initial level. The mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](m)) detected by Rhod-2 fluorescence started to increase at 6h after gAd treatment. Pretreatment with a NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium, prevented the reduction of [Ca(2+)](i) in the early phase after gAd treatment. Calcium depletion by BAPTA-AM had no effect on the gAd-induced [Ca(2+)](m) oscillation. The administration of a specific calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium, significantly suppressed gAd-induced ROS and NO generation and NOS activity.
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Essential role of JAK/STAT pathway in the induction of cell cycle arrest in macrophages infected with periodontopathic bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.
Med. Microbiol. Immunol.
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In the present study, phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) was found to be important in the induction of G1 cell cycle arrest in murine macrophages infected with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. First, we focused on suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) as a negative regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway. Flow cytometric analysis showed that A. actinomycetemcomitans infection eliminated G1 cell cycle arrest in SOCS3-overexpressing RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Western blotting analysis demonstrated expression of cell cycle-associated protein p21 and hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was decreased in SOCS3-overexpressing RAW 264.7 cells. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2, inhibited the expression of p21 and degradation of cyclin D1 in A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected RAW 264.7 cells, resulting in suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation. These results indicated that constitutive SOCS3 expression and AG490 inhibited the expression of JAK2 and phosphorylation of STAT3, and prevented cell cycle arrest in A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected RAW 264.7 cells. These findings suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway plays crucial roles in the cell cycle regulation of macrophages infected with periodontopathic bacteria through the suppression of p21 expression and degradation of cyclin D1.
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Interrelationship of oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, and cognitive ability with activities of daily living in Japanese elderly people receiving home care services due to physical disabilities.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
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Malnutrition and cognitive impairment lead to declines in activities of daily living (ADL). Nutritional status and cognitive ability have been shown to correlate with oral health status and swallowing function. However, the complex relationship among the factors that affect decline in ADL is not understood. We examined direct and indirect relationships among oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, cognitive ability, and ADL in Japanese elderly people living at home and receiving home care services because of physical disabilities.
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Relationship between nutrition status and dental occlusion in community-dwelling frail elderly people.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
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This study aimed to determine the risk of malnutrition in some communities where the frail elderly receive public long-term care insurance. We also clarified the dental problems in those at risk of malnutrition.
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