We previously described a color-coded imaging model that can quantify the length of nascent blood vessels using Gelfoam® implanted in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) nude mice. In ND-GFP mice, nascent blood vessels are labeled with GFP. We report here that osteosarcoma cells promote angiogenesis in the Gelfoam® angiogenesis assay in ND-GFP mice. Gelfoam® was initially transplanted subcutaneously in the flank of transgenic ND-GFP nude mice. Seven days after transplantation of Gelfoam®, skin flaps were made and human 143B osteosarcoma cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in cytoplasm were injected into the transplanted Gelfoam®. The control-group mice had only implanted Gelfoam®. Skin flaps were made at days 14, 21, and 28 after transplantation of the Gelfoam® to allow imaging of vascularization in the Gelfoam® using a variable-magnification small animal imaging system and confocal fluorescence microscopy. ND-GFP expressing nascent blood vessels penetrated and spread into the Gelfoam® in a time-dependent manner in both control and osteosarcoma-implanted mice. ND-GFP expressing blood vessels in the Gelfoam® of the osteosarcoma-implanted mice were associated with the cancer cells and larger and longer than in the Gelfoam®-only implanted mice (P?0.01). The results presented in this report demonstrate strong angiogenesis induction by osteosarcoma cells and suggest this process is a potential therapeutic target for this disease.
Cell and tissue culture can be performed on different substrates such as on plastic, in Matrigel™, and on Gelfoam(®), a sponge matrix. Each of these substrates consists of a very different surface, ranging from hard and inflexible, a gel, and a sponge-matrix, respectively. Folkman and Moscona found that cell shape was tightly coupled to DNA synthesis and cell growth. Therefore, the flexibility of a substrate is important for cells to maintain their optimal shape. Human osteosarcoma cells, stably expressing a fusion protein of ?(v) integrin and green fluorescent protein (GFP), grew as a simple monolayer without any structure formation on the surface of a plastic dish. When the osteosarcoma cells were cultured within Matrigel™, the cancer cells formed colonies but no other structures. When the cancer cells were seeded on Gelfoam(®), the cells formed three-dimensional tissue-like structures. The behavior of 143B osteosarcoma cells on Gelfoam(®) in culture is remarkably different from those of these cells in monolayer culture or in Matrigel™. Tissue-like structures were observed only in Gelfoam(®) culture. The data in this report suggest a flexible structural substrate such as Gelfoam(®) provides a more in vivo-like culture condition than monolayer culture or Matrigel(TM) and that Matrigel(TM) does not result in actual three-dimensional culture.
Invasive cancer cells are a critical target in order to prevent metastasis. In the present report, we demonstrate real-time visualization of cell cycle kinetics of invading cancer cells in 3-dimensional (3D) Gelfoam® histoculture, which is in vivo-like. A fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) whereby G0/G1 cells express a red fluorescent protein and S/G2/M cells express a green fluorescent protein was used to determine the cell cycle position of invading and non-invading cells. With FUCCI 3D confocal imaging, we observed that cancer cells in G0/G1 phase in Gelfoam® histoculture migrated more rapidly and further than cancer cells in S/G2/M phases. Cancer cells ceased migrating when they entered S/G2/M phases and restarted migrating after cell division when the cells re-entered G0/G1. Migrating cancer cells also were resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy, since they were preponderantly in G0/G1, where cytotoxic chemotherapy is not effective. The results of the present report suggest that novel therapy targeting G0/G1 cancer cells should be developed to prevent metastasis.
Vessel anastomosis is important in tumor angiogenesis as well as for vascularization therapy for ischemia and other diseases. We report here the development of a color-coded imaging model that can visualize the anastomosis between blood vessels of red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing vessels in vascularized Gelfoam® previously transplanted into RFP transgenic mice and then re-transplanted into nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) mice where nascent blood vessels express GFP. Gelfoam® was initially transplanted subcutaneously in the flank of transgenic RFP nude mice. Skin flaps were made at 14 days after transplantation of Gelfoam® to allow observation of vascularization of the Gelfoam® using confocal fluorescence imaging. The implanted Gelfoam® became highly vascularized with RFP vessels. Fourteen days after transplantation into RFP transgenic nude mice, the Gelfoam® was removed and re-transplanted into the subcutis on the flank of ND-GFP transgenic nude mice in which nascent blood vessels express GFP. Skin flaps were made and anastomosis between the GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels of ND-GFP transgenic nude mice and RFP blood vessels in the Gelfoam® was imaged 14 and 21 days after re-transplantation. The results presented in this report indicate a possible mechanism for tumor angiogenesis and suggest a new paradigm of therapeutic revascularization of ischemic organs requiring new blood vessels and in other diseases.
?v Integrin is involved in various steps of cancer metastasis. In this report, we describe real-time imaging of ?v integrin molecular dynamics in human 143B osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We first generated osteosarcoma cells expressing ?v integrin green fluorescent protein (GFP) by transfection of an ?v integrin GFP fusion vector (pCMV6-AC-ITGAV-GFP) into 143B cells. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy demonstrated that ?v integrin immunofluorescence staining co-localized with ?v integrin-GFP fluorescence in 143B cells. When ?v integrin-GFP-expressing 143B osteosarcoma cells were seeded on a dish coated with fibronectin, which is bound by ?v integrin, punctate ?v integrin-GFP was observed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. When the 143B ?v integrin-GFP cells were seeded onto uncoated plastic, ?v integrin-GFP was diffuse within the cells. When ?v integrin-GFP 143B osteosarcoma cells (1×10(6)) were orthotopically transplanted into the tibia of nude mice, the cells aligned along the collagen fibers within the tumor and had punctuate expression of ?v integrin-GFP. In the orthotopic model, the invading osteosarcoma cells had punctate ?v integrin-GFP in the muscle tissue at the primary tumor margin. These results show that ?v integrin-GFP enables the imaging of the molecular dynamics of ?v integrin in osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Malignant glioma is the most common type of primary central nervous system cancer. Gliomas are very difficult to completely resect due to their invasiveness. In the present study, we compared fluorescence-guided and standard bright-light resection of a human glioma orthotopically implanted in nude mice. U87 human glioma cells, expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP), were injected stereotactically into the nude mouse brain through a craniotomy open window. Two weeks after cancer-cell implantation, gliomas were resected under fluorescence guidance or under bright light. U87-RFP tumors were clearly visualized with a long-working distance fluorescence microscope. Almost all cancer cells were removed using fluorescence-guided navigation without damage to the brain tissue. In contrast, brain tumors were difficult to visualize under bright light and many residual cancer cells remained in the brain after bright-light surgery. Fluorescence-guided surgery significantly extended the survival of the mice compared to those who underwent bright-light surgery. These results suggest that fluorescence-guided surgery has significant potential for brain cancer treatment.
We have previously demonstrated that the ultraviolet (UV) light is effective against a variety of cancer cells in vivo as well as in vitro. In the present report, we imaged the DNA damage repair response of minimal cancer after UVC irradiation. DNA-damage repair response to UV irradiation was imaged on tumors growing in 3D culture and in superficial tumors grown in vivo. UV-induced DNA damage repair was imaged with GFP fused to the DNA damage response (DDR)-related chromatin-binding protein 53BP1 in MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Three-dimensional Gelfoam® histocultures and confocal imaging enabled 53BP1-GFP nuclear foci to be observed within 1?h after UVC irradiation, indicating the onset of DNA damage repair response. A clonogenic assay showed that UVC inhibited MiaPaCa-2 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, while UVA and UVB showed little effect on cell proliferation. Induction of UV-induced 53BP1-GFP focus formation was limited up to a depth of 40?µm in 3D-culture of MiaPaCa-2 cells. The MiaPaCa-2 cells irradiated by UVC light in a skin-flap mouse model had a significant decrease of tumor growth compared to untreated controls. Our results also demonstrate that 53BP1-GFP is an imageable marker of UV-induced DNA damage repair response of minimal cancer and that UVC is a useful tool for the treatment of residual cancer since UVC can kill superficial cancer cells without damage to deep tissue.
We have previously demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) light treatment is effective against various types of cancer cells expressing fluorescent proteins. In order to further understand the efficacy of UV treatment of cancer cells, we determined the kinetics of focus formation by imaging of a DNA damage-response (DDR) protein after UVC irradiation of human pancreatic cancer cells. A fusion protein consisting of the DDR protein 53BP1 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) (GFP-53BP1) was used as a live-cell imaging marker for cellular response after UVC irradiation. GFP-53BP1 foci were observed after UVC irradiation of MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. During live-cell imaging, GFP-53BP1 foci were observed in the cells within 15 min after UVC irradiation, and some of the foci remained stable for at least three hours. GFP-53BP1 focus formation was observed in the pancreatic-cancer cells irradiated by 25-200 J/m(2) UVC. Our results indicate that an early response to DNA damage caused by UVC irradiation can be visualized by increased GFP-53BP1 focus formation by pancreatic cancer cells.
The integrin family of proteins has been shown to be involved in the malignant behavior of cells. We report here development of a color-coded imaging model that can visualize the interaction between ?v integrin linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in osteosarcoma cells and blood vessels in Gelfoam® vascularized after implantation in red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic nude mice. Human 143B osteosarcoma cells expressing ?v integrin-GFP were generated by transfection with an ?v integrin-GFP vector. Gelfoam® (5×5 mm) was transplanted subcutaneously in transgenic RFP nude mice. The implanted Gelfoam® became highly vascularized with RFP vessels within 14 days. Skin flaps were made at days 7, 14, 21, 28 after transplantation of Gelfoam® for observing vascularization of the Gelfoam® using fluorescence imaging. Gelfoam® is a useful tool to observe angiogenesis in vivo. 143B cells (5 × 10(5)) expressing ?v integrin-GFP were injected into the Gelfoam® seven days after transplantation of Gelfoam®. Seven days after cancer-cell injection, cancer cells and blood vessels were observed in the Gelfoam® by color-coded confocal microscopy via the skin flap. The 143B cells expressing ?v integrin-GFP proliferated into the Gelfoam®, which contained RFP-expressing blood vessels. Strong expression of ?v integrin-GFP in 143B cells was observed near RFP vessels in the Gelfoam®. The observation of the behavior of ?v integrin-GFP and blood vessels will allow further understanding of the role of ?v integrin in cancer cells.
Caffeine enhances the effect of certain anticancer drugs, but the mechanism of modulation is poorly understood. In this study, modulation of cisplatinum efficacy induced by caffeine was visualized at the subcellular level by real-time fluorescent-protein imaging. Mitotic and apoptotic changes were observed by imaging 143B human osteosarcoma dual-color cells, in which GFP is expressed in the nucleus and RFP is expressed in the cytoplasm. Modulation of the cell cycle was imaged using time-lapse imaging of HeLa cells expressing a fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) in the nucleus. Clonogenic assays showed that caffeine increased the inhibition by cisplatinum on cell proliferation. Subcellular imaging demonstrated that cisplatinum decreased mitosis and induced apoptosis in 143B cells. The combination of cisplatinum and caffeine enhanced mitosis and subsequently increased apoptosis. Time-lapse imaging showed that cisplatinum strongly induced cell-cycle arrest in the S/G2 phase in HeLa-FUCCI cells. Caffeine overcame the cell-cycle arrest induced by cisplatinum, thereby increasing its efficacy, since cisplatinum is ineffective against quiescent cells. The data in this report indicate that caffeine modulates the cell cycle in cancer cells, thereby enhancing efficacy of cell-cycle-dependent anticancer drugs such as cisplatinum.
We have previously reported that nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, Schwann cells, and other cell types. In the present study, vibrissa hair follicles, including their sensory nerve stump, were excised from transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice), and were placed in 3D histoculture supported by Gelfoam®. ?-III tubulin-positive fibers, consisting of ND-GFP-expressing cells, extended up to 500 µm from the whisker nerve stump in histoculture. The growing fibers had growth cones on their tips expressing F-actin. These findings indicate that ?-III tubulin-positive fibers elongating from the whisker follicle sensory nerve stump were growing axons. The growing whisker sensory nerve was highly enriched in ND-GFP cells which appeared to play a major role in its elongation and interaction with other nerves in 3D culture, including the sciatic nerve, the trigeminal nerve, and the trigeminal nerve ganglion. The results of the present report suggest a major function of the nestin-expressing stem cells in the hair follicle is for growth of the follicle sensory nerve.
We have previously reported that hair follicles contain multipotent stem cells which express nestin. The nestin-expressing cells form the hair follicle sensory nerve. In vitro, the nestin-expressing hair follicle cells can differentiate into neurons, Schwann cells, and other cell types. In the present study, the sciatic nerve was excised from transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice). The ND-GFP cells of the sciatic nerve were also found to be multipotent as the ND-GFP cells in the hair follicle. When the ND-GFP cells in the mouse sciatic nerve cultured on Gelfoam® and were imaged by confocal microscopy, they were observed forming fibers extending the nerve. The fibers consisted of ND-GFP-expressing spindle cells, which co-expressed the neuron marker ?-III tubulin, the immature Schwann-cell marker p75(NTR) and TrkB which is associated with neurons. The fibers also contain nestin-negative spherical cells expressing GFAP, a Schwann-cell marker. The ?-III tubulin-positive fibers had growth cones on their tips expressing F-actin, indicating they are growing axons. When the sciatic nerve from mice ubiquitously expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) was co-cultured on Gelfoam® with the sciatic nerve from ND-GFP transgenic mice, the interaction of nerves was observed. Proliferating nestin-expressing cells in the injured sciatic nerve were also observed in vivo. Nestin-expressing cells were also observed in posterior nerves but not in the spinal cord itself, when placed in 3-D Gelfoam® culture. The results of the present report suggest a critical function of nestin-expressing cells in peripheral nerve growth and regeneration.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been detected in lesions of Bowens disease (BD) and Bowens carcinoma (BC); the invasive tumor retains the cytological characteristics of BD. Previous reports suggest that nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells are undifferentiated and pluripotent, and nestin expression in some tumors indicates poor differentiation and high grade of malignancy. We identified HPV-DNA in BD (n=25) and BC (n=23) by in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis with INFORM(®) HPV III (Ventana Medical Systems. AZ, USA) and determined nestin expression by indirect immunohistochemical staining with anti-nestin polyclonal antibody (IBL, Gunma, Japan). We detected HPV-DNA in 68% of BD and in 87% of BC. In BD, 13 cases demonstrated the punctuate pattern, and four showed nestin expression. In BC, 19 cases showed the punctuate pattern and 16 showed nestin expression. HPV-DNA integrates into the host genome, and this is observed as the punctuate pattern on ISH. The nestin expression was statistically high in group of BC than BD (P<0.01). These results therefore suggest that HPV-DNA integrated in the genome of tumor cells of these diseases and contributed to malignant alteration. From the standpoint of tumorigenesis, BC might represent one type of poorly differentiated, high-grade squamous cell carcinoma.
Cells that are nestin positive and keratin 15 (K15) negative are located in the hair follicle pluripotent stem cell (hfPS) area (hfPSA). The hfPSA is located within the root of the sebaceous glands, in a region just above the hair follicle bulge area. In the current study, we investigated the expression pattern of the stem cell marker nestin in the hair follicle cycling of patients with alopecia areata. In the normal human scalp, the majority of hair follicles are in the anagen phase of development. While it is often difficult to identify nestin expression in late anagen phases, nestin-expressing cells are easily identified in proliferating cells located in the hfPSA of the growing early and middle anagen phase hair follicles. In patients exhibiting alopecia areata, the middle anagen hair follicles with growing cells were found to be nestin positive and K15 negative. In contrast, the hair follicles undergoing degradation in alopecia areata patients demonstrated lymphocytic infiltration within the nestin- and K15-negative dermal papilla cells. Both the nestin-positive hfPSA and K15-positive hair follicle bulge areas were not damaged in all phases. In addition, the regenerating early anagen hair follicles demonstrated nestin-positive and K15-negative cells within the dermal papilla and in the area surrounding the hair bulb. These results suggest that the nestin-positive cells play an important role not only in the hfPSA, but also in the dermal papilla in the regenerating hair follicle.
Nestin has been shown to be expressed in the hair follicle, both in the bulge area (BA) as well as the dermal papilla (DP). Nestin-expressing stem cells of both the BA and DP have been previously shown to be pluripotent and be able to form neurons and other non-follicle cell types. The nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells from the DP have been termed skin precursor or SKP cells. The objective of the present study was to determine the major source of nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells in the hair follicle and to compare the ability of the nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells from the BA and DP to repair spinal cord injury. Transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives GFP (ND-GFP) were used in order to observe nestin expression in the BA and DP. Nestin-expressing DP cells were found in early and middle anagen. The BA had nestin expression throughout the hair cycle and to a greater extent than the DP. The cells from both regions had very long processes extending from them as shown by two-photon confocal microscopy. Nestin-expressing stem cells from both areas differentiated into neuronal cells at high frequency in vitro. Both nestin-expressing DP and BA cells differentiated into neuronal and glial cells after transplantation to the injured spinal cord and enhanced injury repair and locomotor recovery within four weeks. Nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells from both the BA and DP have potential for spinal cord regeneration, with the BA being the greater and more constant source.
We report a 74-year-old woman who presented to hospital with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and 2 weeks later developed erythema nodosum (EN) on the legs, and was diagnosed with Yersinia enterocolitica infection based on her clinical course and microbiological examination of the stool. She also had a complication of pancreatitis, which made the diagnosis challenging. We should suspect infection by Y. enterocolitica when diagnosing cases of EN with gastrointestinal symptoms. We assume EN is likely to appear 2 weeks after the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms from our case and other case reports.
Mechanics hand is a defined specific skin eruption associated with dermatomyositis; there are few reports concerning its histopathology. As mechanics hand clinically resembles hand eczema, it is important to distinguish between these two conditions.
Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an autoimmune disease associated with maternal anti-SS-A/Ro and anti-SS-B/La antibodies. NLE is characterized by cutaneous erythema, congenital heart block (CHB), hepatic dysfunction and hematological abnormalities. CHB is irreversible, usually requiring a pacemaker, but other symptoms are reversible and most disappear within 6 months in parallel with declining antibody levels. In Japan, 193 cases of NLE were reported between 1971 and 2008. Most showed erythema, and only 23% of cases presented with CHB. Conversely, antibody status had not been examined in many infants presenting with CHB during the same period. Most pregnant woman with anti-SS-A/Ro and anti-SS-B/La antibodies are asymptomatic, and antibody status is first indicated when their child shows symptoms of NLE. These women show a greater risk of delivering an infant with CHB than normal. CHB is important because the main morbidity and mortality of NLE is from CHB. All clinicians should be familiar with the characteristics of NLE. We believe all pregnant women should be screened for anti-SS-A/Ro and anti-SS-B/La antibodies.
We have previously demonstrated that the neural stem-cell marker nestin is expressed in hair follicle stem cells. Nestin-expressing cells were initially identified in the hair follicle bulge area (BA) using a transgenic mouse model in which the nestin promoter drives the green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP). The hair-follicle ND-GFP-expressing cells are keratin 15-negative and CD34-positive and could differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we showed that the nestin-expressing stem cells could affect nerve and spinal cord regeneration after injection in mouse models. In the present study, we separated the mouse vibrissa hair follicle into three parts (upper, middle and lower). Each part of the follicle was cultured separately in DMEM-F12 containing B-27 and 1% methylcellulose supplemented with basic FGF. After 2 mo, the nestin-expressing cells from each of the separated parts of the hair follicle proliferated and formed spheres. Upon transfer of the spheres to RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% FBS, the nestin-expressing cells in the spheres differentiated to neurons, as well as glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes. The differentiated cells were produced by spheres which formed from nestin-expressing cells from all segments of the hair follicle. However, the differentiation potential is greatest in the upper part of the follicle. This result is consistent with trafficking of nestin-expressing cells throughout the hair follicle from the bulge area to the dermal papilla that we previously observed. The nestin-expressing cells from the upper part of the follicle produced spheres in very large amounts, which in turn differentiated to neurons and other cell types. The results of the present study demonstrate that multipotent, nestin-expressing stem cells are present throughout the hair follicle and that the upper part of the follicle can produce the stem cells in large amounts that could be used for nerve and spinal cord repair.
Sorafenib is one of the few standard agents for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Although sorafenib-induced erythema multiforme is rarely reported, we evaluated the cases of erythema multiforme induced by sorafenib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to cause cervical cancer. Because it has been detected in lesions of Bowenoid papulosis, Bowens disease, and Bowens carcinoma, HPV infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases.
We have previously demonstrated that nestin-expressing multipotent hair follicle stem cells are located above the hair follicle bulge and can differentiate into neurons and other cell types in vitro. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells promoted the recovery of pre-existing axons when they were transplanted to the severed sciatic nerve or injured spinal cord. We have also previously demonstrated that the whisker hair follicle contains nestin-expressing stem cells in the dermal papilla (DP) as well as in the bulge area (BA), but that their origin is in the BA. In the present study, we established the technique of long-term Gelfoam® histoculture of whiskers isolated from transgenic mice in which nestin drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP). Confocal imaging was used to monitor ND-GFP-expressing stem cells trafficking in real time between the BA and DP to determine the fate of the stem cells. It was observed over a 2-week period that the stem cells trafficked from the BA toward the DP area and extensively grew out onto Gelfoam® forming nerve-like structures. This new method of long-term histoculture of whiskers from ND-GFP mice will enable the extensive study of the behavior of nestin-expressing multipotent stem cells of the hair follicle.
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