JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by prenylated flavonoids isolated from the stem bark of Maackia amurensis.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new prenylated flavanone, erythraddison Z (1), together with eight known flavonoids (2-9), was isolated from the stem bark of Maackia amurensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) techniques. All the isolates, with the exception of 3, 6 and 7, strongly inhibited diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity in an in vitro assay with IC50 values ranging from 96.5 ± 0.6 to 135.1 ± 1.4 ?M.
Related JoVE Video
Competency and an active learning program in undergraduate nursing education.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effect of an active learning program on competency of senior students.
Related JoVE Video
Priming Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells with ROCK inhibitor improves recovery in an intracerebral hemorrhage model.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into neuron-like cells under specific conditions and to secrete paracrine factors for neuroprotection and regeneration. Previously, Rho-kinase inhibitors have been reported to potentiate differentiation of rodent bone marrow MSCs into neuron-like cells induced by CoCl2 (HIF-1? activationmimicking agent). Here, a strategy of priming MSCs with fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, was investigated using Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) to improve recovery in a rat model of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In vitro culture of WJ-MSCs by co-treatment with fasudil (30 ?M) and CoCl2 provoked morphological changes of WJ-MSCs into neuron-like cells and increased the expression of neuronal markers. Assessment of the secretion pr ofiles showed that fasudil (30 ?M) specifically increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) among the secreted proteins at the transcription and secretion levels. For in vivo experiments, WJ-MSCs primed with fasudil (10 ?M, exposure for 6 hours) were transplanted into ICH rats with HIF-1? upregulation 1 week after injury, and neurological function was assessed via rotarod and limb placement tests for 7 weeks after transplantation. The group with WJ-MSCs primed with fasudil showed improved functional performance compared with the non-primed group. Accordingly, the primed group showed stronger expression of GDNF and higher levels of microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurofilament-H positive-grafted cells in the ICH lesion 3 weeks after transplantation compared with the non-primed group. Therefore, this work suggests that priming WJ-MSCs with fasudil is a possible application for enhanced cell therapy in stroke, with additional beneficial effect of up-regulation of GDNF. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced heat transfer is dependent on thickness of graphene films: the heat dissipation during boiling.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Boiling heat transfer (BHT) is a particularly efficient heat transport method because of the latent heat associated with the process. However, the efficiency of BHT decreases significantly with increasing wall temperature when the critical heat flux (CHF) is reached. Graphene has received much recent research attention for applications in thermal engineering due to its large thermal conductivity. In this study, graphene films of various thicknesses were deposited on a heated surface, and enhancements of BHT and CHF were investigated via pool-boiling experiments. In contrast to the well-known surface effects, including improved wettability and liquid spreading due to micron- and nanometer-scale structures, nanometer-scale folded edges of graphene films provided a clue of BHT improvement and only the thermal conductivity of the graphene layer could explain the dependence of the CHF on the thickness. The large thermal conductivity of the graphene films inhibited the formation of hot spots, thereby increasing the CHF. Finally, the provided empirical model could be suitable for prediction of CHF.
Related JoVE Video
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer and resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Introduction In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the predictive value of rare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 mutations in determining a patient's response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment is unclear. Patients and Methods We reviewed data for NSCLC patients harboring EGFR exon 20 mutations from two hospitals in Korea. EGFR mutations were analyzed using directional sequencing. Results We identified eight patients carrying EGFR exon 20 mutations, seven of whom had insertional mutations. Three patients carried previously unreported insertional mutations. Among six patients who were treated with EGFR TKI, one showed stable disease and three showed primary resistance. Response evaluations were not performed for the other two patients because of their clinical deterioration. Conclusions EGFR exon 20 insertional mutations, including three that were previously unreported, were associated with the poor response of patients to TKI treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of a novel class of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 inhibitors with a 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine core.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis, is a key enzyme associated with hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Here, using an in vitro screen of 20000 molecules, we identified a class of compounds with a substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine core which proved to be potent and selective inhibitors of human DGAT2. Of these compounds, H2-003 and -005 exhibited a considerable reduction in TG biosynthesis in HepG2 hepatic cells and 3T3-L1 preadipose cells. These compounds exert DGAT2-specific-inhibitory activity, which was further confirmed in DGAT2- or DGAT1-overexpressing HEK293 cells. In addition, these compounds almost completely abolished lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 cells when co-treated with a DGAT1 inhibitor, which was not attained using either a DGAT2 or DGAT1 inhibitor alone. Collectively, we identified two DGAT2 inhibitors, H2-003 and -005. These compounds will aid in DGAT2-related lipid metabolism research as well as in therapeutic development for the treatment of metabolic diseases associated with excessive TG.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced protection of pathogenic Escherichia coli ingested by a soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans against sanitizer treatments.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We employed Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to study the effectiveness of sanitizers in killing pathogenic Escherichia coli strains ingested by free-living nematodes. Adult worms that had fed on six pathogenic E. coli strains (highly persistent in the nematode intestine) were treated with three chemical solutions. In planktonic cells, none of the H2O2 and acetic acid treatments influenced the survival of the pathogenic E. coli strains, whereas sodium hypochlorite critically decreased the viability of the strains. Importantly, the survival of the E. coli strains was dramatically increased by persistence in the C. elegans gut under 0.1% sodium hypochlorite, and several strains could survive at a concentration of 0.5%. In addition, all pathogenic E. coli strains in the C. elegans gut survived on the lettuce for 5?days even though they were washed with 0.1% sodium hypochlorite. Taken together, our results indicate that pathogenic E. coli ingested by C. elegans may be protected against washing treatment with commercial sanitizers on raw food materials.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of timing and setting of palliative care referral on quality of end-of-life care in cancer patients.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limited data are available on how the timing and setting of palliative care (PC) referral can affect end-of-life care. In this retrospective cohort study, the authors examined how the timing and setting of PC referral were associated with the quality of end-of-life care.
Related JoVE Video
Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Photoaging accounts for most age-related changes in skin appearance. It has been suggested that both astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and collagen hydrolysate can be used as antiaging modalities in photoaged skin. However, there is no clinical study using astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate. We investigated the effects of using a combination of dietary astaxanthin and collagen hydrolysate supplementation on moderately photoaged skin in humans. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited and treated with astaxanthin (2 mg/day) combined with collagen hydrolysate (3 g/day) or placebos, which were identical in appearance and taste to the active supplementation for 12 weeks. The elasticity and hydration properties of facial skin were evaluated using noninvasive objective devices. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of procollagen type I, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -12, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in artificially UV-irradiated buttock skin before and after treatment. The supplement group showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss in photoaged facial skin after 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. In the supplement group, expression of procollagen type I mRNA increased and expression of MMP-1 and -12 mRNA decreased compared with those in the placebo group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in UV-induced DNA damage between groups. These results demonstrate that dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate can improve elasticity and barrier integrity in photoaged human facial skin, and such treatment is well tolerated.
Related JoVE Video
Toll-like receptor 2 mediates a cutaneous reaction induced by repetitive ultraviolet B irradiation in C57/BL6 mice in vivo.
Exp. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate not only innate immunity against infection and but also sterile inflammation triggered by endogenous molecules. We conducted a comparative study of the different inflammatory responses induced by repetitive ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation in wild-type (WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) mice, to provide in vivo evidence of the role of TLRs in mediating UVB-induced responses. UVB-induced inflammatory responses were less severe in TLR2 KO mice than in WT mice after 6 weeks of repeated UVB irradiation. UVB-treated TLR2 KO mice displayed less prominent erythema and scaling, and histopathology showed significantly thinner skin and less inflammatory cell infiltration than that in WT mice. UVB-induced expression of heat-shock protein 70 (an endogenous ligand of TLR2) was lower in TLR2 KO mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed significantly lower gene expression levels of UVB-induced interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in TLR2 KO mice. TLR2 KO mice also showed significantly lower protein level expression of UVB-induced IL-1? in ELISA and MMP-13 in Western blots. Our study demonstrated that TLR2 was associated with inflammatory responses to repetitive UVB irradiation in C57/BL6 mice. Moreover, it suggests that the role of TLR2 in the cutaneous response of UV irradiation and in developing new agents for modulating the effects of UV irradiation should be considered.
Related JoVE Video
Bacillus licheniformis isolated from Korean traditional food sources enhances the resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans to infection by Staphylococcus aureus.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated whether Bacillus spp., newly isolated from Korean traditional food resources, influence the resistance of hosts to foodborne pathogens, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate host model. Initially, we selected 20 Bacillus spp. that possess antimicrobial activity against various foodborne pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Among the selected strains, six strains of Bacillus spp. used in preconditioning significantly prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to S. aureus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all six strains were identified as B. licheniformis. Our findings suggest that preconditioning with B. licheniformis may modulate the host defense response against S. aureus.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide in inactivating Bacillus cereus spores attached to and in a biofilm on stainless steel.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the lethal activity of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) against Bacillus cereus spores attached to and in biofilm formed on a stainless steel surface. Aqueous ClO2 was prepared by mixing sulfuric acid (5% w/v) with sodium chlorite (10mg/mL), and gaseous ClO2 was produced by vaporization of aqueous ClO2 in an air-tight container. The concentration of gaseous ClO2 in the air within the container increased rapidly at first but gradually decreased over time. The lethality of gaseous ClO2 against B. cereus spores attached to stainless steel coupons (SSCs) and in biofilm formed by the pathogen on SSCs was determined. The B. cereus spores attached to SSCs (5.3±0.1logCFU/coupon) were completely inactivated within 1h at 25°C when treated with gaseous ClO2 (peak concentration: 115.3±5.0 parts per million [ppm]). The total number of vegetative cells and spores in biofilm formed by B. cereus on SSCs was 5.9±0.3logCFU/coupon; the spore count was 5.3±0.1logCFU/coupon. The vegetative cells and spores in biofilm were completely inactivated within 6h (peak concentration: 115.3±5.0ppm). Results show that B. cereus spores in biofilms are more resistant to gaseous ClO2 than are attached spores not in biofilms. Gaseous ClO2 was, nevertheless, very effective in killing B. cereus spores in biofilm on the surface of stainless steel. Results show promise for application of gaseous ClO2 to enhance the microbiological safety of foods that may come in contact with stainless steel and possibly other hard surfaces on which B. cereus biofilms have formed.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic potential of Dickkopf-1 in wild-type BRAF papillary thyroid cancer via regulation of ?-catenin/E-cadherin signaling.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aberrant activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway is a common pathogenesis of various human cancers. We investigated the role of the Wnt inhibitor, Dkk-1, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canis among patients with uveitis.
Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canis in patients with uveitis.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibitory effects of the ?-casein macropeptide isolated from milk protein on the biofilm formation and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate the inhibitory effects of ?-casein macropeptide (CMP) on the biofilm formation and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. The inhibition of biofilm formation by CMP was initially investigated by using the protocol applied for the 96-well microtiter plate assay. Low concentrations of CMP (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mg/mL) that were tested resulted in a profound inhibitory effect on biofilm formation at a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. CMP also significantly repressed the transcription of inlA (encoding internalin A) that was responsible for the initial adhesion and invasion event, and prolonged the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected by L. monocytogenes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that newly identified proteins in the presence of CMP were involved in the stress response and metabolic processes that have important roles in developing listerial biofilms. Our results suggest that CMP from milk protein would be capable of eliminating biofilm formation and virulence by L. monocytogenes in the food industry.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical practice guidelines for the medical and surgical management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage in Korea.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this clinical practice guideline (CPG) is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the medical and surgical management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Since the release of the first Korean CPGs for stroke, evidence has been accumulated in the management of ICH, such as intracranial pressure control and minimally invasive surgery, and it needs to be reflected in the updated version. The Quality Control Committee at the Korean Society of cerebrovascular Surgeons and the Writing Group at the Clinical Research Center for Stroke (CRCS) systematically reviewed relevant literature and major published guidelines between June 2007 and June 2013. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence and the grade of the recommendation were determined using the methods adapted from CRCS. A draft guideline was scrutinized by expert peer reviewers and also discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. CPGs based on scientific evidence are presented for the medical and surgical management of patients presenting with primary ICH. This CPG describes the current pertinent recommendations and suggests Korean recommendations for the medical and surgical management of a patient with primary ICH.
Related JoVE Video
A case of fungal keratitis and onychomycosis simultaneously infected by Trichophyton species.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fungal keratitis is difficult to treat that can result in corneal blindness requiring penetrating keratoplasty and in fungal endothalmitis. We report a case of fungal keratitis and onychomycosis simultaneously infected by Trichophyton.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of secondary cancers from scattered radiation during intensity-modulated radiotherapies for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate and compare the risks of secondary cancers from therapeutic doses received by patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), and tomotherapy (TOMO).
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic Strategies for Metabolic Diseases: Small-Molecule Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (DGAT) Inhibitors.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic diseases such as atherogenic dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and type?II diabetes are emerging as major global health problems. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is responsible for catalyzing the final reaction in the glycerol phosphate pathway of triglycerol synthesis. It has two isoforms, DGAT-1 and DGAT-2, which are widely expressed and present in white adipose tissue. DGAT-1 is most highly expressed in the small intestine, whereas DGAT-2 is primarily expressed in the liver. Therefore, the selective inhibition of DGAT-1 has become an attractive target with growing potential for the treatment of obesity and type?II diabetes. Furthermore, DGAT-2 has been suggested as a new target for the treatment of DGAT-2-related liver diseases including hepatic steatosis, hepatic injury, and fibrosis. In view the discovery of drugs that target DGAT, herein we attempt to provide insight into the scope and further reasons for optimization of DGAT inhibitors.
Related JoVE Video
Dimensionality variations in new zirconium iodates: hydrothermal syntheses, structural determination, and characterization of BaZr(IO?)? and K?Zr(IO?)?.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two new quaternary zirconium iodates, BaZr(IO3)6 and K2Zr(IO3)6, have been synthesized through hydrothermal reactions using BaCO3 (or K2CO3), ZrO2, and HIO3 as reagents. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction were used to determine crystal structures of the compounds. BaZr(IO3)6 exhibits infinite bands that are composed of ZrO7 pentagonal bipyramids and IO3 trigonal pyramids, in which Ba(2+) cations are sandwiched by the bands. K2Zr(IO3)6 exhibits a molecular structure that is composed of ZrO6 octahedra and IO3 groups. The dimensionality variations seem to be attributable to the flexible coordination numbers of Zr(4+) cations with large ionic radii as well as the number of counter cations. Both of the materials are thermally stable up to approximately 440-450 °C and decompose to the corresponding metal zirconium oxides above these temperatures. The band gaps for BaZr(IO3)6 and K2Zr(IO3)6 are calculated to be 3.1 and 3.0 eV, respectively, using the (K/S)-versus-E plots obtained from the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. Infrared spectra and local dipole moment calculations are also presented.
Related JoVE Video
Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a cross sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), measured by a simple step test, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults, in a cross sectional design.
Related JoVE Video
Polo-like kinase-1 in DNA damage response.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) belongs to a family of serine-threonine kinases and plays a critical role in mitotic progression. Plk1 involves in the initiation of mitosis, centrosome maturation, bipolar spindle formation, and cytokinesis, well-reported as traditional functions of Plk1. In this review, we discuss the role of Plk1 during DNA damage response beyond the functions in mitotsis. When DNA is damaged in cells under various stress conditions, the checkpoint mechanism is activated to allow cells to have enough time for repair. When damage is repaired, cells progress continuously their division, which is called checkpoint recovery. If damage is too severe to repair, cells undergo apoptotic pathway. If damage is not completely repaired, cells undergo a process called checkpoint adaptation, and resume cell division cycle with damaged DNA. Plk1 targets and regulates many key factors in the process of damage response, and we deal with these subjects in this review.
Related JoVE Video
Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins attenuate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions via suppression of NF-?B and STAT1 and activation of Nrf2/ARE-mediated heme oxygenase-1.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The consequences of precipitously rising allergic skin inflammation rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Natural product-based agents with good efficacy and low risk of side effects offer promising prevention and treatment strategies for inflammation-related diseases. We have already reported that Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins (Changkil saponins, CKS) have many pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, but its influence on AD remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of CKS, mainly platycodin D, on AD-like skin symptoms in mice and the possible mechanisms in cells.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in allergen sensitization over the last 30 years in Korea respiratory allergic patients: a single-center.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Determining the culprit allergen is important for the diagnosis and management of allergic diseases. The skin prick test (SPT) has been widely used to identify culprit allergens. Skin reactivity to allergens has changed due to changes in lifestyle and outdoor environments. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to examine changes in allergen sensitization in Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of platelet lysate preparations on the proliferation of HaCaT cells.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standard protocols are lacking for the preparation of platelet lysates (PL) as an alternative to using fetal bovine serum as a cell culture supplement. This study aimed to establish optimum conditions for preparing PL for use in cell cultures.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic potential of metformin in papillary thyroid cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug used in type 2 diabetes treatment, is reported to have oncopreventive or therapeutic roles in several human cancers. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of physiologic dose of metformin in PTC. Metformin inhibited PTC cell viability and increased cell apoptosis in various doses (0.5-20mM) in BCPAP and BHP10-3SC cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the p-AMPK/AMPK ratio increased with increased metformin treatment. The ectopic tumor experiment was performed using BHP10-3SC cells and athymic nude mice. Oral metformin treatment via drinking water significantly delayed tumor growth in both tumor development model and established tumor models. Necrotic area in tumors significantly increased with metformin treatment. Western blot analysis revealed an increase in p-AMPK/AMPK ratio and suppressions of mTOR and Akt expressions in metformin-treated mice compared to the results in mock-treated control mice. Our results indicate that a physiologic dose of metformin has anti-tumorigenic effects that result from activation of AMPK signaling and inhibition of Akt signaling.
Related JoVE Video
Protective effects of ginseng leaf extract using enzymatic extraction against oxidative damage of UVA-irradiated human keratinocytes.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
UVA is responsible for numerous biological effects on the skin, including premature aging characterized by wrinkles, leathery texture, and mottled pigmentation. The objective of this study was evaluating the protective effect of ginseng leaf extract prepared by Ultraflo L on skin from photodamage. Anti-wrinkle effect of ginseng leaf extract with or without Ultraflo L treatment were tested on human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) A. Ginseng leaves inhibited ROS generation, GHS depletion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 induced by UVA irradiation. The glutathione (GSH) content of the cells was significantly increased by over 25 ?g mL(-1) of Ultraflo-treated extract (UTGL) as well as by over 100 ?g mL(-1) of nonenzyme-treated extract (NEGL) compared to control. UTGL and NEGL treatments significantly decreased expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and 9 compared with control, but inhibitory effects of two groups on expression of MMPs were not significantly different. Overall, ULtraflo L-treated ginseng leaves inhibited ROS generation, GHS depletion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in UVA photodamaged HaCat cells. From these results, enzyme-treated ginseng leaf extract has advantages over untreated ginseng leaves and have potential as a skin protective ingredient against UVA-induced photodamage.
Related JoVE Video
NMR and GC-MS based metabolic profiling and free-radical scavenging activities of Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under different media and light conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites) by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY) media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources.
Related JoVE Video
Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum Suppresses TGF?1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Via Repression of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 Pathway in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces growth arrest, tissue fibrosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activation of Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. EMT is the differentiation switch by which polarized epithelial cells differentiate into contractile and motile mesenchymal cells. Our previous studies have shown that saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (CKS) have antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimetastatic, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CKS on TGF?1-induced alterations characteristic of EMT in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. We found that CKS-treated cells displayed inhibited TGF?1-mediated E-cadherin downregulation and Vimentin upregulation and also retained epithelial morphology. Furthermore, TGF?1-increased Snail expression, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of the EMT, was reduced by CKS. CKS inhibited TGF?1-induced phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Inhibition of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 also blocked TGF?1-induced GSK-3? phosphorylation and Snail activation. Furthermore, TGF?1-increased Snail expression was reduced by selective inhibitors of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, CKS treatment attenuated TGF?1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation and upregulated Smad7 expression. These results indicate that pretreatment with the CKS inhibits the TGF?1-induced EMT through PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, GSK-3? and Smad2/3 in human lung carcinoma cells.
Related JoVE Video
Aralia cordata Inhibits Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis in HepG2 Cells.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the first committed step in triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid biosynthesis, and has been considered as one of the drug targets for treating hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the GPAT inhibitors from natural products and to evaluate their effects. The methanol extract of Aralia cordata roots showed a strong inhibitory effect on the human GPAT1 activity. A further bioactivity-guided approach led to the isolation of ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid, (PA), one of the major compounds of A. cordata, which suppressed the GPAT1 activity with IC50 value of 60.5 ?M. PA markedly reduced de novo lysophosphatidic acid synthesis through inhibition of GPAT activity and therefore significantly decreased synthesis of TAG in the HepG2 cells. These results suggest that PA as well as A. cordata root extract could be beneficial in controlling lipid metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Probing Anisotropic Structure Changes in Proteins with Picosecond Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have exploited the principle of photoselection and the method of time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate protein size and shape changes following photoactivation of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) in solution with ?150 ps time resolution. This study partially overcomes the orientational average intrinsic to solution scattering methods and provides structural information at a higher level of detail. Photoactivation of the p-coumaric acid (pCA) chromophore in PYP produces a highly contorted, short-lived, red-shifted intermediate (pR0), and triggers prompt, protein compaction of approximately 0.3% along the direction defined by the electronic transition dipole moment of the chromophore. Contraction along this dimension is accompanied by expansion along the orthogonal directions, with the net protein volume change being approximately -0.25%. More than half the strain arising from formation of pR0 is relieved by the pR0 to pR1 structure transition (1.8 ± 0.2 ns), with the persistent strain presumably contributing to the driving force needed to generate the spectroscopically blue-shifted pB signaling state. The results reported here are consistent with the near-atomic resolution structural dynamics reported in a recent time-resolved Laue crystallography study of PYP crystals and suggest that the early time structural dynamics in the crystalline state carry over to proteins in solution.
Related JoVE Video
From an open framework to a layered and a hexagonal tungsten oxide structure: controlled transformation reactions of an extended solid-state material, Cs3Ga7(SeO3)12 to Ga(OH)(SeO3) and KGa3(SeO4)2(OH)6.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A highly symmetric open-framework gallium selenite, Cs3Ga7(SeO3)12, containing cubic superlattices has been synthesized by a standard solid-state reaction using Cs2CO3, Ga2O3, and SeO2 as reagents. Cs3Ga7(SeO3)12 exhibits a three-dimensional open-framework structure consisting of GaO4 tetrahedra, GaO6 octahedra, and SeO3 polyhedra. Step-by-step reactions of the solid-state material in aqueous KNO3 solution at different temperatures produce Ga(OH)(SeO3) with a layered structure and KGa3(SeO4)2(OH)6 having a hexagonal tungsten oxide (HTO) topology. Novel HTO layers capped by Se(6+) cations in KGa3(SeO4)2(OH)6 led us to synthesize other alkali metal gallium selenates, NaGa3(SeO4)2(OH)6 and RbGa3(SeO4)2(OH)6, using hydrothermal reactions. Thermal analyses, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses, and dipole moment calculations for the reported materials are also presented.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canis among Patients with Uveitis.
Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canis in patients with uveitis. Methods: Patients with uveitis were examined. Serum antibodies to T. gondii and T. canis were tested by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done using blood and aqueous humor (AH). Results: Ninety-eight patients were enrolled. Mean age was 43.5?±?13.2 years. Six patients were seropositive for T. gondii with the following pattern: anterior uveitis, 1; posterior uveitis with retinitis, 2; pan uveitis, 2. One patient had a positive PCR result for T. gondii in AH, who showed panuveitis. Twenty-three patients were positive to serum IgG for T. canis with the following clinical manifestation: granuloma, 6; pigmented scar, 3; vitritis, 6-but none were PCR positive. Conclusions: T. gondii and T. canis are still important causes of uveitis. Ocular toxocariasis is not an uncommon cause of uveitis, even in adults.
Related JoVE Video
Quick and easy correction of a symptomatic pincer nail using a shape memory alloy device.
Dermatol Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pincer nails are characterized by the transverse curvature increasing from the proximal to the distal aspect along the longitudinal axis. A novel treatment technique using a shape memory alloy device was recently introduced.
Related JoVE Video
AMPK regulates K(ATP) channel trafficking via PTEN inhibition in leptin-treated pancreatic ?-cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leptin regulates pancreatic ?-cell excitability through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel trafficking. However, the signaling components connecting AMPK to KATP channel trafficking are not identified. In this study, we discovered that AMPK inhibits phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) via glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) and this signaling pathway is crucial for KATP channel trafficking in leptin-treated pancreatic ?-cells. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of AMPK or GSK3?, but not casein kinase 2 (CK2), impaired leptin-induced PTEN inactivation and thereby KATP channel trafficking. The PTEN mutant lacking both protein and lipid phosphatase activity is sufficient to induce KATP channel trafficking without leptin. These results present a novel signaling mechanism that underlies leptin regulation of KATP channel trafficking in pancreatic ?-cells. Our findings assist in gaining a broader perspective on the peripheral action of leptin on pancreatic ?-cell physiology and glucose homeostasis.
Related JoVE Video
Leptin promotes K(ATP) channel trafficking by AMPK signaling in pancreatic ?-cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leptin is a pivotal regulator of energy and glucose homeostasis, and defects in leptin signaling result in obesity and diabetes. The ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels couple glucose metabolism to insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, we provide evidence that leptin modulates pancreatic ?-cell functions by promoting K(ATP) channel translocation to the plasma membrane via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. K(ATP) channels were localized mostly to intracellular compartments of pancreatic ?-cells in the fed state and translocated to the plasma membrane in the fasted state. This process was defective in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, but restored by leptin treatment. We discovered that the molecular mechanism of leptin-induced AMPK activation involves canonical transient receptor potential 4 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ?. AMPK activation was dependent on both leptin and glucose concentrations, so at optimal concentrations of leptin, AMPK was activated sufficiently to induce K(ATP) channel trafficking and hyperpolarization of pancreatic ?-cells in a physiological range of fasting glucose levels. There was a close correlation between phospho-AMPK levels and ?-cell membrane potentials, suggesting that AMPK-dependent K(ATP) channel trafficking is a key mechanism for regulating ?-cell membrane potentials. Our results present a signaling pathway whereby leptin regulates glucose homeostasis by modulating ?-cell excitability.
Related JoVE Video
Prx I suppresses K-ras-driven lung tumorigenesis by opposing redox-sensitive ERK/cyclin D1 pathway.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coupled responses of mutated K-ras and oxidative stress are often an important etiological factor in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, relatively few studies have examined the control mechanism of oxidative stress in oncogenic K-ras-driven NSCLC progression. Here, we studied whether the redox signaling pathway governed by peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) is involved in K-ras(G12D)-mediated lung adenocarcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
High-dose stereotactic body radiotherapy correlates increased local control and overall survival in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have reported high tumor response and local control. However, the optimal SBRT dose remains unknown, and it is still not clear whether a dose response relationship for local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) exist or not. We performed this study to determine whether a dose response relationship for LC and OS is observed in SBRT for inoperable HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall: prenatal sonographic manifestations.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a rare, benign lesion that arises from one or more ribs, almost exclusively found in infants. Some cases that developed in the fetal period have been reported, but accurate diagnosis was usually possible only after birth, except in a few cases in which fetal magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were performed. We present a case of a congenital mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall. Although the diagnosis was not confirmed until birth, the prenatal sonographic examination showed strongly suggestive findings. We review the published reports on this condition, and suggest the prenatal sonographic features. Prenatal sonography is valuable in the differential diagnosis of chest mass.
Related JoVE Video
Volume-stable adipose tissue formation by implantation of human adipose-derived stromal cells using solid free-form fabrication-based polymer scaffolds.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regeneration of volume-stable adipose tissue is required for treatment of soft-tissue loss due to cancer, trauma, burns and for correctional cosmetic surgery. In this study, we hypothesized that transplantation of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) using polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds fabricated with a solid free-form fabrication method would better maintain the volume of regenerated adipose tissues, as compared with the use of fibrin gel. Six weeks after implantation into the dorsal subcutaneous pockets of athymic mice, the volumes and adipose tissue areas of hADSC-PCL scaffold implants were significantly larger than those of hADSC-fibrin implants. In addition, the mRNA expression of adipogenic genes was more extensive in the hADSC-PCL scaffold implants.
Related JoVE Video
Oncostatin M stimulates cell migration and proliferation by down-regulating E-cadherin in HTR8/SVneo cell line through STAT3 activation.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During the first trimester of pregnancy, trophoblastic E-cadherin expression is down-regulated, thereby allowing extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) to acquire the potential for migration and invasiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of OSM on the migration and proliferation of EVT cell line HTR8/SVneo with regard to its effects on the expression of E-cadherin and STAT3 activation.
Related JoVE Video
Severe intestinal toxicity after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for abdominopelvic malignancies.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify the predictors for severe intestinal toxicity (IT) in patients with abdominopelvic malignancies treated with three fractions of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR).
Related JoVE Video
The Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression, Anger, and Self-Control for Korean Soldiers.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to control depression, anger, and self-control in soldiers from South Korea. Using a pre-test-posttest design, the sample was composed of an experimental group (n = 16) and a control group (n = 12). The experimental group participated in four sessions of CBT. No significant differences were found between the groups with regard to demographic characteristics. Changes in the variables after the intervention were analyzed using Wilcoxons signed-rank sum test. The depression scores decreased significantly after the intervention (z = -3.05, p = 0.002); whereas, the scores of state-trait anger and self-control did not change. In the control group, none of the outcome variable scores changed significantly. The results indicate that the developed CBT program might be an effective modality to decrease the depression of soldiers who are in military service. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.].
Related JoVE Video
APC/C(Cdh1)-dependent degradation of Cdc20 requires a phosphorylation on CRY-box by Polo-like kinase-1 during somatic cell cycle.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cdc20 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), and APC/C(Cdc20) is essential for metaphase-anaphase transition. To allow progression beyond mitosis, Cdc20 is degraded through KEN-box-dependent APC/C(Cdh1) activity. Mammalian Cdc20 contains the CRY box, a second APC/C(Cdh1)-dependent degron, but the molecular mechanism in degradation process remains undefined. Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) is an essential mitotic kinase regulating various targets in kinetochore, centrosome, and midbody for proper mitotic progression. Plk1 directly bound to Cdc20 and phosphorylates it on serine-170 located in CRY-box. Whereas wild-type Cdc20 was degraded according to progress cell cycle beyond mitosis, the phosphorylation-defective mutant, which serine-170 was changed into alanine, was not destroyed in early G1 phase. The phosphorylation on serine-170 by Plk1 was important for ubiquitination and Cdh1-dependent proteolysis. However, this modification by Plk1 on CRY box had no effect on the subcellular localization of Cdc20 and the formation of APC/C-inhibitory checkpoint complexes under spindle assembly checkpoint. This mechanism will be the first finding of inhibitory phosphorylation related to Cdc20 instability.
Related JoVE Video
p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis.
Related JoVE Video
Low levels of physical activity are associated with increased metabolic syndrome risk factors in korean adults.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low levels of physical activity (PA) are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.
Related JoVE Video
Identification and validation of a selective small molecule inhibitor targeting the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 activity.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) is one of two distinct DGAT enzymes that catalyze the last step in triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis. Findings from previous studies suggest that inhibition of DGAT2 is a promising strategy for the treatment of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Here, we identified compound 122 as a potent and selective inhibitor of human DGAT2, which appeared to act competitively against oleoyl-CoA in vitro. The selective inhibition of DGAT2 was also confirmed by the reductions in enzymatic activity and de novo TG synthesis in DGAT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells and hepatic cells HepG2. Compound 122, as a newly identified inhibitor of DGAT2, will be useful for the research on DGAT2-related lipid metabolism as well as the development of therapeutic drug for several metabolic diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Nasolabial dimensions of the facial profile at 20 to 37 weeks gestation on 2- and 3-dimensional sonography in normal Korean fetuses.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal nasolabial dimensions using the images of facial profiles in normal Korean fetuses.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of response to palliative care intervention for chronic nausea in advanced cancer outpatients.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nausea is a frequent and distressing symptom in advanced cancer patients. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine predictors of response to palliative care consultation for chronic nausea in advanced cancer outpatients.
Related JoVE Video
Physico-chemical characterization-based safety evaluation of nanocalcium.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nano- and microcalcium provided from the KFDA were compared in terms of physico-chemical properties. Calcium samples were tested using EF-TEM and X-ray diffractometry to check for size/morphology and crystal formation, respectively. Two samples of nano- and microcalcium were selected for further evaluation by FE-SEM, DLS (nano-size, 200-500nm; agglomerate, >5?m; micro-size, 1.5-30?m), and electron spin resonance. Both samples were heterogeneous in size, existed as single crystal and aggregated form, and did not generate reactive oxygen species. The specific surface area of nano- and microcalcium measured by N2 Brunauere Emmette Teller method was 12.90±0.27m(2)/g and 1.12±0.19m(2)/g, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis revealed the release of 2-3 times more calcium ion from nano- compared to microcalcium at pH 5 and 7. Genotoxicity and acute single-dose and repeated-dose 14-day oral toxicity testing in SD rats performed to evaluate the safety of nanocalcium did not reveal toxicity. However, long-term monitoring will be required for an unequivocal conclusion. A nanocalcium dose of 1g/kg is recommended as the maximum dose for repeated dose 13-week oral toxicity. Further studies could provide details of toxicity of nanocalcium on the repeated dose 13-week oral toxicity test.
Related JoVE Video
Concepts and Definitions for "Actively Dying," "End of Life," "Terminally Ill," "Terminal Care," and "Transition of Care": A Systematic Review.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The terms "actively dying," "end of life," "terminally ill," "terminal care," and "transition of care" are commonly used but rarely and inconsistently defined.
Related JoVE Video
Feasibility and efficacy of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-C stage hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for liver tumor in patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-C stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 35 patients between 2003 and 2011. Vascular invasion was diagnosed in 32 patients, extrahepatic metastases in 11 and both in 8. Thirty-two patients were categorized under Child-Pugh (CP) class A and 3 patients with CP class B. The median SABR dose was 45 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3-5 fractions. The median survival time was 14 months. The 1- and 3-yr overall survival (OS) rate was 52% and 21%, respectively. On univariate analysis, CP class A and biologically equivalent dose ? 80 Gy(10) were significant determinants of better OS. Severe toxicity above grade 3, requiring prompt therapeutic intervention, was observed in 5 patients. In conclusion, SABR for BCLC-C stage HCC showed 1-yr OS rate of 52% but treatment related toxicity was moderate. We suggest that patients with CP class A are the best candidate and at least SABR dose of 80 Gy(10) is required for BCLC-C stage.
Related JoVE Video
Alteration of media composition and light conditions change morphology, metabolic profile, and beauvericin biosynthesis in Cordyceps bassiana mycelium.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic alterations of Cordyceps bassiana mycelium were investigated under the following culture medium and light conditions: dextrose agar supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract (SDAY) medium with light (SL), SDAY medium without light (SD), nut medium without light (ND), and iron-supplemented SDAY medium without light (FD). The levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, lysine, ornithine, and proline were significantly higher under SD and SL conditions. The levels of most of the alcohols, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid esters, sterols, and terpenes were higher under the ND condition than in the other conditions, but beauvericin was not detectable under the ND condition. The FD condition was favorable for the enhanced production of aminomalonic acid, malic acid, mannonic acid, and erythritol. Thus, the metabolic characteristics of C. bassiana can be manipulated by varying the cultivation conditions, rendering this fungus potentially favorable as a nutraceutical and medicinal resource.
Related JoVE Video
Saponins from Platycodon grandiflorum inhibit hepatic lipogenesis through induction of SIRT1 and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in high-glucose-induced HepG2 cells.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of CKS on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and hepatic lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. CKS suppressed high-glucose-induced lipid accumulation and inhibited high-glucose-induced fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the use of a pharmacological AMPK inhibitor revealed that AMPK is essential for the suppression of SREBP-1c expression in CKS-treated cells. Finally, the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase ? (CaMKK?) and SIRT1 was necessary for CKS-enhanced activation of AMPK. These results indicate that CKS prevents lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells by blocking the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS through SIRT1 and CaMKK?/AMPK activation. Using CKS to target AMPK activation may provide a promising approach for the prevention lipogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Primary malignant melanoma arising in a cystic teratoma.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The malignant transformation of a cystic teratoma is a rare event, occurring in about 0.2% to 1.8%. Primary malignant melanoma arising from the ovary is extremely rare. A primary melanoma in an ovarian cystic teratoma originates most frequently at the dermoepidermal junction, similar to a cutaneous melanoma. Though there are no standard adjuvant regimens for the treatment of primary malignant melanoma of the ovary. We present another case report of malignant melanoma developing in cystic teratoma.
Related JoVE Video
Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKK? in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.
Related JoVE Video
Electrical control of terahertz nano antennas on VO2 thin film.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate an active metamaterial device that allows to electrically control terahertz transmission over more than one order of magnitude. Our device consists of a lithographically defined gold nano antenna array fabricated on a thin film of vanadium dioxide (VO(2)), a material that possesses an insulator to metal transition. The nano antennas let terahertz (THz) radiation funnel through when the VO(2) film is in the insulating state. By applying a dc-bias voltage through our device, the VO(2) becomes metallic. This electrically shorts the antennas and therefore switches off the transmission in two distinct regimes: reversible and irreversible switching.
Related JoVE Video
Tender papule rising on the digit: Pacinian neuroma should be considered in differential diagnosis.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pacinian corpuscles are sensory nerve-end organs located in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the palms or soles. Pacinian neuroma is an extremely rare feature, defined as hyperplasia or hypertrophy of Pacinian corpuscles. About half of Pacinian neuromas present with point tenderness. There have been a limited number of cases reported around the world. We observed a 45-year-old woman with an 8-month history of a tender whitish papule on her left thumb tip. Histopathologically, an enlarged hypertrophic Pacinian corpuscle in subcutaneous tissue, surrounded by numerous nerve fibers, was found. Herein, we report a case of Pacinian neuroma presenting as a tender papule on a fingertip that was clearly related to repetitive trauma at that site. This case shows that a meticulous history and histological examination can lead to an exact diagnosis and proper treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) by molecular genetic testing in Korean siblings.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is caused by mutations to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene associated with the inability to synthesize all adrenal and gonadal steroids. Inadequate treatment in an infant with this condition may result in sudden death from an adrenal crisis. We report a case in which CLAH developed in Korean siblings; the second child was prenatally diagnosed because the first child was affected and low maternal serum estriol was detected in a prenatal screening test. To our knowledge, this is the first prenatal diagnosis of the Q258X StAR mutation, which is the only consistent genetic cluster identified to date in Japanese and Korean populations.
Related JoVE Video
Novel tripeptides with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity isolated from silk cocoon hydrolysate.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Active compounds with antidiabetic potential were isolated from silk peptide E5K6 by consecutive ultrafiltration and gel filtration using Biogel P-2 and RS-HPLC using a YMC-Pack Pro C18 column. The highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of silk peptide E5K6 resulted from fractions with MW <1 kDa. The activities of gel-filtered fractions from silk peptide E5K6 of <1 kDa were assayed in vitro, demonstrating that the fourth peak (F4) had the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 37.1 mg/mL). F4 of silk peptide E5K6 was separated by HPLC into two peaks. Moreover, the purified compounds were identified as Gly-Glu-Tyr (GEY, MW = 367 Da) and Gly-Tyr-Gly (GYG, MW = 295 Da) according to amino acid sequences, and their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC(50)) were 2.7 and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
The accuracy of probabilistic versus temporal clinician prediction of survival for patients with advanced cancer: a preliminary report.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinicians have limited accuracy in the prediction of patient survival. We assessed the accuracy of probabilistic clinician prediction of survival (CPS) and temporal CPS for advanced cancer patients admitted to our acute palliative care unit, and identified factors associated with CPS accuracy. Eight physicians and 20 nurses provided their estimation of survival on admission by (a) the temporal approach, "What is the approximate survival for this patient (in days)?" and (b) the probabilistic approach, "What is the approximate probability that this patient will be alive (0%-100%)?" for ?24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. We also collected patient and clinician demographics. Among 151 patients, the median age was 58 years, 95 (63%) were female, and 138 (81%) had solid tumors. The median overall survival time was 12 days. The median temporal CPS was 14 days for physicians and 20 days for nurses. Physicians were more accurate than nurses. A higher accuracy of temporal physician CPS was associated with older patient age. Probabilistic CPS was significantly more accurate than temporal CPS for both physicians and nurses, although this analysis was limited by the different criteria for determining accuracy. With the probabilistic approach, nurses were significantly more accurate at predicting survival at 24 hours and 48 hours, whereas physicians were significantly more accurate at predicting survival at 6 months. The probabilistic approach was associated with high accuracy and has practical implications.
Related JoVE Video
The simplified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for antenatal depression: is it a valid measure for pre-screening?
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The identification of antenatal depression is critical but poorly conducted. The aim of this study was to construct a simplified depression survey scale and to verify its efficacy as a pre-screening for antenatal depression. A total of 494 pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation who had received antenatal care at Seoul St. Marys Hospital from July 2009 to June 2010 were included. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaire was completed by them. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 250 of training set and 244 of validation set. We designed a simplified questionnaire comprising two items of EPDS using the training set. We then validated its efficacy with the training set and reaffirmed the results with the validation set. The sum of item 5 (scare or panic) and item 8 (sadness or misery) explained 75.5% of the total score of the EPDS (AUC = 0.947). Using a score of 3 as a cut-off value of the simplified scale, sensitivity was 92.4% and specificity was 86.3%. The positive and negative predictive values were 56.2% and 98.4%, retrospectively. This study suggests that the simplified EPDS can be an efficient instrument to rule out depression during pregnancy.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activities of oxyresveratrol: comparison with mulberroside A.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The inhibitory effects of oxyresveratrol, the aglycone of mulberroside A, on mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin synthesis were evaluated. Mulberroside A and oxyresveratrol showed inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase, with oxyresveratrol demonstrating a greater inhibitory effect than that of mulberroside A. Oxyresveratrol and mulberroside A strongly inhibited melanin production in Streptomyces bikiniensis and exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of tyrosinase activity and inhibition of melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. However, the compounds exhibited nearly similar inhibitory effects on the activity of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in murine melanocytes. The inhibition of melanin synthesis by mulberroside A and oxyresveratrol was involved in suppressing the expression level of melanogenic enzymes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). These results indicate that the inhibition rate of mushroom tyrosinase might not provide an accurate estimate of the inhibition rate of melanin synthesis in melanocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of keratoacanthoma with 5% imiquimod cream and review of the previous report.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a benign epidermal tumor, characterized by rapid and abundant growth, a tendency toward spontaneous regression and histopathologic similarity to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Because KA can be easily misdiagnosed as SCC, surgery is considered the treatment of choice. Recently, regression of KAs following application of 5% imiquimod cream (Aldara®) has been reported. We present 4 cases of KA treated with topical imiquimod, applied 3 to 4 times a week. Obvious improvement was observed after 4 to 6 weeks of application and the lesions were almost cleared leaving scars after 9 to 11 weeks. These results show that topical imiquimod can be an effective option for the conservative management of KA as previously reported. We also suggest that lesions treated with imiquimod cream should be considered for biopsy to judge histopathological remission after 5 to 8 weeks of application to shorten the duration of the treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Idiopathic severe hypermagnesemia in an extremely low birth weight infant on the first day of life.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A preterm female infant born at 27 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 990 g developed acute hypotonia, apnea, hypotension and bradycardia mimicking septic shock syndrome at 14h after birth. Laboratory tests indicated a severe hypermagnesemia of 45 mg/dL. The renal function, complete blood count and maternal blood concentrations of magnesium were normal, and the blood cultures were negative. The patient recovered with treatment including exchange transfusion. However, the etiology of the severe hypermagnesemia remains unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Simple preparative gas chromatographic method for isolation of menthol and menthone from peppermint oil, with quantitative GC-MS and (1) H NMR assay.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The quantitative performance of a simple home-built preparative gas chromatography (prep-GC) arrangement was tested, incorporating a micro-fluidic Deans switch, with collection of the target compound in a deactivated uncoated capillary tube. Repeat injections of a standard solution and peppermint sample were made into the prep-GC instrument. Individual compounds were eluted from the trapping capillary, and made up to constant volume. Chloronaphthalene internal standard was added in some cases. Recovered samples were quantitatively assayed by using GC-MS. Calibration linearity of GC-MS for menthol standard area response against number of injections (2-20 repeat injections) was excellent, giving R(2) of 0.996. For peppermint, menthol correlation over 2-20 repeated injections was 0.998 for menthol area ratio (versus IS) data. Menthone calibration for peppermint gave an R(2) of 0.972. (1) H NMR spectroscopy was conducted on both menthol and menthone. Good correspondence with reference spectra was obtained. About 80??g of isolated menthol and menthone solute was collected over a sequence of 80 repeat injections from the peppermint sample, as assayed by 600?MHz (1) H NMR analysis (?100% recovery for menthol from peppermint). A procedure is proposed for prediction of number of injections required to acquire sufficient material for NMR detection.
Related JoVE Video
Delayed healing and induction of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in polycystic ovary syndrome rat skin wounds.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and estrogen promote wound healing through a decrease in the excessive inflammatory response, accelerating re-epithelialization and increasing the amount of collagen deposition. The excessive administration of estradiol valerate (EV) using hormonal therapy decreases the concentration of estrogen abruptly and induces the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, the PCOS rat skin wound area was wider than that of the normal groups and the rate of keratinocyte migration in PCOS was lower than the normal group. The numbers of inflammatory cells and macrophages recruited in the PCOS group were larger than that of the normal group. More collagen was deposited in the healing area of the normal group than in the PCOS group. The level of SLPI expression was higher in the PCOS group than the normal group after wounding, with the exception of the epithelium. On the other hand, mRNA and protein expression levels of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) were lower in the PCOS group than in the normal group. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 levels in the PCOS group were significantly lower than that of the normal group. Therefore, increased SLPI in PCOS skin wounds may help prevent an excessive inflammatory response and aberrant collagen deposition but not are sufficient to accelerate PCOS skin wound healing, suggesting that SLPI may act as a local rather than a systemic modulating molecule in PCOS rat skin wounds.
Related JoVE Video
The clinical significance of digital examination-indicated cerclage in women with a dilated cervix at 14 0/7-29 6/7 weeks.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was to compare pregnancy outcomes between cerclage and expectant management in wemen with a dilated cervix.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.