Negligible pharmacokinetic interaction of red ginseng and antihypertensive agent amlodipine in sprague-dawley rats.
Red ginseng (RG) is the top-selling functional food in Korea, but is not recommended for use in hypertensive patients. This study was performed to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between RG and amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug. RG (0, 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg/d) was administered orally for 2 wk, and then amlodipine (10 mg/kg) was given orally, to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Blood was collected at 0.08, 0.25, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after amlodipine administration. In intravenous (iv) study, RG (0, 1, or 2 g/kg/d) was administered orally to SD rats for 2 wk, followed by amlodipine (2 mg/kg) intravenously (iv). Plasma concentrations of amlodipine were analyzed using a high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass system (LC-MS/MS). Oral administration of amlodipine produced an increase of time to maximum plasma concentration (tmax: 2.6, 4.1, 8.3, and 8.9 h at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg/d, respectively), and a decrease of maximum plasma concentration (Cmax: 278.5, 212.4, 232.1, and 238.7 ng/ml at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg/d, respectively.). However, the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 24 h measurable concentration (AUC0-24 h was 3487.4, 2895.4, 3158.2, and 3495 ng/h/ml at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg/d respectively) was not significantly changed among the different dose groups. Administration of amlodipine iv produced no significant changes in the apparent terminal half-life, volume of distribution, and AUC0-24 hr among the different dose groups. These results suggest that RG induced negligible influence on amlodipine pharmacokinetically in rats.