JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prevalence and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti from small mammals captured in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A survey was conducted to determine the distribution and prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti infections in small mammals captured in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea (ROK). The serological prevalence of T. gondii (ELISA) and B. microti (IFAT) was 2.3% (15/667) and 2.1% (14/667), respectively. DNA extracts from small mammal heart tissues were screened by PCR for T. gondii and B. microti targeting regions of the GRA5 gene and the 18S rRNA and ?-tubulin genes, respectively. Only 0.17% (1/578) of Apodemus agrarius was positive of T. gondii by PCR, while 0.52% (3/578) was positive of B. microti. All other small mammal species [Micromys minutus (16), Mus musculus (3), Myodes regulus (22), Microtus fortis (6), and Crocidura lasiura (42)] were negative for both T. gondii and B. microti. Based on sequence polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis, T. gondii closely aligned with Type I, a highly virulent strain, while B. microti positive samples closely aligned with US-type B. microti and others observed in the ROK, Russia, and Japan. These results indicate that A. agrarius is a reservoir for both T. gondii and B. microti in the ROK.
Related JoVE Video
First collection records of Culiseta (Culicella) nipponica in the Republic of Korea.
J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 1st confirmed record of Culiseta nipponica for the Republic of Korea was made at Osan Air Base and Tongilchon, Gyeonggi Province, and at the Incheon International Airport, Incheon metropolitan area, using carbon dioxide-baited light and Mosquito Magnet traps. Larval surveys near adult collection sites during June and August 2013 were negative for Culiseta nipponica.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution and mosquito hosts of Chaoyang virus, a newly reported flavivirus from the Republic of Korea, 2008-2011.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In total, 183,602 female culicine mosquitoes were captured by Mosquito Magnet, black light, and New Jersey light traps, and manual aspiration of resting blood-fed mosquitoes, in the Republic of Korea from 2008 to 2011. Culicine mosquitoes were identified to species, placed in pools of up to 30 mosquitoes each, and screened for flavivirus RNA by using an SYBR green I-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Thirty-two of the 8,199 pools assayed were positive by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Chaoyang virus (CHAOV), an insect-specific virus [26 Aedes vexans nipponii Theobald, 3 Culex pipiens L., 1 Aedes albopictus (Skuse), 1 Aedes bekkui Mogi, and 1 Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett)]. The maximum likelihood estimations (estimated number of virus-positive mosquitoes/1,000 mosquitoes) for Ae. bekkui, Ae. albopictus, Ar. subalbatus, Ae. vexans nipponii, and Cx. pipiens positive for CHAOV were 5.37, 3.29, 0.77, 0.27, and 0.26, respectively. CHAOV is an insect-specific virus, and there is currently no evidence to suggest a role in animal or human disease.
Related JoVE Video
Ticks collected from wild and domestic animals and natural habitats in the Republic of Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ticks were collected from 35 animals from 5 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities during 2012. Ticks also were collected by tick drag from 4 sites in Gyeonggi-do (2) and Jeollabuk-do (2) Provinces. A total of 612 ticks belonging to 6 species and 3 genera were collected from mammals and a bird (n=573) and by tick drag (n=39). Haemaphyalis longicornis (n=434) was the most commonly collected tick, followed by H. flava (158), Ixodes nipponensis (11), Amblyomma testudinarium (7), H. japonica (1), and H. formosensis (1). H. longicornis and H. flava were collected from all animal hosts examined. For animal hosts (n>1), the highest Tick Index (TI) was observed for domestic dogs (29.6), followed by Siberian roe deer (17.4), water deer (14.4), and raccoon dogs (1.3). A total of 402 H. longicornis (adults 86, 21.4%; nymphs 160, 39.8%; larvae 156, 38.9%) were collected from wild and domestic animals. A total of 158 H. flava (n=158) were collected from wild and domestic animals and 1 ring-necked pheasant, with a higher proportion of adults (103, 65.2%), while nymphs and larvae only accounted for 12.7% (20) and 22.2% (35), respectively. Only 7 A. testudinarium were collected from the wild boar (6 adults) and Eurasian badger (1 nymph), while only 5 I. nipponensis were collected from the water deer (4 adults) and a raccoon dog (1 adult). One adult female H. formosensis was first collected from vegetation by tick drag from Mara Island, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do Province.
Related JoVE Video
Seasonal abundance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected by mosquito Magnet® in Northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biting midges (Culicoides: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® traps at the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) camp and Daeseongdong village inside the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and near the military demarcation line (MDL) separating North and South Korea and at Warrior Base (US Army training site) and Tongilchon 3 km south of the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May-October 2010-2012, to determine their seasonal distributions. A total of 18,647 Culicoides females (18,399; 98.7%) and males (248; 1.3%) comprising 16 species were collected. Overall, the most commonly collected species was Culicoides nipponensis (42.9%), followed by C. erairai (29.2%), C. punctatus (20.3%), C. arakawae (3.3%), C. pallidulus (1.8%), and C. circumscriptus (1.4%), while the remaining 10 species accounted for only 1.1% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The seasonal distribution of C. nipponensis was bimodal, with high numbers collected during May-June and again during September. C. erairai was more frequently collected during June-July, followed by sharply decreased populations from August-October. C. punctatus was collected in low numbers from May-September with high numbers collected during October. C. erairai was predominantly collected from the NNSC camp (85.1% of all C. erairai collected) located adjacent to the MDL at Panmunjeom in the northernmost part of Gyeonggi-do (Province), while other sites yielded low numbers of specimens.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of dragging and sweeping methods for collecting ticks and determining their seasonal distributions for various habitats, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As part of the 65th Medical Brigade tick-borne disease surveillance program to determine the abundance, geographical and seasonal distributions, and tick-borne pathogens present in the Republic of Korea, dragging and sweeping methods were compared to determine their efficiency for collecting ticks in grass and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forest habitats at military training sites and privately owned lands in northern Gyeonggi Province near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004-2005. Three species of Ixodid ticks, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis flava, and Ixodes nipponensis, were collected. Overall, H. longicornis adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from grass and deciduous forest habitats, accounting for 98.2 and 66.2%, respectively, of all ticks collected. H. flava adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from conifer and mixed forests, accounting for 81.6, and 77.8%, respectively, of all ticks collected. I. nipponensis adults and nymphs accounted for 9.3% of all ticks collected from mixed forests, were less commonly collected from deciduous (4.1%) and conifer (4.1%) forests, and infrequently collected from grass habitats (0.9%). Overall, there were no significant differences between dragging and sweeping methods for the three species when the areas sampled were similar (sweeping = 2 x the area over the same transect). Adults and nymphs of H. longicornis were most commonly collected from April-August, while those of H. flava and I. nipponensis were most commonly collected during April-July and again during October. Larvae of all three species were most frequently observed from July-September.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of Rickettsia monacensis from Ixodes nipponensis collected from rodents in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea.
Exp. Appl. Acarol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A total of 1,305 ticks were collected from wild rodents captured monthly, except July and August, during 2008 at three US-ROK operated military training sites and three US military installations in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, the Republic of Korea (ROK). Ixodes nipponensis was the most frequently collected tick (n = 1,299, 99.5 %), followed by Ixodes pomerantzevi (n = 6, 0.5 %). The ticks were pooled (1-15/sample) and tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae with primer sets targeting the outer membrane protein B (ompB), citrate synthase (gltA), and 17-kDa antigen gene loci. A total of 115/197 (58.4 %) pools were positive by nPCR for the outer membrane protein ompB. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 105/115 (91.3 %) ompB targeted nPCR positive products showed a high degree of similarity to Rickettsia monacensis (99.3-100 %, n = 87) and R. japonica (99.5-100 %, n = 18). From the 87 positive samples demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis, 15 were selected and analyzed by nPCR for gltA and the 17-kDa genes. A total of 12/15 pooled samples were positive for by nPCR for gltA, with amplicons demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis (99.3-99.7 %). A total of 13/15 pooled samples were positive by nPCR for the 17-kDa gene, with amplicons demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis (99.4-100 %). These findings demonstrate that R. monacensis is distributed throughout Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces in the ROK. Furthermore, data suggest a relative high prevalence of R. monacensis in the tick, I. nipponensis.
Related JoVE Video
First report for the seasonal and annual prevalence of flea-borne bartonella from rodents and soricomorphs in the republic of Korea.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rodents and soricomorphs are animal hosts of fleas and associated zoonotic microbial pathogens. A total of 4,889 small mammals were collected from Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea, from 2008 through 2010, including: Apodemus agrarius (4,122, 84.3%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (282, 5.8%), Microtus fortis (257, 5.3%), Myodes regulus (77, 1.6%), Micromys minutus (71, 1.5%), Mus musculus (63, 1.3%), and 4 other species (17, 0.3%). A total of 1,099 fleas belonging to 10 species and 7 genera were collected. Ctenophthalmus congeneroides (724, 65.9%) was the most commonly collected flea, followed by Stenoponia sidimi (301, 27.4%), Neopsylla bidentatiformis (29, 2.6%), and Rhadinopsylla insolita (25, 2.3%). The remaining species accounted for only 1.8% (20, range 1-6) of all fleas collected. The 2 dominant flea species, C. congeneroides and S. sidimi, showed an inverse seasonal pattern, with higher populations of C. congeneroides from January-September, whereas S. sidimi was more frequently collected during October-December. The overall flea infestation rates (FIR) and flea indices (FI) were 14.1% and 0.22, respectively, and were highest during April-June (19.7% and 0.30, respectively). A total of 735 of the 1,099 fleas were assayed for the detection of Bartonella spp. by PCR using Bartonella-specific primers, of which 515 were positive for Bartonella, with an overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of 700.7/1,000. The highest MLE values were observed during April-June (899.2) and July-September (936.2) trapping periods and, although lower, were similar for January-March (566.7) and October-December (574.1). C. congeneroides demonstrated high MLEs for all seasons (range 752.5-934.8), while S. sidimi was positive for Bartonella only during January-March (MLE=342.1) and October-December (MLE=497.2) collection periods. Continued long-term surveillance of small mammals and associated ectoparasites is needed to improve our understanding of the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas and the role of fleas in the zoonotic maintenance and transmission of Bartonella to humans.
Related JoVE Video
Seasonal distribution of ticks in four habitats near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular detection of Anaplasma, Bartonella, and Borrelia species in ticks collected from migratory birds from Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bird migration is a recurring annual and seasonal event undertaken by more than 100 species of birds in the southeast Asian and northeast Palearctic regions that pass through or remain for short periods from April to May and September to November at Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 212 ticks (40 Haemaphysalis flava, 12 H. longicornis, 146 Ixodes turdus, 13 I. nipponensis, and 1 I. ornithophila) were collected from 65/2,161 (3.0%) migratory birds consisting of 21 species that were captured from January, 2008, through December, 2009, as part of the Migratory Birds Center, Hong-do bird banding program for studying bird migration patterns. Adult ticks were assayed individually while larvae and nymphs were pooled (1-22 and 1-6 ticks per pool, respectively) into 31 and 65 pools, respectively. Ticks were assayed for zoonotic pathogens by PCR using 16S rRNA, heat shock protein (groEL), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primers to amplify genera specific for Anapalsma, Bartonella, and Borrelia PCR amplicons. Using the 16S rRNA-based nested PCR, A. phagocytophilum (n=1) was detected in I. nipponensis collected from Zoothera sibirica and A. bovis (n=1) was detected in I. turdus collected from Emberiza chrysophrys. Borrelia turdi 16S rRNA genes (n=3) were detected in I. turdus and I. nipponensis collected from Turdus pallidus and Zoothera aurea. Borrelia spp. 16S rRNA genes (n=4) were detected in Ixodes ticks collected from Emberiza tristrami, T. pallidus, and Z. aurea. The Bartonella grahamii ITS gene (n=1) was detected by nested PCR assay in I. turdus collected from Z. aurea. These results provide insight into the potential role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens throughout their ranges in Asia.
Related JoVE Video
Japanese encephalitis virus in culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at Daeseongdong, a village in the demilitarized zone of the Republic of Korea.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In total, 22,846 (17,793 culicines and 5,053 Anopheles spp.) female mosquitoes were captured by a Mosquito Magnet trap at Daeseongdong, a small village adjacent to the military demarcation line (center of the demilitarized zone) in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK). Culicine mosquitoes were identified to species, placed in pools of up to 30 mosquitoes each, and screened for flavivirus using a SYBR Green I-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. In total, 51/660 pools positive for flaviviruses and confirmed by DNA sequencing of the NS5 region, were positive for Japanese encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV) (50 Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and one Culex bitaeniorhynchus Giles). The JEV maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs) (estimated number of viral RNA-positive mosquitoes per 1,000) for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus were 9.7 and 0.9, respectively. This is the first report of a Cx. bitaeniorhynchus positive for JEV in the ROK. JEV is a local civilian and military health threat and a significant concern for nonimmune (unvaccinated) U.S. soldiers, civilians, and family members deployed to the ROK.
Related JoVE Video
Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the Peoples Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution and larval habitats of Anopheles species in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A total of 180 larval collection sites (e.g., rice paddies, marshes, ground pools, ponds, stream margins, and irrigation and drainage ditches) was surveyed within a 2 km radius from Warrior Base training area, 5 km south of Panmunjeom (Joint Security Area, demilitarized zone), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May through October, 2007 to characterize larval habitat distributions of members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group (An. sinensis, An. lesteri, An. pullus, An. belenrae, An. kleini, and An. sineroides). A total of 5,859 anopheline larvae was collected from 84.4% of the sites surveyed, of which 4,071 were identified to species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2). Anopheles sinensis (52.6%) was the most frequently collected, followed by An. kleini (29.4%), An. sineroides (9.8%), An. pullus (6.7%), An. belenrae (1.1%), and An. lesteri (0.5%). Anopheles pullus and An. kleini were collected in greater proportions in May and from May - July, respectively. Few An. sinensis were collected from May - June, but it was the predominant species collected by August, and accounted for >80% of all larvae from September - October. Anopheles kleini was found in all habitats sampled; however, it was collected most frequently in young growth rice paddies, while An. sinensis was collected more frequently in mature and post-harvest paddies. Anopheles pullus was associated with pre-cultivated rice paddies, including water-filled tire ruts left from the previous falls harvest.
Related JoVE Video
Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi and seasonal prevalence of fleas collected from small mammals at Gyeonggi Province in the Republic of Korea.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fleas were collected from live-captured small mammals to identify flea-borne pathogens, host associations, and seasonal prevalence of flea species, as part of the 65th Medical Brigade rodent-borne disease surveillance program at 20 military installations and training sites, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007. A total of 1251 fleas were recovered from 2833 small mammals. Apodemus agrarius, the striped field mouse, accounted for 93.1% (2,637/2,833) of all small mammals captured, followed by Crocidura lasiura (3.1%), Mus musculus (1.3%), Microtus fortis (0.7%), Myodes regulus (0.7%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Rattus norvegicus (0.4%), Tscherskia triton (0.1%), Apodemus peninsulae (< 0.1%), Rattus rattus (< 0.1%), and Mogera robusta (< 0.1%). A total of 6/11 species of mammals captured were infested with fleas with infestation rates ranging from a high of 26.3% (A. agrarius and M. regulus) to a low of 5.3% (M. fortis). Flea indices among infested mammals were highest for R. norvegicus (2.50), followed by C. lasiura (2.20), A. agrarius (1.71), M. regulus (1.20), M. musculus (1.0), and M. fortis (1.0). The predominant flea species collected were Stenoponia sidimi (56.5%), followed by Ctenophthalmus congeneroides (38.3%) and Rhadinopsylla insolita (3.9%). The minimum field infection rates [number of positive pools/total number of fleas (600)] for Rickettsia typhi and for Rickettsia felis were 1.7% and 1.0%, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Ticks collected from selected mammalian hosts surveyed in the Republic of Korea during 2008-2009.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A tick survey was conducted to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ticks associated with selected mammals in the Republic of Korea (ROK) during 2008-2009. A total of 918 ticks were collected from 76 mammals (6 families, 9 species) captured at 6 provinces and 3 Metropolitan Cities in ROK. Haemaphysalis longicornis (54.4%) was the most frequently collected tick, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (28.5%), Ixodes nipponensis (7.6%), Ixodes pomerantzevi (4.8%), Ixodes persulcatus (4.6%), and Haemaphysalis japonica (0.1%). Adults (57.0%) and nymphs (28.7%) of Ixodes and Haemaphysalis spp. were collected most frequently from medium or large mammals in this survey, while few larvae (14.3%) were collected. Hydropotes inermis was the most frequently captured mammal (52.6%), with a 16.4 tick index and 5 of 6 species of ticks collected during this survey. H. longicornis (69.7%) was the predominant tick collected from H. inermis, followed by H. flava (22.2%), I. persulcatus (6.1%), I. nipponensis (1.8%), and H. japonica (0.2%).
Related JoVE Video
New record of Lipoptena cervi and updated checklist of the louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABSTRACT This is the first confirmed record of the genus Lipoptena Nitzsch and its species, Lipoptena cervi (Linnaeus), from the Republic of Korea. A total of five females and 10 males was collected from eight of 29 Korean water deer, Hydropotes inermis argyropus Swinhoe, from Gangwon and Gyeongsangbuk Provinces and Ulsan Metropolitan Area from May through October 2008. An updated checklist of Korean hippoboscids contains nine species in six genera (Hippobosca Linnaeus, Icosta Speiser, Lipoptena, Ornithoctona Speiser, Ornithomya Lattreille, and Ornithophila Rondani). Hosts, collection records, and repositories are also noted.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks from southern Korea.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in southern Korea was determined by collecting ticks using tick drags. A total of 4,077 of 6,788 ticks collected were pooled (649 pools) according to collection site, species, and developmental stage and assayed for TBEV. The TBEV protein E and NS5 gene fragments were detected using RT-nested PCR in six pools of nymphs collected from Jeju Island (2,491 ticks). The minimum field detection rates for TBEV were 0.17% and 0.14% for Haemaphysalis longicornis and Haemayphysalis. flava nymphs, respectively. The 252 bp NS5 and 477 bp protein E gene amplicons were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the NS5 and protein E genes of the Jeju strain were clustered with Western subtype (98.0% and 99.4% identity, respectively). The Western subtype of TBEV is endemic in Korea, including Jeju Island. The study of vector and zoonotic host susceptibility to TBEV is required to better understand its potential impact on public health.
Related JoVE Video
Serosurveillance of scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and analysis of the relative abundance of chiggers from mammals examined.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites located near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), ROK was conducted to determine the potential rodent-borne and associated ectoparasite disease risks to military personnel. A total of 1,196 rodents and insectivores representing 8 species, Apodemus agrarius (87.3%, n = 1,044), Mus musculus (5.4%, n = 65), Crocidura lasiura (3.3%, n = 40), Microtus fortis (2.6%, n = 31), Micromys minutus (0.3%, n = 4), Tscherskia triton (0.3%, n = 4), Rattus norvegicus (0.3%, n = 4), and Myodes regulus (0.3%, n = 4) were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi. O. tsutsugamushi antibodies were detected in 6 of 8 species and seroprevalence determined; A. agrarius (45.6%), M. musculus (23.1%), M. fortis (48.4%), M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (50.0%), and R. norvegicus (25.0%). A total of 31,184 chigger mites collected from 508 rodents and insectivores were slide-mounted and 10 species belonging to 4 genera were identified. Leptotrombidium pallidum (53.4%) was the most frequently collected, followed by L. palpale (15.7%), Neotrombicula tamiyai (14.3%), L. orientale (10.7%), L. zetum (3.1%), Walchia fragilis (2.1%), and L. gemiticulum (0.8%), while the remaining 3 species, L. subintermedium, N. gardellai, and Euschoengastia koreaensis were rarely observed (prevalence < 10%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4), L. orientale (45.0), and L. palpale (21.4), were observed during the spring season.
Related JoVE Video
Species composition, larval habitats, seasonal occurrence and distribution of potential malaria vectors and associated species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of Korea.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Larval mosquito habitats of potential malaria vectors and related species of Anopheles from three provinces (Gyeonggi, Gyeongsangbuk, Chungcheongbuk Provinces) of the Republic of Korea were surveyed in 2007. This study aimed to determine the species composition, seasonal occurrence and distributions of Anopheles mosquitoes. Satellite derived normalized difference vegetation index data (NDVI) was also used to study the seasonal abundance patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes.
Related JoVE Video
Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of Rickettsia typhi and seasonal prevalence of fleas collected from small mammals in the Republic of Korea.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fleas were collected from live-captured small mammals to identify potential flea-borne pathogens, seasonal prevalence of flea species, and host preference as part of the US military rodent-borne diseases surveillance program conducted at one US military installation and 10 military training sites, northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. During 2003-04, 948 fleas (563 females and 385 males) were recovered from 2,742 small mammals (seven rodent and one insectivore species). Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse) accounted for 88.9% (2,439/2,742) of the small mammals, followed by Crocidura lasiura (4.2%), Mus musculus (2.9%), Microtus fortis (2.2%), Myodes regulus (0.6%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Tscherskia triton (0.5%), and Rattus norvegicus (0.3%). Small mammal infestation rates (number with fleas/number captured) ranged from 7.7% (M. minutus and T. triton) to 31.3% (M. regulus). Flea indices were highest for M. regulus (0.69/captured rodent), followed by C. lasiura (0.54), M. fortis (0.41), A. agrarius (0.34), and R. norvegicus (0.33). Overall, Ctenophthalmus congeneroides (51.3%) was more frequently collected, followed by Stenoponia sidimi (42.6%), Rhadinopsylla insolita (5.5%), Neopsylla bidentatiformis (0.4%), Rhadinopsylla concava (0.1%), and Doratopsylla coreana (0.1%). Ctenophthalmus congeneroides was more frequently collected from small mammals during the spring and summer, while S. sidimi was more frequently collected during the winter season. Rickettsia typhi, the causative agent of murine typhus, was detected in 3.2% of specimens (7/220 pools from 654 fleas; minimum field infection rate [number of positive pools/total number of fleas] was 1.1%).
Related JoVE Video
Seasonal and environmental determinants of leptospirosis and scrub typhus in small mammals captured at a U.S. military training site (Dagmar North), Republic of Korea, 2001-2004.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study sought to identify seasonal and environmental determinants of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals trapped at Dagmar North training area, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Echinostome infections in the striped-field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, and the Ussuri white-toothed shrew, Crocidura lasiura, caught near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A total of 1,498 small mammals (rodents and insectivores), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,366), Crocidura lasiura (54), Mus musculus (32), Micronytus fortis (28), Eothenomys regulus (9), Micronys minutes (6), and Cricetulus triton (3), were live-trapped in Gyeonggi-do (Province) (Paju-si, Pocheon-gun, and Yeoncheon-gun) near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) from December 2004 to September 2005. A. agrarius was found to be infected with 3 species of echinostomes (Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma cinetorchis, and Euparyphium murinum), while C. lasiura was infected with 1 species (Echinochasmus japonicas) of echinostome. Other mammals were free from echinostome infections. Total 16 E. hortense were detected in 7 (0.5%) mice, 9 E. cinetorchis from 5 (0.4%), and 3 E. murinum from 2 (0.1%) out of 1.366 A. agrarius examined. E. japonicus was found only in 1 (1.9%; total 3 specimens) C. lasiura. These results demonstrate that A. agrarius and C. lasiura, inhabiting near the DMZ of Gyeonggi-do serve as the natural definitive hosts for several species of echinostomes, although their infection rates are low. This is the first record of natural infections of A. agrarius with E. cinetorchis and C. lasiura with E. japonicus in the Republic of Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Overwintering of Anopheles lindesayi japonicus larvae in the Republic of Korea.
J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mosquito larval surveillance for environmental monitoring and pest-control purposes was conducted monthly at dredged soil-dumping areas during the construction of a new harbor in Yongcheon Bay, approximately 5 km SE of Jinhae, on the SW side of Namsan (Mt. Nam) and across the bay from Su-do (Su Island) in Gyeongsangnam Province, Republic of Korea (ROK) from November 2007 through April 2008. During this study, mosquitoes collected as overwintering larvae were Aedes togoi in brackish rock pools along the seashore and Anopheles lindesayi japonicus along the vegetated margins of a slow-flowing drainage ditch and associated freshwater ground pools containing green algae. Overwintering An. lindesayi larvae also were collected along stream margins and stream pools of moderate- to fast-flowing mountain streams near Chungju (Chungcheongbuk Province) (October 2007 and March 2008) and Munsan (Gyeonggi Province) (September 2007 and April 2008). First and second instars were collected and identified in late September 2007 through February 2008. During March and April, collections were primarily 3rd and 4th instars, and by the end of April, pupae were collected. This is the first report of An. lindesayi japonicus overwintering as larvae in the ROK.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.
Related JoVE Video
Ecology of Hantaan virus at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) in the Republic of Korea consists of dirt roads, barren training areas, and forested hillsides adjacent to linear and broad expanses of tall grasses, herbaceous, and scrub vegetation. Of the six species of small mammals, the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, was the most frequently captured (96.1%). Apodemus agrarius capture rates varied from 17.7 to 33.2% during three trapping periods. Gravid females were observed during November-December 2006 (8.4%) and March 2007 (5.1%). In 2005, the overall seroprevalence of Hantaan virus (HTNV) was high (34.4%) and lower during surveys in 2006 (14.2%) and 2007 (13.8%). Seroprevalence was directly correlated with weight increase of A. agrarius.
Related JoVE Video
Geographical distribution of bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae), including two new records, Nycteribia allotopa and N. formosana, collected from bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) in the Republic of Korea.
J. Vector Ecol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As part of the 65(th) Medical Brigade, U.S. Army, arthropod-borne disease surveillance program and in collaboration with the Korea National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), bats were captured from caves and abandoned mines in the Republic of Korea. A total of 39 adult bat flies including five species of Nycteribiidae [Penicillidia jenynsii, Nycteribia parvula, N. formosana, N. allotopa mikado, and an unidentified species of Nycteribia (N. cf. formosana)], and one species of Streblidae, Brachytarsina kanoi, were collected from bats belonging to two families, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae. This is the first report of N. allotopa mikado and N. formosana from the Republic of Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Seasonal abundance of biting midges, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), collected at cowsheds in the southern part of the Republic of Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Black light traps were used to measure the seasonal and geographical distribution of Culicoides spp. (biting midges or no-see-ums) at 9 cowsheds in the southern half of the Republic of Korea (ROK) from June through October 2010. A total of 25,242 Culicoides females (24,852; 98.5%) and males (390; 1.5%) comprising of 9 species were collected. The most commonly collected species was Culicoides punctatus (73.0%) followed by C. arakawae (25.7%), while the remaining 7 species accounted for <1.0% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The mean number of Culicoides spp. collected per trap night (Trap Index [TI]) was highest for C. punctatus (409.3), followed by C. arakawae (144.2), C. tainanus (4.1), C. oxystoma (1.2), C. circumscriptus (0.7), C. homotomus (0.6), C. erairai (0.4), C. kibunensis (0.3), and C. nipponensis (0.04). Peak TIs were observed for C. punctatus (1,188.7) and C. arakawae (539.0) during July and August, respectively. C. punctatus and C. arakawae have been implicated in the transmission of arboviruses and other pathogens of veterinary importance that adversely impact on animal and bird husbandry.
Related JoVE Video
Hantaan virus surveillance in small mammals at firing points 10 and 60, Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We used epidemiological data and indirect fluorescent antibody tests to determine the Hantaan virus (HTNV) antibody-positive (Ab+) prevalence in small mammals captured at firing point 10 (FP-10) and firing point 60 (FP-60), Gyeonggi Province, near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea (ROK), from 2001 to 2005. We used these data, combined with the partial M segment amplified from HTNV recovered from lung tissues of Apodemus agrarius, to clarify the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among HTNV strains in the ROK. Of the eight species of rodents and one insectivore species captured, A. agrarius accounted for 93.4% and 88.5% at FP-10 and FP-60, respectively. Only two species of rodents, A. agrarius and Micromys minutus, were HTNV Ab+. The overall HTNV Ab+ prevalence for A. agrarius captured at FP-10 and FP-60 was 23.3% (121/520) and 14.5% (94/647), respectively. The hantaviral reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive rate of Ab+ A. agrarius was 74.2% (167/215), and the phylogenetic trees, based on the 269-nucleotide G2-encoding M segment, demonstrated that HTNV strains from FP-10 and FP-60 were distantly segregated from HTNV of other geographic regions in Korea and China. These data are useful in the development of risk reduction strategies for the prevention of hantavirus infections among military personnel, especially during training or the event of hostilities, and civilian populations.
Related JoVE Video
Louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae: Ornithomyinae) of the Republic of Korea: an updated checklist, including two new records of bird louse flies.
J. Med. Entomol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One genus, Ornithoica Rondani, and two species, Ornithoica momiyamai Kishida, and O. unicolor Speiser, are reported for the first time from the Republic of Korea. A total of six species, including two new records, of louse flies were collected from 78 birds belonging to 35 species from Seoul and Incheon Metropolitan Areas and Gyeonggi, Gangwon, Gyeongsangbuk, Jeollabuk, and Jeollanam Provinces, 2005-2010. An updated checklist of Korean hippoboscids consisting of seven genera (Hippobosca L., Icosta Speiser, Lipoptena Nitzsch, Ornithoica Rondani, Ornithoctona Speiser, Ornithomya Lattreille, and Ornithophila Rondani) and 11 species is presented, including hosts, collection records, and repositories.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.