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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Real-time continuous-wave terahertz line scanner based on a compact 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We demonstrate real-time continuous-wave terahertz (THz) line-scanned imaging based on a 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with a scan velocity of 25 cm/s, a scan line length of 12 cm, and a pixel size of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2. Foreign substances, such as a paper clip with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 mm that is hidden under a cracker, are clearly detected by this THz line-scanning system. The system consists of the SBD array detector, a 200-GHz gyrotron source, a conveyor system, and several optical components such as a high-density polyethylene cylindrical lens, metal cylindrical mirror, and THz wire-grid polarizer. Using the THz polarizer, the signal-to-noise ratio of the SBD array detector improves because the quality of the source beam is enhanced.
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Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and venous hemorrhagic infarction in a young woman.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon cause of cerebral infarction, compared to arterial diseases. It is often unrecognized at initial presentation due to the diversity of causes and clinical manifestations. A 29-year-old female patient complained of severe headache and presented at the emergency room with altered consciousness. Brain computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance image revealed the left sigmoid sinus thrombosis with venous hemorrhagic infarction (VHI) in the left temporal lobe. The patient had no past medical and family history of bleeding diathesis. The laboratory finding at the admission showed severe iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and protein C and S activities were decreased. After the neurosurgery, iron replacement, and neurorehabilitation, the patient had a good recovery. There has been no known recurrence. We report our therapeutic intervention on a very rare case of CVST and VHI, with IDA as a probable cause of cerebral thrombosis.
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Transcriptional regulation of autophagy by an FXR-CREB axis.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components by autophagy is essential for cellular survival and homeostasis under nutrient-deprived conditions. Acute regulation of autophagy by nutrient-sensing kinases is well defined, but longer-term transcriptional regulation is relatively unknown. Here we show that the fed-state sensing nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the fasting transcriptional activator cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) coordinately regulate the hepatic autophagy gene network. Pharmacological activation of FXR repressed many autophagy genes and inhibited autophagy even in fasted mice, and feeding-mediated inhibition of macroautophagy was attenuated in FXR-knockout mice. From mouse liver chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing data, FXR and CREB binding peaks were detected at 178 and 112 genes, respectively, out of 230 autophagy-related genes, and 78 genes showed shared binding, mostly in their promoter regions. CREB promoted autophagic degradation of lipids, or lipophagy, under nutrient-deprived conditions, and FXR inhibited this response. Mechanistically, CREB upregulated autophagy genes, including Atg7, Ulk1 and Tfeb, by recruiting the coactivator CRTC2. After feeding or pharmacological activation, FXR trans-repressed these genes by disrupting the functional CREB-CRTC2 complex. This study identifies the new FXR-CREB axis as a key physiological switch regulating autophagy, resulting in sustained nutrient regulation of autophagy during feeding/fasting cycles.
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Banked vena caval homograft replacement of the inferior vena cava for primary leiomyocsarcoma.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Primary leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare malignant tumor. Herein, we report the case of a 52-year-old male patient who had postprandial abdominal distension and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) angiogram showed an IVC mass extending from the infrahepatic to the suprarenal inferior vena cava. The radiologic findings were suggestive of an IVC leiomyosarcoma. Surgical resection and reconstruction with a cryopreserved homograft were performed. The follow-up abdominal CT angiogram revealed the patient to be disease-free 6 months after surgery with patency of the IVC and renal vein.
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Risk factors and clinical outcomes for spontaneous rupture of pyogenic liver abscess.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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To evaluate risk factors and clinical outcomes for spontaneous rupture of pyogenic liver abscess.
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The prevalence of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 and 3 on Korean duck farms.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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This study reports the prevalence of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) types 1 and 3 on Korean duck farms. By RT-nested PCR assays specific for DHAV-1 or DHAV-3, DHAV-1 was detected in 9 of 157 liver samples (5.7 %) from 2 of 30 farms (6.7 %), and DHAV-3 was positive in 104 of 157 liver samples (66.2 %) from 23 of 30 farms (76.7 %). Dual infections with DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 were detected in 23 of 157 samples (14.6 %) from 5 of 30 farms (16.7 %). The data indicate that DHAV-3 infections are prevalent and that DHAV-1 reemerged in Korea, resulting in dual infections on several farms. Our data will help to establish a vaccination policy against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in Korea.
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Postoperative life-threatening recurrent ventricular arrhythmia triggered by the swan-ganz catheter in a patient undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Recurrent ventricular arrhythmia can be fatal and cause serious complications, particularly when it is caused immediately after an operation. Incorrect placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter can trigger life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia, but even intensive care specialists tend to miss this fact. Here, we report a case of recurrent ventricular arrhythmia causing a severe hemodynamic compromise; the arrhythmia was induced by a severely angulated Swan-Ganz catheter. The recurrent ventricular arrhythmia was not controlled by any measures including repositioning of the catheter, until the complete removal of the Swan-Ganz catheter. It is necessary to keep in mind that the position of the pulmonary artery catheter should be promptly checked if there is intractable recurrent ventricular arrhythmia.
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Early prophylactic versus late selective use of surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome in very preterm infants: a collaborative study of 53 multi-center trials in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Pulmonary surfactant (PS) therapy was proven to be highly successful for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. As a results, early prophylactic (EP) PS therapy has been introduced recently in Europe, the US and Korea. However, no multi-center study was compared EP and late selective (LS) PS therapies in Korea. We performed a retrospective multi-center study to compare the outcomes of EP and LS PS therapies in very preterm infants. We analyzed clinical morbidity and mortality for 1,291 infants in 2010 (LS group) and 1,249 infants in 2011 (EP group); the infants were born <30 weeks of gestation and had birth weight ?1,250 g, and were chosen from 53 neonatal intensive care units in Korea. Compared to the LS group (22.5%), the overall mortality was better in the EP group (19.9%) and there was no increased need for retreatment.There were additional benefits in the EP group such as fewer associated complications. To the best of knowledge, our study is the first nationwide Korean study to compare the outcomes of EP and LS therapies, and it provides evidences that EP PS therapy is important in very preterm infants to improve for survival and reduce morbidities.
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Clinical outcomes of gastric variceal obliteration using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in patients with acute gastric variceal hemorrhage.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC; Histoacryl) for treatment of bleeding gastric varices.
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Current iodine nutrition status and awareness of iodine deficiency in tuguegarao, Philippines.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3?µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy.
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Current and emerging strategies for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) represents the most serious and challenging complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). New insights on the role of regulatory T-cells, T cells, and antigen-presenting cells have led to an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of GVHD. However, little progress has been made since the introduction of calcineurin-inhibitor-based regimens in the mid-1980s. Despite standard prophylaxis with these regimens, GVHD still develops in approximately 40-60% of recipients. Thus, there is a need for developing newer approaches to mitigate GVHD, which may facilitate the use of allogeneic HSCT for the treatment of a wider range of haematological cancers. We discuss the rationale, clinical evidence, and outcomes of current (and widely employed) strategies for GVHD prophylaxis, namely calcineurin-inhibitor-based regimens (such as cyclosporine or tacrolimus) combined with methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil. We assess the clinical evidence for emerging approaches in the prevention of GVHD, including therapies targeting T cells or B cells, the use of mesenchymal stem cells, chemo-cytokine antagonists (such as maraviroc, TNF-? inhibitor, IL-2 receptor antagonist, IL-6 inhibitor), and the use of novel molecular regulators that target multiple cell types simultaneously, including atorvastatin, bortezomib, and epigenetic modulators.
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Pretreatment antimicrobial susceptibility-guided vs. clarithromycin-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in a region with high rates of multiple drug resistance.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Helicobacter pylori eradication rates with clarithromycin-based triple therapy are declining, and an alternative strategy is needed urgently. We sought to compare the efficacy of pretreatment antimicrobial susceptibility-guided vs. clarithromycin-based triple therapy for H. pylori eradication in a region with high rates of multiple drug resistance.
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Feasibility of Cap-Assisted Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients with Altered Gastrointestinal Anatomy.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is technically challenging in patients with altered gastrointestinal (GI) anatomy. We evaluated the feasibility of cap-assisted ERCP in patients with altered GI anatomy.
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Changes in the Cesarean Section Rate in Korea (1982-2012) and a Review of the Associated Factors.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Although Cesarean section (CS) itself has contributed to the reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality, an undue rise in the CS rate (CSR) has been issued in Korea as well as globally. The CSR in Korea increased over the past two decades, but has remained at approximately 36% since 2006. Contributing factors associated with the CSR in Korea were an improvement in socio-economic status, a higher maternal age, a rise in multiple pregnancies, and maternal obesity. We found that countries with a no-fault compensation system maintained a lower CSR compared to that in countries with civil action, indicating the close relationship between the CSR and the medico-legal system within a country. The Korean government has implemented strategies including an incentive system relating to the CSR or encouraging vaginal birth after Cesarean to decrease CSR, but such strategies have proved ineffective. To optimize the CSR in Korea, efforts on lowering the maternal childbearing age or reducing maternal obesity are needed at individual level. And from a national view point, reforming health care system, which could encourage the experienced obstetricians to be trained properly and be relieved from legal pressure with deliveries is necessary.
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Low pepsinogen I level predicts multiple gastric epithelial neoplasias for endoscopic resection.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Synchronous/metachronous gastric epithelial neoplasias (GENs) in the remaining lesion can develop at sites other than the site of endoscopic resection. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the predictive value of serum pepsinogen for detecting multiple GENs in patients who underwent endoscopic resection.
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Engraftment syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation predicts poor outcomes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Engraftment syndrome (ES), characterized by fever, rash, pulmonary edema, weight gain, liver and renal dysfunction, and/or encephalopathy, occurs at the time of neutrophil recovery after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we evaluated the incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of ES in children and adults undergoing first-time allogeneic HCT. Among 927 patients, 119 (13%) developed ES at a median of 10 days (interquartile range 9 to 12) after HCT. ES patients experienced significantly higher cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD at day 100 (75% versus 34%, P < .001) and higher nonrelapse mortality at 2 years (38% versus 19%, P < .001) compared with non-ES patients, resulting in lower overall survival at 2 years (38% versus 54%, P < .001). There was no significant difference in relapse at 2 years (26% versus 31%, P = .772). Suppression of tumorigenicity 2, interleukin 2 receptor alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 plasma biomarker levels were significantly elevated in ES patients. Our results illustrate the clinical significance and prognostic impact of ES on allogeneic HCT outcomes. Despite early recognition of the syndrome and prompt institution of corticosteroid therapy, outcomes in ES patients were uniformly poor. This study suggests the need for a prospective approach of collecting clinical features combined with correlative laboratory analyses to better characterize ES.
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Participation in clinical research: perspectives of adult patients and parents of pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Despite major improvements over the past several decades, many patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) continue to suffer from significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Clinical research studies (trials) have been integral to advancing the standard of care in HSCT. However, 1 of the biggest challenges with clinical trials is the low participation rate. Although barriers to participation in cancer clinical trials have been previously explored, studies specific to HSCT are lacking. The current study was undertaken to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of HSCT patients regarding clinical trials. As members of focus groups, participants responded to open-ended questions that assessed factors influencing decision-making about HSCT clinical trials. Suggestions for improvements in the recruitment process were also solicited among participants. Seventeen adult HSCT patients and 6 parents of pediatric HSCT patients participated in the study. The median age was 56 years (range, 18 to 70) and 44 years (range, 28 to 54) for adult patients and parents, respectively. Participants universally indicated that too much information was provided within the informed consents and they were intimidated by the medical and legal language. Despite the large amount of information provided to them at the time of study enrollment, the participants had limited knowledge retention and recall of study details. Nevertheless, participants reported overall positive experiences with clinical trial participation and many would readily choose to participate again. A common concern among participants was the uncertainty of study outcome and general lack of feedback about results at the end of the study. Participants suggested that investigators provide more condensed and easier to understand informed consents and follow-up of study findings. These findings could be used to help guide the development of improved consent documents and enhanced participation in research studies, thereby affecting the future design of HSCT research protocols.
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A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in Korean ready-to-eat food.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in various Korean ready-to-eat foods. The six specific primer pairs for multiplex PCR were selected based on the O157 antigen (rfbE) gene of E. coli O157:H7, the DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene of B. cereus, the toxin regulatory protein (toxR) gene of V. parahaemolyticus, the invasion protein A (invA) gene of Salmonella spp., the hemolysin (hly) gene of L. monocytogenes, and the thermonuclease (nuc) gene of S. aureus. The 16S rRNA gene was targeted as an internal control gene in the presence of bacterial DNA. The specificity and sensitivity assays for multiplex primer pairs were investigated by testing different strains. When this multiplex PCR assay was applied to evaluate the validity of detecting six foodborne pathogens in artificially inoculated several ready-to-eat food samples, the assay was able to specifically simultaneously detect as few as 1 colony-forming unit/mL of each pathogen after enrichment for 12 h. Their presence in naturally contaminated samples also indicates that the developed multiplex PCR assay is an effective and informative supplement for practical use.
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A case of ascending colonic xanthoma presenting as a lateral spreading tumor.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Gastrointestinal xanthomas are characterized by foamy cytoplasmic cells containing lipid in lamina propria, and occur almost in the gastric mucosa. Colonic xanthomas have been described in rare case. All reported colonic xanthomas were located in rectosigmoid. Rectosigmoid xanthomas have tended to exhibit small polypoid lesion, on the contrary flat in stomach. We report a case of xanthoma on ascending colon presenting as a laterally spreading tumor resected by endoscopic mucosal resection method.
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Combined effect of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and uric acid on Framingham risk score.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and uric acid (UA) are novel coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. In the present study we investigated the combined effects of GGT and UA on Framingham risk score (FRS) in a Korean population.
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HPLC and UPLC methods for the determination of zearalenone in noodles, cereal snacks and infant formula.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were compared to validate a method for determination of zearalenone (ZON) in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas. The limits of detection and quantification in HPLC and UPLC were found to be 4.0 and 13.0 ?g kg(-1) and 2.5 and 8.3 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of ZON by HPLC and UPLC ranged from 79.1% to 105.3% and from 85.1% to 114.5%, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the two methods for ZON determination were within the maximum standard uncertainty. The two methods showed that the levels of ZON in 163 naturally contaminated samples ranged from 4.3 to 8.3 ?g kg(-1) by HPLC and 3.1 to 17.6 ?g kg(-1) by UPLC. These findings indicate that either method is suitable for the determination of ZON in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas, but UPLC gives faster results with better sensitivity.
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Etanercept plus topical corticosteroids as initial therapy for grade one acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Clinical diagnosis of grade 1 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) marks the beginning of a potentially progressive and fatal course of GVHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, interventional studies to treat early GVHD are lacking. We conducted a single-arm prospective phase II trial to test the hypothesis that treatment of newly diagnosed grade 1 acute GVHD with etanercept and topical corticosteroids would reduce progression to grade 2 to 4 within 28 days. Study patients (n = 34) had a median age of 51 years (range, 10 to 67 years) and had undergone unrelated (n = 22) or related (n = 12) donor HSCT. Study patients were treated with etanercept (.4 mg/kg, maximum 25 mg/dose) twice weekly for 4 to 8 weeks. Ten of 34 patients (29%) progressed to grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD within 28 days. The cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 and grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 41% and 3%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality was 19% and overall survival was 63% at 2 years. Among a contemporaneous control cohort of patients who were diagnosed with grade 1 acute GVHD and treated with topical corticosteroids but not etanercept during the study period, 12 of 28 patients (43%) progressed to grade 2 to 4 GVHD within 28 days, with a 1-year incidence of grade 2 to 4 GVHD and grade 3 to 4 GVHD of 61% (41% versus 61%, P = .08) and 18% (3% versus 18%, P = .05), respectively. Patients treated with etanercept also experienced less increase in GVHD plasma biomarkers suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (P = .06) and regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha (P = .01) 28 days after grade 1 acute GVHD diagnosis compared with contemporaneous control patients. This study was terminated early because of poor accrual. Future prospective studies are needed to identify patients with grade 1 acute GVHD at risk of swift progression to more severe GVHD and to establish consensus for the treatment of grade 1 acute GVHD. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00726375.
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Siglec-G-CD24 axis controls the severity of graft-versus-host disease in mice.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Activation of sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-G (Siglec-G) by noninfectious damage-associated molecular patterns controls innate immune responses. However, whether it also regulates T-cell-mediated adaptive immune responses is not known. Graft-versus-host reaction is a robust adaptive immune response caused by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation that have been activated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the context of damaged host tissues following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The role of infectious and noninfectious pattern recognition receptor-mediated activation in the induction and aggravation of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is being increasingly appreciated. But the role of pathways that control innate immune responses to noninfectious stimuli in modulating GVHD has heretofore not been recognized. We report that Siglec-G expression on host APCs, specifically on hematopoietic cells, negatively regulates GVHD in multiple clinically relevant murine models. Mechanistic studies with various relevant Siglec-G and CD24 knockout mice and chimeric animals, along with rescue experiments with novel CD24 fusion protein demonstrate that enhancing the interaction between Siglec-G on host APCs with CD24 on donor T cells attenuates GVHD. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Siglec-G-CD24 axis, controls the severity of GVHD and suggest that enhancing this interaction may represent a novel strategy for mitigating GVHD.
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An unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a lollipop stick: a case report.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Most ingested foreign bodies often pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully; however, complications such as perforation do occur. Most cases of perforation are caused by thin, pointed objects such as needles, toothpicks, or fish and chicken bones. Herein, we report an unusual case of duodenal perforation caused by a lollipop stick with blunt ends. A 23-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department complaining of epigastric and right upper quadrant pain for the last 2 days. Abdominal computed tomography scans confirmed the presence of a foreign body in the duodenum, with signs of duodenal perforation and inflammation. The patient was not aware of ingesting the foreign body. Endoscopy revealed the presence of a lollipop stick in the duodenum, which was removed with forceps. The duodenal perforation was successfully managed by using hemoclips and a detachable snare.
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High-speed terahertz imaging toward food quality inspection.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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In contrast to conventional x-ray food inspection systems that have difficulty in detecting low-density materials, a terahertz imaging system can even identify insects and plastics embedded in a food matrix. A reflection-mode continuous-wave terahertz imaging system was therefore developed for application to food quality inspection, which requires fast, compact, and low-cost detection. High-speed operation of the terahertz imaging system was achieved through the use of a beam-steering tool. A reasonable compromise between the spatial resolution and the scan length of an aspheric f-theta scanning lens could be achieved by optimizing the lens parameters.
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Acute obstructive cholangitis complicated by tumor migration after transarterial chemoembolization: a case report and literature review.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Intraductal tumor invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered rare. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is effective for tumor thrombus of HCC in the bile duct. However, a few cases of obstructive jaundice caused by migration of a tumor fragment after TACE have recently been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect tumor migration after TACE. At this writing, a review of the medical literature disclosed seven reported cases of biliary obstruction caused by migration of a necrotic tumor cast after TACE. We, herein, report on an additional case of acute obstructive cholangitis complicated by migration of a necrotic tumor cast after TACE for intrabile duct invasion of HCC, in a 71-year-old man. The tumor cast in the common bile duct was removed successfully using a basket during ERCP and was pathologically confirmed to be a completely necrotic fragment of HCC. The patient's symptoms showed dramatic improvement. In summary, physicians should be aware of acute obstructive cholangitis complicated by tumor migration in a patient undergoing TACE. We suggest that an intrabile duct invasion would be a major predisposing factor of tumor migration after TACE and drainage procedures such as ERCP or percutaneous transbiliary drainage could be effective treatment modalities in these patients.
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Anti-angiogenic variant of TSP-1 targets TRAIL-resistant brain tumor cells.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Three type-1-repeat (3TSR) domain of thrombospondin-1 is known to have anti-angiogenic effects by targeting tumor-associated endothelial cells but its effect on tumor cells is unknown. This study explored the potential of 3TSR to target glioblastoma-multiforme (GBM) cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that 3TSR up-regulates death receptor (DR) 4/5 expression in a CD36-dependent manner and primes resistant GBMs to tumor necrosis factor apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced caspase-8/3/7 mediated apoptosis. We engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for on-site delivery of 3TSR and a potent and secretable variant of TRAIL (S-TRAIL) in an effort to simultaneously target TRAIL resistance in GBM and circumvent issues of systemic delivery of drugs across the blood-brain-barrier. We show that MSC-3TSR/S-TRAIL inhibits tumor growth in an expanded spectrum of GBMs. In vivo, a single administration of MSC-3TSR/S-TRAIL significantly targets both tumor cells and vascular component of GBMs, inhibits tumor progression and extends survival of mice bearing intracranial TRAIL-resistant and highly vascularized GBM. The ability of 3TSR/S-TRAIL to simultaneously act on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells offers a great potential to target a broad spectrum of cancers and translate 3TSR/TRAIL therapies into clinics.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.214.
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Effect of lactoferrin-impregnated porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres on osteogenic differentiation of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs).
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop lactoferrin (LF)-impregnated porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (PMs) to induce osteogenic differentiation of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs). Porous PLGA PMs were fabricated by a fluidic device and their surfaces were modified with heparin-dopamine (Hep-DOPA). Then, LF (100?g, 500?g, and 1000?g) was impregnated on the surface of heparinized PMs (Hep-PMs) via electrostatic interactions to yield LF-impregnated PMs. PMs and modified PMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Osteogenic differentiation of rADSCs on PMs and modified PMs was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and mRNA expression of osteocalcin and osteopontin. Successful immobilization of Hep-DOPA and LF on the surface of PMs was confirmed by XPS analysis. LF-impregnated PMs generated significantly greater ALP activity, calcium deposition, and mRNA expression of osteocalcin and osteopontin compared with PMs. These results suggested that LF-impregnated PMs effectively induced osteogenic differentiation of rADSCs.
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Livin is associated with the invasive and oncogenic phenotypes of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Livin, a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, is expressed in variable cancers, and its expression is considered a poor prognostic marker. The aims of this study were to observe the effect of Livin on the behaviors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to evaluate its expression in HCC tissues and its relation to prognosis.
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A case of colonic pseudoobstruction related to bacterial overgrowth due to a sigmoidocecal fistula.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Colocolic fistulas are usually a complication of an inflammatory or neoplastic process. Development of these abnormal bowel communications may lead to bacterial overgrowth. We report on a 71-year-old man with a one-year history of recurrent abdominal distension and irregular bowel habits. Abdominal X-rays and computed tomography showed multiple air-fluid levels and loops of distended bowel without evidence of mechanical obstruction or diverticulitis. Colonoscopy showed a fistulous tract between the sigmoid colon and cecum. Results of a lactulose breath test showed high fasting breath CH4 levels, which were thought to be the result of intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The patient was diagnosed with a colonic pseudo-obstruction associated with bacterial overgrowth due to a sigmoidocecal fistula. We recommended surgical correction of the sigmoidocecal fistula; however, the patient requested medical treatment. After antibiotic therapy, the patient still had mild symptoms but no acute exacerbations.
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[Comparison on the long term outcome between endoscopic submucosal dissection and surgical treatment for undifferentiated early gastric cancer].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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There are controversies on the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for un-differentiated early gastric cancer (EGC) despite the expansion of ESD indications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term outcome of ESD compared to that of surgical treatment in patients with undifferentiated EGC.
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Risk factors for patients with stage IVB hepatocellular carcinoma and extension into the heart: prognostic and therapeutic implications.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To evaluate the risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) extension into the right atrium (RA) and determine poor prognostic factors for HCC extension to the heart.
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Uniform polydimethylsiloxane beads coated with polydopamine and their potential biomedical applications.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Based on oil-in-water emulsion, uniform poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) beads were prepared using a simple fluidic device and then modified with polydopamine (PDA) to improve cell attachment. The size of the PDMS beads could be easily tuned by changing the flow rates of the discontinuous and continuous phases, and PDMS concentration in oil phase. The PDA-coated PDMS beads exhibited a dark and rough surface, whereas the pristine PDMS beads had a clear and smooth surface. The PDA layer at the surface of the PDMS beads was found to provide a favorable environment for cell culture due to its hydrophilic property. The PDA-coated PDMS beads can potentially be employed as filler materials for tissue engineering.
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Various applications of endoscopic scissors in difficult endoscopic interventions.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Endoscopic scissors offer a benefit over other devices by avoiding potential complications related to thermal and mechanical injury of surrounding structures. We describe our experience with endoscopic scissors in three difficult endoscopic interventions. A fishbone embedded in the esophageal wall penetrated very close to the pulsating aorta and the bronchus. The fishbone was cut in half by endoscopic scissors and removed without injury to adjacent organs. A gastric submucosal tumor with an insulated core that could not be resected by electrosurgical devices was cut using endoscopic scissors following endoloop placement. Extravascular coil migration after transcatheter arterial embolization resulted in a duodenal ulcer. The metallic coil on the duodenal ulcer was cut by endoscopic scissors without mechanical or thermal injury.
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The Effect of Indigocarmine on Improvement of the Polyp Detection Rate during Colonoscopic Examination with Hood Cap.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy using indigocarmine is expected to improve the detection rate of colorectal polyps, especially adenomatous polyps. Therefore, aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of hood cap-assisted chromocolonoscopy in routine colonoscopic examinations.
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Is the environment of the endoscopy unit a reservoir of pathogens?
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Given the characteristic procedures involved in the endoscopy unit, the spread of pathogens is much more frequent in this unit than in other environments. However, there is a lack of data elucidating the existence of pathogens in the endoscopy unit. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of possible pathogens in the endoscopy unit.
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Entrapment of protein using electrosprayed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres with a porous structure for sustained release.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The entrapment of a protein in porous poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres is demonstrated through the closure of their outer surface pores for sustained delivery of the protein. The porous PLGA microspheres with less than 10 ?m in size are prepared by electrospraying. Aqueous solutions containing fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran or bovine serum albumin (BSA) are penetrated into the inner pores as a result of vacuum treatment, and the outer surface pores of the porous PLGA microspheres are then closed using a solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide) to ensure entrapment of the macromolecules. Confocal microscopy images confirm the presence of a large amount of the macromolecules inside the porous structure. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and release analysis reveal that BSA is entrapped without denaturation and released in a sustained manner for a period of over 2 months, respectively.
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Leptin-induced adhesion and invasion in colorectal cancer cell lines.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Leptin, which is encoded by the obese gene, is a multifunctional neuroendocrine peptide that regulates appetite, bone formation, reproductive function and angiogenesis. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of leptin in 80 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to determine the effects of leptin on the malignant properties of CRC cells. We evaluated the expression of leptin in tissues of 80 patients with CRC. Suspension cultures were used to isolate CRC stem cells following pretreatment with leptin. We analyzed the effects of leptin on the adhesion and invasive capacities of CRC cell lines. The effects of leptin on JAK and ERK activation were examined using western blotting. Leptin expression was associated with CRC progression and increased the number and size of spheroid formation by CRC cell lines. Leptin enhanced cell invasion and adhesion and activated JAK and ERK signaling in the CRC cell lines. The present study demonstrated that leptin influences the growth and survival of CRC stem cells and regulates adhesion and invasion of colorectal carcinoma through activation of the JAK and ERK signaling pathways.
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with previous acute coronary syndrome.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is considered a high-risk procedure in patients with previous acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, clinical studies are rare in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of ERCP in patients with previous ACS.
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Genome-wide association study identifies ALLC polymorphisms correlated with FEV? change by corticosteroid.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Asthma can be suppressed by inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). However, response to ICS shows marked inter-individual variability. This study is aimed to identify the genetic variants associated with the change in the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1second (%?FEV1) following ICS treatment.
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Three cases of postoperative septic arthritis caused by Mycobacterium conceptionense in the shoulder joints of immunocompetent patients.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Mycobacterium conceptionense is a species member of Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, a potential pathogen of increasing clinical importance among opportunistic infections. This species causes a wide spectrum of cutaneous and extracutaneous diseases. In this report, we describe three patients who underwent shoulder surgery with postoperative joint infection by M. conceptionense.
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Association between Serum Irisin Levels and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Health Screen Examinees.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Irisin is a recently found myokine that aids obesity control and improves glucose homeostasis by acting on white adipose tissue cells and increases total energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum irisin levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to compare these levels with those of normal controls. Among 595 health screen examinees who had visited our institute between January 2013 to March 2013, 355 patients (84 NAFLD patients and 271 normal controls) were enrolled depending on whether they gave written informed consents and their history of alcohol intake, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings. Age; sex; laboratory test parameters; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; and levels of leptin, adiponectin, and irisin were assessed. Serum irisin levels (ng/ml) were significantly higher in the NAFLD group than in normal controls (63.4±32.6 vs. 43.0±29.7, p<0.001) and higher in the mild fatty liver group than in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group (68.3±38.2 vs. 56.6±21.2, p<0.001). Additionally, serum irisin levels were not different between the non-obese and obese groups (48.4±34.2 vs. 45.8±22.9, p?=?0.492); however, the levels were significantly lowest in normal controls and highest in the mild fatty liver group in the non-obese (44.9±31.7 vs. 73.1±48.5 vs 59.7±18.0, p<0.001) and obese groups (35.0±17.0 vs. 62.9±21.2 vs. 54.6±23.3, p<0.001). Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients, which is not consistent with the results of previously published studies. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm the role of irisin in NAFLD.
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Vorinostat plus tacrolimus and mycophenolate to prevent graft-versus-host disease after related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase 1/2 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a barrier to more widespread application of allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Vorinostat is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases and was shown to attenuate GVHD in preclinical models. We aimed to study the safety and activity of vorinostat, in combination with standard immunoprophylaxis, for prevention of GVHD in patients undergoing related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
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A case of diaphragmatic hernia induced by radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Because of its safety and treatment effectiveness, the popularity of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has gradually increased. However, some serious complications of RFA such as hepatic infarction, bowel perforation, and tumor seeding have been reported. Recently, we experienced a case of diaphragmatic hernia after RFA for HCC. A 61-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis was diagnosed with a 1.0 cm sized HCC in segment (S) 5 and a 1.3 cm sized HCC in S 8 of the liver. He was treated by transarterial chemoembolization and RFA. After RFA, an abdominal CT revealed a diaphragmatic defect with herniating mesentery. Twenty-two months after the RFA, the chest CT showed the diaphragmatic defect with herniating colon and mesentery. Because he had no symptoms, and surgical repair for the diaphragmatic hernia would be a high risk operation for him, we decided to treat the patient conservatively. For its great rarity, we report this case with a review of the literature.
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Regulation of SIRT1 by MicroRNAs.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that connects cellular energy levels to homeostatic responses by deacetylating and modulating the activities of many transcriptional regulators. Discovered as a longevity protein in yeast, the mammalian SIRT1 has been intensively studied because of its great potential as a therapeutic target to benefit human health by preventing and improving many age-related diseases. There has been, therefore, substantial interest in developing agents that upregulate SIRT1 expression and activity. SIRT1 is regulated at multiple levels, including post-transcriptionally by microRNAs (miRs), powerful regulators of diverse biological pathways. Here we discuss how expression and activity of SIRT1 and other sirtuins are inhibited by miRs and further discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting miRs for age-related diseases that involve SIRT1 dysfunction, focusing on obesityrelated diseases.
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Predictive factors for recurrence and survival in hepatocellular carcinoma in South Korea.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To evaluate the factors predicting for recurrence and to analyze survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Capsaicin induces apoptosis and modulates MAPK signaling in human gastric cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Capsaicin is known to have tumor suppressive effects. However, the molecular mechanisms and targets of capsaicin involved in exerting anticancer activity are complex and remain to be clarified. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of capsaicin on human gastric cancer cells (AGS cells) and demonstrate that capsaicin induced apoptosis in AGS cells. Results of the MTT assay and flow cytometry revealed that capsaicin potentially inhibited the proliferation of AGS cells and induced apoptosis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Cleaved caspase-3 was increased and Bcl-2 was reduced by treatment with capsaicin in AGS cells. Capsaicin treatment decreased the expression of phosphorylated ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK or JNK in AGS cells. The results of this study suggest that capsaicin may serve as an anti-tumorigenic agent in human gastric cancer.
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Toxicity generated through inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 is similar to high glucose/palmitate-induced glucolipotoxicity in INS-1 beta cells.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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This work was initiated to determine whether toxicity generated through inhibition of mitochondrial fuel metabolism is similar to high glucose/palmitate (HG/PA)-induced glucolipotoxicity. Influx of glucose and free fatty acids into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was inhibited by treatment with the pyruvate carboxylase (PC) inhibitor phenylacetic acid (PAA) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) inhibitor etomoxir (Eto), or knockdown of PC and CPT-1. Treatment of PAA/Eto or knockdown of PC/CPT-1 induced apoptotic death in INS-1 beta cells. Similar to HG/PA treatment, PAA/Eto increased endoplasmic reticulum stress responses but decreased the Akt signal. JNK inhibitor or chemical chaperone was protective against both PAA/Eto- and HG/PA-induced cell death. All attempts to reduce [Ca(2+)]i, stimulate lipid metabolism, and increase the TCA cycle intermediate pool protected PAA/Eto-induced death as well as HG/PA-induced death. These data suggest that signals induced from impaired mitochondrial fuel metabolism play a critical role in HG/PA-induced glucolipotoxicity.
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Trends of breastfeeding rate in Korea (1994-2012): comparison with OECD and other countries.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Breastfeeding has numerous benefits both for infants and mothers. WHO, UNICEF, and OECD report the breastfeeding rate (BR) and exclusive breastfeeding rate (EBR) at 3, 4, and 6 months of age for the international comparison. This article investigates the nationwide changes in BR and EBR in Korea from 1994 to 2012. EBR declined from 1994 to 2000, however progressively increased untill 2012. The latest data in 2012 revealed EBRs at 3, 4, and 6 months were 50.0%, 40.5%, and 11.4% respectively. The exclusive formula feeding rate (EFR) was highest in 2000 and gradually declined thereafter. In 2012, the EFRs at 3, 4 and 6 months were 21.7%, 26.5%, and 10.1%. In 2009, the EBRs at 3 and 6 months in the United States were 36.0% and 16.3% compared to 50.0% and 11.4% in Korea. In England, the EBRs were 17% and 12% in 2010. Amongst OECD countries, Hungary ranked highest EBRwith 95%, and Iceland, Norway, Slovak Republic, Australia, New Zealand followed. In conclusion, BRs were lowest in 2000, and there have been remarkable increases in BRs over the past 10 yr in Korea. Although BRs have been increasing, further efforts to increase BRs should be made continuously.
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Bile acid signal-induced phosphorylation of small heterodimer partner by protein kinase C? is critical for epigenomic regulation of liver metabolic genes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Bile acids (BAs) are recently recognized key signaling molecules that control integrative metabolism and energy expenditure. BAs activate multiple signaling pathways, including those of nuclear receptors, primarily farnesoid X receptor (FXR), membrane BA receptors, and FXR-induced FGF19 to regulate the fed-state metabolism. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) has been implicated as a key mediator of these BA signaling pathways by recruitment of chromatin modifying proteins, but the key question of how SHP transduces BA signaling into repressive histone modifications at liver metabolic genes remains unknown. Here we show that protein kinase C? (PKC?) is activated by BA or FGF19 and phosphorylates SHP at Thr-55 and that Thr-55 phosphorylation is critical for the epigenomic coordinator functions of SHP. PKC? is coimmunopreciptitated with SHP and both are recruited to SHP target genes after bile acid or FGF19 treatment. Activated phosphorylated PKC? and phosphorylated SHP are predominantly located in the nucleus after FGF19 treatment. Phosphorylation at Thr-55 is required for subsequent methylation at Arg-57, a naturally occurring mutation site in metabolic syndrome patients. Thr-55 phosphorylation increases interaction of SHP with chromatin modifiers and their occupancy at selective BA-responsive genes. This molecular cascade leads to repressive modifications of histones at metabolic target genes, and consequently, decreased BA pools and hepatic triglyceride levels. Remarkably, mutation of Thr-55 attenuates these SHP-mediated epigenomic and metabolic effects. This study identifies PKC? as a novel key upstream regulator of BA-regulated SHP function, revealing the role of Thr-55 phosphorylation in epigenomic regulation of liver metabolism.
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The dose of cyclophosphamide for treating paraquat-induced rat lung injury.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a promising treatment for severe cases of paraquat (PQ) poisoning. We investigated the effective dose of CP for mitigating PQ-induced lung injury.
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Elevated microRNA-34a in obesity reduces NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity by directly targeting NAMPT.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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SIRT1 is an NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase that is implicated in prevention of many age-related diseases including metabolic disorders. As SIRT1 deacetylase activity is dependent on NAD(+) levels and the development of compounds that directly activate SIRT1 has been controversial, indirectly activating SIRT1 through enhancing NAD(+) bioavailability has received increasing attention. NAD(+) levels are reduced in obesity and the aged, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We recently showed that hepatic microRNA-34a (miR-34a), which is elevated in obesity, directly targets and decreases SIRT1 expression. Here, we further show that miR-34a reduces NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity by targeting NAMPT, the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD(+) biosynthesis. A functional binding site for miR-34a is present in the 3 UTR of NAMPT mRNA. Hepatic overexpression of miR-34a reduced NAMPT/NAD(+) levels, increased acetylation of the SIRT1 target transcriptional regulators, PGC-1?, SREBP-1c, FXR, and NF-?B, and resulted in obesity-mimetic outcomes. The decreased NAMPT/NAD(+) levels were independent of miR-34a effects on SIRT1 levels as they were also observed in SIRT1 liver-specific knockout mice. Further, the miR-34a-mediated decreases were reversed by treatment with the NAD(+) intermediate, nicotinamide mononucleotide. Conversely, antagonism of miR-34a in diet-induced obese mice restored NAMPT/NAD(+) levels and alleviated steatosis, inflammation, and glucose intolerance. Anti-miR-34a-mediated increases in NAD(+) levels were attenuated when NAMPT was downregulated. Our findings reveal a novel function of miR-34a in reducing both SIRT1 expression and activity in obesity. The miR-34a/NAMPT axis presents a potential target for treating obesity- and aging-related diseases involving SIRT1 dysfunction like steatosis and type 2 diabetes.
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Elevation of S100 calcium binding protein A9 in sputum of neutrophilic inflammation in severe uncontrolled asthma.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Neutrophilic airway inflammation is frequently observed in severe uncontrolled asthma (UA) and controlled asthma (CA). However, there is no sputum biomarker to differentiate the 2 conditions.
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Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with drug-resistant chronic hepatitis B.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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To investigate the risk factors and characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the patients with drug-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
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Uniform tricalcium phosphate beads with an open porous structure for tissue engineering.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Uniform tricalcium phosphate (TCP) porous beads with micro and macro pore sizes were fabricated using a simple fluidic device. For micro-porous TCP beads, an aqueous gelatin mixture containing TCP powder was introduced as the discontinuous phase into the fluidic device, where a toluene phase served as the continuous phase. The resulting aqueous TCP droplets were instantly frozen at -20°C and freeze-dried, followed by calcination at 1200°C. An oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsion templating method was employed to fabricate macro-porous TCP beads. An oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was introduced into the fluidic device as the discontinuous phase with all other experimental conditions the same as for the micro-porous TCP beads. Uniform macro-porous TCP beads with a highly porous structure were finally obtained after freeze-drying and calcination. Large pore size and good interconnectivity of the macro-porous TCP beads were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and porosimetry. In addition, penetration of host tissue into the macro-pores of the TCP beads was demonstrated by subcutaneously implanting the two types of porous TCP beads into mice and histologically analyzing stained sections at 1-4 weeks post implantation. The macro-porous TCP beads with a highly open porous structure could potentially be used as an injectable material for bone tissue engineering.
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An integrative model of the cardiovascular system coupling heart cellular mechanics with arterial network hemodynamics.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The current study proposes a model of the cardiovascular system that couples heart cell mechanics with arterial hemodynamics to examine the physiological role of arterial blood pressure (BP) in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We developed a comprehensive multiphysics and multiscale cardiovascular model of the cardiovascular system that simulates physiological events, from membrane excitation and the contraction of a cardiac cell to heart mechanics and arterial blood hemodynamics. Using this model, we delineated the relationship between arterial BP or pulse wave velocity and LVH. Computed results were compared with existing clinical and experimental observations. To investigate the relationship between arterial hemodynamics and LVH, we performed a parametric study based on arterial wall stiffness, which was obtained in the model. Peak cellular stress of the left ventricle and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the brachial and central arteries also increased; however, further increases were limited for higher arterial stiffness values. Interestingly, when we doubled the value of arterial stiffness from the baseline value, the percentage increase of SBP in the central artery was about 6.7% whereas that of the brachial artery was about 3.4%. It is suggested that SBP in the central artery is more critical for predicting LVH as compared with other blood pressure measurements.
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Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles modified with polyethylenimine and folic acid for biomedical theranostics.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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This paper describes the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with polyethylenimine (PEI)-folic acid (PF) conjugate and their potential biomedical applications. Magnetic nanoparticles modified with (3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane) (AEAPS) were first prepared using a ligand exchange method to provide biocompatibility and hydrophilicity, and further conjugated with PF to carry gene and enhance specific uptake into cancer cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of the multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as gene carriers for gene delivery. In vitro results revealed that the cytotoxicity of the multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles was lower compared to that of pristine magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, we demonstrated the specific uptake of the magnetic nanoparticles modified with PF to KB cells using WI-38 cells as comparison by confocal microscopy. The PF-modified magnetic nanoparticles can potentially be employed as theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted gene delivery to cancer cells and simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging.
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Cerebral and splenic infarctions after injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in esophageal variceal bleeding.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Variceal bleeding is the most serious complication of portal hypertension, and it accounts for approximately one fifth to one third of all deaths in liver cirrhosis patients. Currently, endoscopic treatment remains the predominant method for the prevention and treatment of variceal bleeding. Endoscopic treatments include band ligation and injection sclerotherapy. Injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate has been successfully used to treat variceal bleeding. Although injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate provides effective treatment for variceal bleeding, injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is associated with a variety of complications, including systemic embolization. Herein, we report a case of cerebral and splenic infarctions after the injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate to treat esophageal variceal bleeding.
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Solar water oxidation using nickel-borate coupled BiVO4 photoelectrodes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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A naturally abundant nickel-borate (Ni-Bi) complex is demonstrated to successfully catalyze the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation of BiVO4 electrodes at 1.23 VRHE with nearly 100% faradaic efficiency for oxygen evolution. Ni-Bi is electrodeposited (ED) and photodeposited (PD) for varying times on BiVO4 electrodes in the 0.1 M borate electrolyte with 1 mM Ni(2+) at pH 9.2. Surprisingly, optimally deposited Ni-Bi films (ED-10 s and PD-30 min) display the same layer thickness of ca. 40 nm. Both Ni-Bi films enhance the photocurrent generation of BiVO4 at 1.23 VRHE by a factor of 3-4 under AM 1.5-light irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)) along with ca. 250% increase in the incident and absorbed photon-to-current efficiencies. Impedance analysis further reveals that the charge transfer resistance at BiVO4 is markedly decreased by Ni-Bi deposits. The primary role of Ni-Bi has been suggested to be a hole-conductor making photogenerated electrons more mobile and catalyzing a four-hole transfer to water through cyclic changes between the lower and higher Ni oxidation states. However, thick Ni-Bi films (>~40 nm) significantly reduce the PEC performance of BiVO4 due to the kinetic bottleneck and charge recombination. Under identical PEC conditions (0.1 M, pH 9.2), the borate electrolyte (good proton acceptor) is found to be better than nitrate (poor proton acceptor), indicative of a proton-coupled electron transfer pathway in PEC water oxidation.
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Protective effect of nicotinamide on high glucose/palmitate-induced glucolipotoxicity to INS-1 beta cells is attributed to its inhibitory activity to sirtuins.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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This study was initiated to determine whether the protective effect of nicotinamide (NAM) on high glucose/palmitate (HG/PA)-induced INS-1 beta cell death was due to its role as an anti-oxidant, nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor, or inhibitor of NAD+-consuming enzymes such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) or sirtuins. All anti-oxidants tested were not protective against HG/PA-induced INS-1 cell death. Direct supplementation of NAD+ or indirect supplementation through NAD+ salvage or de novo pathway did not protect the death. Knockdown of the NAD+ salvage pathway enzymes such as nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) or nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (NMNAT) did not augment death. On the other hand, pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of PARP did not affect death. However, sirtinol as an inhibitor of NAD-dependant deacetylase or knockdown of SIRT3 or SIRT4 significantly reduced the HG/PA-induced death. These data suggest that protective effect of NAM on beta cell glucolipotoxicity is attributed to its inhibitory activity on sirtuins.
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Cap-assisted gastroscope versus cap-assisted colonoscope for examination of difficult sigmoid colons in a nonsedated Asian population: a randomized study.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Studies have estimated that cecal intubation failure occurs with conventional colonoscopy in about 10% of cases. Various methods have been adopted to improve the cecal intubation rate, including a transparent cap and special colonoscopes.
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Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma presenting as brown-sequard syndrome following repetitive korean traditional deep bows.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma (SCEH) is an uncommon cause of acute nontraumatic myelopathy. SCEH presenting as Brown-Sequard syndrome is extremely rare. A 65-year-old man had motor weakness in the left extremities right after his mothers funeral. He received thrombolytic therapy under the impression of acute cerebral infarction at a local hospital. However, motor weakness of the left extremities became aggravated without mental change. After being transferred to our hospital, he showed motor weakness in the left extremities with diminished pain sensation in the right extremities. Diagnosis of SCEH was made by cervical magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent left C3 to C5 hemilaminectomy with hematoma removal. It is important for physicians to be aware that SCEH can be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of hemiplegia, since early diagnosis and management can influence the neurological outcome. We think that increased venous pressure owing to repetitive Korean traditional deep bows may be the cause of SCEH in this case.
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A simplified formula using early blood gas analysis can predict survival outcomes and the requirements for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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The aims of this study were to investigate whether early arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) could define the severity of disease in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We conducted a retrospective study over a 21-yr period of infants diagnosed with CDH. Outcomes were defined as death before discharge, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation requirements (ECMO) or death. A total 114 infants were included in this study. We investigated whether simplified prediction formula [PO2-PCO2] values at 0, 4, 8, and 12 hr after birth were associated with mortality, and ECMO or death. The area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimum ABGA values for predicting outcomes. The value of [PO2-PCO2] at birth was the best predictor of mortality (AUC 0.803, P < 0.001) and at 4 hr after birth was the most reliable predictor of ECMO or death (AUC 0.777, P < 0.001). The value of [PO2-PCO2] from ABGA early period after birth can reliably predict outcomes in infants with CDH.
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Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the treatment of single hepatocellular carcinoma of 2 to 5 cm in diameter: comparison with surgical resection.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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To compare the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with surgical resection in patients with a single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranging from 2 to 5 cm.
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Endoscopic treatment of duodenal neuroendocrine tumors.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms. In this study, the medical records of 14 patients with duodenal NETs diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from July 2001 to August 2011 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Four patients were diagnosed in the first 5 years, and 10 patients were diagnosed in the latter 5 years of the study. Ten of 12 patients (83.3%) who underwent endoscopic biopsy were confirmed to have NET before resection. Endoscopic resection was performed in 12 patients, surgical resection in one patient, and regular follow-up in one patient who refused resection. None of the patients showed recurrence or distant metastasis. Duodenal NETs are increasingly observed and are mostly detected during screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Careful endoscopic examination and biopsy can improve the diagnostic yield of NETs. Most well-differentiated, nonfunctional duodenal NETs that are limited to the mucosa/submucosa can be treated effectively with endoscopic resection.
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Comparison of Endoscopic Variceal Ligation and Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration in Patients with GOV1 Bleeding.
Chonnam Med J
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, rebleeding rates, survival, and complications of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with those of endoscopic variceal obliteration (EVO) in patients with acute type 1 gastroesophageal variceal (GOV1) bleeding. Data were collected retrospectively at a single center. A total of 84 patients were selected (20 patients underwent EVL; 64 patients underwent EVO) from February 2004 to September 2011. Their clinical characteristics, laboratory results, vital signs, Child-Pugh score, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and overall mortality were evaluated. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The success rate in initial control of active bleeding was not significantly different between the EVL and EVO groups (18/20 EVL, or 90.0%, compared with 62/64 EVO, or 96.9%; p=0.239). The early rebleeding rate was also not significantly different between the groups (3/18 EVL, or 16.7% compared with 17/62 EVO, or 27.4%; p=0.422). The late rebleeding rate of the EVL group was lower than that of the EVO group (3/18 EVL, or 16.7%, compared with 26/59 EVO, or 44.1%; p=0.042). The time-to-rebleeding was 594 days for the EVL group and 326 days for the EVO group (p=0.054). In the multivariate analysis, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) was a significant risk factor for early rebleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and previous history of bleeding were significant risk factors for very late rebleeding. In conclusion, EVL is better than EVO in reducing late rebleeding in acute GOV1 bleeding. HCC, PVT, and previous bleeding history were significant risk factors for rebleeding.
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Sirtuin 1 deacetylase: a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism.
Vitam. Horm.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide and disruption of metabolic/energy homeostasis plays a pivotal role in this global epidemic. In obese people, fatty liver (steatosis) develops, which increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even, liver cancer. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that functions as a key metabolic/energy sensor and mediates homeostatic responses to nutrient availability. Accumulating evidence indicates that SIRT1 is a master regulator of the transcriptional networks that control hepatic lipid metabolism. During energy-deprived conditions, SIRT1 deacetylates and alters the expression and activities of key transcriptional regulators involved in hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid ?-oxidation, and cholesterol/bile acid metabolism. This review will discuss the latest advances in this field, focusing on beneficial roles of SIRT1 in hepatic lipid metabolism including its potential as a therapeutic target for treatment of steatosis and other obesity-related metabolic diseases.
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