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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Apolipoprotein E4 Affects Topographical Changes in Hippocampal and Cortical Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is a genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Once AD manifests clinically, however, the effects of APOE4 are less clear. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal effects of APOE4 on topographical changes in AD patient brain atrophy. We prospectively recruited 35 patients with AD (19 APOE4 carriers and 16 non-carriers), and 14 normal controls, then followed them for five years. We measured hippocampal deformities and cortical thickness. Hippocampal comparison between APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with AD showed carriers had rapid changes in the head and body, while non-carriers had rapid changes in a small portion of the body. Cortical thickness comparison between APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with AD dementia showed carriers had rapid thinning in the lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, while no region showed more rapid cortical thinning in non-carriers than in carriers. These findings underlined the importance of the APOE4 allele for designing and interpreting future treatment trials in patients with AD dementia.
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Effects of Amyloid and Small Vessel Disease on White Matter Network Disruption.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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There is growing evidence that the human brain is a large scale complex network. The structural network is reported to be disrupted in cognitively impaired patients. However, there have been few studies evaluating the effects of amyloid and small vessel disease (SVD) markers, the common causes of cognitive impairment, on structural networks. Thus, we evaluated the association between amyloid and SVD burdens and structural networks using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Furthermore, we determined if network parameters predict cognitive impairments. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to DTI data from 232 cognitively impaired patients with varying degrees of amyloid and SVD burdens. All patients underwent Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) PET to detect amyloid burden, MRI to detect markers of SVD, including the volume of white matter hyperintensities and the number of lacunes, and detailed neuropsychological testing. The whole-brain network was assessed by network parameters of integration (shortest path length, global efficiency) and segregation (clustering coefficient, transitivity, modularity). A greater PiB retention ratio was not associated with any white matter network parameters. Greater white matter hyperintensity volumes or lacunae numbers were significantly associated with decreased network integration (increased shortest path length, decreased global efficiency) and increased network segregation (increased clustering coefficient, increased transitivity, increased modularity). Decreased network integration or increased network segregation were associated with poor performances in attention, language, visuospatial, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Our results suggest that amyloid burden disrupts white matter network integration, while SVD alters white matter network integration and segregation, which further predicts cognitive dysfunction.
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Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD). Methods: We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (?9 years). Results: As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
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Insulin-Based Regulation of Glucose-functionalized Nanoparticle Uptake in Muscle Cells.
J Mater Chem B Mater Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Effective regulation of nanoparticle (NP) uptake facilitates the NP-based therapeutics and diagnostics. Here, we report the use of insulin and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to modulate the cellular uptake of glucose-functionalized quantum dots (Glc-QDs) in C2C12 muscle cells. The cellular uptake of Glc-QDs can be modulated up to almost two-fold under insulin stimulation while be down-regulated in the presence of 2-DG. These results demonstrate the use of secondary regulators to control the cellular uptake of NPs through membrane protein recognition in a specific and fine-tunable fashion.
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Evaluation of risk factors for vertebral compression fracture after stereotactic radiosurgery in spinal tumor patients.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an emerging treatment modality for malignant spinal tumors. After SRS, some patients suffered from pain aggravation due to development of vertebral compression fracture (VCF). In these cases, surgery should be considered.
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Predicting the Performance of Motor Imagery in Stroke Patients: Multivariate Pattern Analysis of Functional MRI Data.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Background. In a brain-computer interface for stroke rehabilitation, motor imagery is a preferred means for providing a gateway to an effector action or behavior. However, stroke patients often exhibit failure to comply with motor imagery, and therefore their motor imagery performance is highly variable. Objective. We sought to identify motor cortical areas responsible for motor imagery performance in stroke patients, specifically by using a multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Methods. We adopted an imaginary finger tapping task in which motor imagery performance could be monitored for 12 chronic stroke patients with subcortical infarcts and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We identified the typical activation pattern elicited for motor imagery in healthy controls, as computed over the voxels within each searchlight in the motor cortex. Then we measured the similarity of each individual's activation pattern to the typical activation pattern. Results. In terms of activation levels, the stroke patients showed no activation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1); in terms of activation patterns, they showed lower similarity to the typical activation pattern in the area than the healthy controls. Furthermore, the stroke patients were better able to perform motor imagery if their activation patterns in the bilateral supplementary motor areas and ipsilesional M1 were close to the typical activation pattern. Conclusions. These findings suggest functional roles of the motor cortical areas for compliance with motor imagery in stroke, which can be applied to the implementation of motor imagery-based brain-computer interface for stroke rehabilitation.
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Isolated Central Nervous System Relapse of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer and may exhibit central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Advances in chemotherapy and effective CNS prophylaxis have significantly decreased the incidence of CNS relapse of ALL to 5-10%. Here, we report the case of a patient with isolated CNS relapse of standard risk group pre-B-cell type ALL in an 11-year-old girl, relapsed 3 years after successful completion of chemotherapy. An 11-year-old girl visited our hospital complaining of headache, dizziness, vomiting, and visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed left-side homonymous hemianopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large irregular dural-based sulcal hematoma in the right parietal and occipital lobes. Surgery to remove the hematoma revealed the existence of hematopoietic malignancy after pathologic evaluation. Bone marrow biopsy was subsequently performed but showed no evidence of malignancy.
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Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.
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Association of VARS2-SFTA2 Polymorphisms with the Risk of Chronic Hepatitis B in a Korean Population.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most serious risk factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified important variants associated with the risk of CHB in Asian populations. Specifically, our previous GWAS identified the VARS2-SFTA2 gene region as one of the genetic risk loci for CHB.
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A Case of Giant Skull Base Chondroma.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Intracranial chondroma is a rare benign tumor. Here, we present the case of a 29-year-old female who was afflicted with left eye blindness and ptosis. Brain computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a giant calcified mass accompanied by a solid mass in the middle and posterior fossa. A differential diagnosis regarding chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and other chondroid tumors based on radiologic information was inconclusive. The lesion was resected completely under a microscope using a combined pterional and subtemporal approach. The pathologic report confirmed the diagnosis of chondroma. No evidence of neurological worsening was observed. The tumor had a calcified mass with mature hyaline cartilage surrounded by a thick fibrous capsule. We dissected the periphery of the tumor mass and removed it via aspiration. It was readily distinguished from normal brain parenchymal tissue. The large calcified mass at the center of the tumor had relatively high vascularity, and a high-speed drill and various rongeurs were used to remove the tumor.
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Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6-month follow-up results.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up.
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Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine Chemotherapy in Gliomatosis Cerebri.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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A 49-year-old female patient was admitted due to memory disturbances. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging suggested gliomatosis cerebri (GC), which had spread to both insular lobes, both frontal and basal ganglia and the brain stem. A stereotactic biopsy was performed at the high signal intensity area of the T2-weighted MR image, and the revealed a diffuse astrocytoma. Radiation therapy was judged not to be an appropriate treatment for the patient because of her cognitive impairment. A combinatorial chemotherapy regiment consisting of Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine (PCV) was agreed upon after discussion. The patient underwent six cycles of PCV chemotherapy (a full dose was applied until the 3rd cycle, and dose then was reduced to 75% for the remaining cycles). Although the patient exhibited side effects such as bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms, these were managed by medication. Over the 28 months following initiation of treatment, the high signal area in the right frontal and temporal lobes in the T2-weighted MR image decreased, and the patient's cognitive function [global deterioration scale (GDS) 4 points, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) 25 point] also improved (GDS 1 points, MMSE 29 points). PCV chemotherapy can therefore be an alternative therapeutic option for patients with GC who cannot be treated with radiation therapy or other chemotherapies.
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Enhanced oral bioavailability and antiasthmatic efficacy of curcumin using redispersible dry emulsion.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Dry emulsion containing curcumin (DE-CUR) was prepared for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble curcumin, and its oral bioavailability and antiasthmatic efficacy was evaluated. After comparison of the solubility of curcumin in various oils, Plurol® Oleique CC497 was selected to be the oil phase due to its higher solubility of CUR than other oils. A dry emulsion prepared by spray-drying of a homogenized oil-in-water emulsion was well-reconstituted in water, fabricating similar particle distribution and in vitro release to that of a dispersed homogeneous emulsion before spraying. The release of DE-CUR was much higher than that of curcumin (85.3 vs. 1.7% release at 60 min). Consequently, DE-CUR resulted in 12.0- and 7.1-fold higher Cmax and AUC0-24h than curcumin. In a murine asthma model, DE-CUR effectively suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness and levels of T-helper cytokines such as interleukin-4, inteleukin-5, and interleukin-13. These findings demonstrate that the DE-CUR shows a potential for the development of functional foods or medicines including CUR.
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Enhanced oral bioavailability and controlled release of dutasteride by a novel dry elixir.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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To develop a solid dosage form of dutasteride for improving its oral bioavailability, a novel dry elixir (DE) system was fabricated. DEs incorporating dextrin and/or xanthan gum were prepared using spray-drying and evaluated by morphology, ethanol content, crystallinity, dissolution and oral bioavailability. DEs were spherical with a smooth surface and had an average particle size of 20-25 ?m. The ethanol content could be easily varied by controlling the spray-drying temperature. The dissolution profiles of dutasteride from each DE proved to be much faster than that of dutasteride powder due to the amorphous state and a high amount of incorporated ethanol. In particular, the pharmacokinetic profiles of dutasteride were significantly altered depending on the proportions of dextrin and xanthan gum. Blood concentrations of dutasteride from DE formulations were similar to those of market products and much greater than those of native dutasteride. Interestingly, the dissolution and pharmacokinetic profiles were easily controlled by changing the ratio of dextrin to xanthan gum. The data suggests that a DE using dextrin and/or xanthan gum could provide an applicable solid dosage form to improve the dissolution and bio-availability of dutasteride as well as to modulate its pharmacokinetics.
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Improved bioavailability and antiasthmatic efficacy of poorly soluble curcumin-solid dispersion granules obtained using fluid bed granulation.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The intestinal absorption and antiasthmatic efficacy of poorly water-soluble curcumin (CUR), which has low solubility and permeability, was increased by fabricating solid dispersion granules (SDGs). The SDG containing CUR (SDG-CUR) was prepared by dispersing CUR in excess Cremophor RH40 as a solubilizer and Ryoto sugar ester L-1695 as an absorption enhancer using fluid bed granulation. We evaluated the physicochemical properties such as crystallinity and dissolution, pharmacokinetics, and antiasthmatic efficacy of SDG-CUR. Our results showed that CUR was molecularly dispersed, and the dissolution of SDG-CUR was significantly higher than that of native CUR. In addition, the blood concentration of SDG-CUR in rats was much higher than that of native CUR. Compared to CUR, SDG-CUR showed a 9.1- and 13.1-fold increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), respectively. Further, SDG-CUR effectively alleviated airway hyperresponsiveness and levels of T-helper 2 cytokines (interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13) in a murine model of asthma. In conclusion, our results suggest that the SDGs could be considered as a potential oral formulation to enhance the absorption and efficacy of CUR.
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Effect of EDTA on attachment and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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In regenerative endodontics, it is believed that EDTA induces odontoblast differentiation by releasing growth factors from the dentin matrix. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EDTA on the attachment and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We also investigated whether the behavioral changes of DPSCs could be caused by biochemical components released from EDTA-treated dentin.
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Association of Polymorphism in MicroRNA 604 with Susceptibility to Persistent Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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MicroRNA polymorphisms may be associated with carcinogenesis or immunopathogenesis of infection. We evaluated whether the mircoRNA-604 (miR-604) polymorphism can affect the persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and the development to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic HBV infection. A total of 1,439 subjects, who have either past or present HBV infection, were enrolled and divided into four groups (spontaneous recovery, chronic HBV carrier without cirrhosis, liver cirrhosis and HCC). We genotyped the precursor miR-604 genome region polymorphism. The CC genotype of miR-604 rs2368392 was most frequently observed and T allele frequency was 0.326 in all study subjects. The HBV persistence after infection was higher in those subjects with miR-604 T allele (P=0.05 in a co-dominant and dominant model), which implied that the patients with miR-604 T allele may have a higher risk for HBV chronicity. In contrast, there was a higher rate of the miR-604 T allele in the chronic carrier without HCC patients, compared to those of the HCC patients (P=0.03 in a co-dominant model, P=0.02 in a recessive model). The T allele at miR-604 rs2368392 may be a risk allele for the chronicity of HBV infection, but may be a protective allele for the progression to HCC in chronic HBV carriers.
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Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Medical Intensive Care Unit: A Multicenter Observational Study in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (MICU) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE); and prophylaxis is recommended. However, the actual range and frequency of VTE prophylaxis administered to MICU patients are not well defined. Patients over 40 yr of age and expected MICU stay of more than 48 hr were eligible for this observational cohort study of 23 MICUs in Korea. Patients already on anticoagulation therapy or those requiring anticoagulation for reasons other than VTE were excluded. Among 830 patients, VTE prophylaxis was given to 560 (67.5%) patients. Among 560 patients, 323 (38.9%) received pharmacoprophylaxis, 318 (38.4%) received mechanical prophylaxis and 81 (9.8%) received both forms of prophylaxis. About 74% of patients in the pharmacoprophylaxis group received low molecular weight heparin and 53% of the patients in the mechanical prophylaxis group used intermittent pneumatic compression. Most of the patients (90%) had more than one risk factor for VTE and the most common risk factor was old age, followed by heart and respiratory failure. In this observational cohort study of 23 MICUs in Korea, 67.5% of patients received thromboprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to clarify the role and efficacy of VTE prophylaxis in Korean critically ill patients.
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Effect of virological response to entecavir on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B viral cirrhotic patients: comparison between compensated and decompensated cirrhosis.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the risk of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to underlying liver status and virological response (VR) to entecavir (ETV) in chronic hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis. Procollagen III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP) concentration during ETV treatment and its association with HCC development were also evaluated.
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Acute retinal pigment epitheliitis: spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in 18 cases.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To describe the imaging characteristics and to investigate the prognostic factors of acute retinal pigment epitheliitis.
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Significance of longitudinal changes in the default-mode network for cognitive recovery after stroke.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Although a considerable number of patients suffer from cognitive impairments after stroke, the neural mechanism of cognitive recovery has not yet been clarified. Repeated resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this study to examine longitudinal changes in the default-mode network (DMN) during the 6 months after stroke, and to investigate the relationship between DMN changes and cognitive recovery. Out of 24 initially recruited right-hemispheric stroke patients, 11 (eight males, mean age 55.7 years) successfully completed the repeated fMRI protocol. Patients underwent three fMRI sessions at 1, 3 and 6 months after stroke. Their DMNs were analysed and compared with those of 11 age-matched healthy subjects (nine males, mean age 56.2 years). Correlations between DMN connectivity and improvement of the cognitive performance scores were also assessed. The stroke patients were found to demonstrate markedly decreased DMN connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobes at 1 month after stroke. At 3 months after stroke, the DMN connectivity of these brain areas was almost restored, suggesting that the period is critical for neural reorganization. The DMN connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the contralesional hemisphere showed a significant correlation with cognitive function recovery in stroke patients, and should be considered a compensatory process for overcoming cognitive impairment due to brain lesion. This is the first longitudinal study to demonstrate the changes in DMN during recovery after stroke and the key regions influencing cognitive recovery.
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Brain topological correlates of motor performance changes after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Brain Connect
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) influences the brain temporally beyond the stimulation period and spatially beyond the stimulation site. Application of rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) has been shown to lead to plastic changes in interregional connectivity over the motor system as well as alterations in motor performance. With a sequential combination of rTMS over the M1 and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we sought changes in the topology of brain networks and specifically the association of brain topological changes with motor performance changes. In a sham-controlled parallel group experimental design, real or sham rTMS was administered to each of the 15 healthy subjects without prior motor-related dysfunctions, over the right M1 at a high frequency of 10 Hz. Before and after the intervention, fMRI data were acquired during a sequential finger motor task using the left, nondominant hand. Changes in the topology of brain networks were assessed in terms of global and local efficiency, which measures the efficiency in transporting information at global and local scales, respectively, provided by graph-theoretical analysis. Greater motor performance changes toward improvements after real rTMS were shown in individuals who exhibited more increases in global efficiency and more decreases in local efficiency. The enhancement of motor performance after rTMS is supposed to be associated with brain topological changes, such that global information exchange is facilitated, while local information exchange is restricted.
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Seoul criteria for PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia based on clinical and MRI variables.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to propose new criteria for differentiating Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-negative from PiB-positive subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) using clinical and MRI variables.
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Small retinal haemorrhages accompanied by macular soft drusen: prevalence, and funduscopic and angiographic characteristics.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of small retinal haemorrhages accompanied by macular soft drusen in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
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Evaluation of simultaneous cranioplasty and ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedures.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Some patients with severe brain swelling treated with decompressive craniectomy may develop hydrocephalus. Consequently, these patients require cranioplasty and a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt to relieve the hydrocephalus. However, there is no consensus as to the timing of the cranioplasty and VP shunt placement in patients requiring both. The authors assessed the results of performing cranioplasty and VP shunt placement at the same time in patients with cranial defects and hydrocephalus.
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The role of phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholic acid in inflammation.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Phosphatidylcholine with deoxycholic acid (PC/DA) is widely used to reduce localized fat deposits with mild adverse effects. We previously demonstrated that PC induces lipolysis with mild PMN infiltration, while DA induces adipose tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the pro-inflammatory responses of PC, DA, and PC/DA.
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Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4) is associated with various diseases. We evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic significance of serum ITIH4 levels in healthy controls and patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis, and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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White matter hyperintensities are associated with amyloid burden in APOE4 non-carriers.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Previous preclinical studies have suggested a close relationship between cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. However, a direct correlation between CVD and amyloid burden has not yet been shown in humans. If there is a relationship between CVD and amyloid burden, it is possible that the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype may have an effect on this relationship because APOE4 is a risk factor for the development of AD. We therefore evaluated the effects of APOE4 on the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a marker of CVD, and amyloid burden, measured by 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET. We recruited 53 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairments, who had both WMH on MRI and amyloid deposition assessed by PiB PET. Twenty-two of these patients were APOE4 carriers (41.5%). In the APOE4 non-carriers, a significant positive correlation was shown between the volume of WMH and PiB retention (? = 7.0 × 10-3, p = 0.034) while no significant correlation was found in APOE4 carriers (? = -9.0 × 10-3, p = 0.085). Statistical parametric mapping analyses in APOE4 non-carriers showed that WMH were associated with PiB retention in the bilateral medial occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus, and superior cerebellum. Our results suggested that WMH are correlated with amyloid burden especially in the posterior brain regions in APOE4 non-carriers. However, this correlation was not observed in APOE4 carriers, perhaps because in these subjects the influence of APOE4 overrides the effect of CVD.
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Preoperative embolization of cerebellar hemangioblastoma with onyx: report of three cases.
Neurointervention
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Hemangioblastoma is a benign and highly vascular tumor. Complete surgical resection of highly vascular tumor such as hemangioblastoma may be challenging due to excessive bleeding. Preoperative embolization of these lesions may decrease the intraoperative blood loss and facilitate excision. We report three cases of cerebellar hemangioblastomas that were embolized using Onyx.
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Gold nanoparticles for nucleic acid delivery.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Gold nanoparticles provide an attractive and applicable scaffold for delivery of nucleic acids. In this review, we focus on the use of covalent and noncovalent gold nanoparticle conjugates for applications in gene delivery and RNA-interference technologies. We also discuss challenges in nucleic acid delivery, including endosomal entrapment/escape and active delivery/presentation of nucleic acids in the cell.
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Synergistic effects of ischemia and ?-amyloid burden on cognitive decline in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer disease are significant causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between CVD and ?-amyloid burden in living humans or their synergistic effects on cognition. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) before clinical deterioration begins.
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Clinical significance of radiological stability in reconstructed thoracic and lumbar spine following vertebral body resection.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Vertebral body replacement following corpectomy in thoracic or lumbar spine is performed with titanium mesh cage (TMC) containing any grafts. Radiological changes often occur on follow-up. This study investigated the relationship between the radiological stability and clinical symptoms.
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DLG1 influences distal ureter maturation via a non-epithelial cell autonomous mechanism involving reduced retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The absence of Discs-large 1 (DLG1), the mouse ortholog of the Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor, results in congenital hydronephrosis characterized by urinary tract abnormalities, reduced ureteric bud branching, and delayed disconnection of the ureter from the common nephric duct (CND). To define the specific cellular requirements for Dlg1 expression during urogenital development, we used a floxed Dlg1 allele and Pax2-Cre, Pax3-Cre, Six2-Cre, and HoxB7-Cre transgenes to generate cell type-restricted Dlg1 mutants. In addition, we used Ret(GFP) knockin and retinoic acid response element-lacZ transgenic mice to determine the effects of Dlg1 mutation on the respective morphogenetic signaling pathways. Mutation of Dlg1 in urothelium and collecting ducts (via HoxB7-Cre or Pax2-Cre) and in nephron precursors (via Pax2-Cre and Six2-Cre) resulted in no apparent abnormalities in ureteric bud branching or in distal ureter maturation, and no hydronephrosis. Mutation in nephrons, ureteric smooth muscle, and mesenchyme surrounding the lower urinary tract (via the Pax3-Cre transgene) resulted in congenital hydronephrosis accompanied by reduced branching, abnormal distal ureter maturation and insertion, and smooth muscle orientation defects, phenotypes very similar to those in Dlg1 null mice. Dlg1 null mice showed reduced Ret expression and apoptosis during ureter maturation and evidence of reduced retinoic acid signaling in the kidney. Taken together, these results suggest that Dlg1 expression in ureter and CND-associated mesenchymal cells is essential for ensuring distal ureter maturation by facilitating retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis of the urothelium.
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Shape changes of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Alzheimer's disease: a three-year longitudinal study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A large number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies have focused on medial temporal and cortical atrophy, while changes in the basal ganglia or thalamus have received less attention.
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Differential Regulation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Diabetic Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications. However, the effects of diabetic monocyte-derived macrophages on vascular SMC proliferation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-proliferative effect of macrophages isolated from DM patients on vascular SMCs. Macrophage-conditioned media (MCM) were prepared from macrophages isolated from DM patients. DM-MCM treatment induced HASMC proliferation, decreased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expressions, and increased microRNA (miR)-17-5p and miR-221 expressions. Inhibition of either miR-17-5p or miR-221 inhibited DM-MCM-induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of miR-17-5p abolished DM-MCM-induced p21Cip1 down-regulation; and inhibition of miR-221 attenuated the DM-MCM-induced p27Kip1 down-regulation. Furthermore, blocking assays demonstrated that PDGF-CC in DM-MCM is the major mediators of cell proliferation in SMCs. In conclusion, our present data support the hypothesis that SMC proliferation stimulated by macrophages may play critical roles in vascular complications in DM patients and suggest a new mechanism by which arterial disease is accelerated in diabetes.
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Stability of pentacene thin film transistors under simultaneous mechanical bending and heating.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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During the operational service of flexible electronic systems, component devices are subject to not only mechanical deformation but also environmental stimulation such as temperature and humidity. Therefore, the stability of flexible devices under simultaneous loading of multi-variable environmental factors including mechanical deformation needs to be studied. In this work, changes in device characteristics under simultaneous mechanical bending and heating of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were investigated in a mechanical bending system having capability of substrate heating. Simultaneous loading of mechanical deformation and heating of OTFTs accelerated the change of device characteristics such as field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and subthreshold swing at elevated temperature. The results indicate that the stability of flexible devices under multi-variable loading needs to be tested for better understanding of the electrical behaviours of device characteristics in flexible electronics.
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Neuroprotective Benzyl Benzoate Glycosides from Disporum viridescens Roots in HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal Cells.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from Disporum viridescens roots led to the isolation of five new benzyl benzoate glycosides, BBGs (1-5). The neuroprotective activities of the BBGs were screened using neuronal HT22 hippocampal cells. BBG-D (4) significantly protected murine hippocampal HT22 cells against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by maintaining the antioxidative defense systems such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and the glutathione content. BBG-D, in a dose-and time-dependent manner, increased HO-1 expression through the selective activation of pERK signaling among the MAPK pathways. These results suggest that BBG-D could be a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases related to glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal cytotoxicity.
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Biomechanical stability according to different configurations of screws and rods.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2013
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Comparison of biomechanical strength according to 2 different configurations of screws and rods.
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MicroRNA-196A-2 polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA (miR)-196a-2 have been suggested to contribute to susceptibility to various human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms of miRNA-196a-2 affect the clinical outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Korean patients. Genotyping was performed for 1,439 Korean patients with either past or present HBV infection, including 404 control subjects who underwent spontaneous recovery and 1,035 subjects with chronic HBV (313 cases of chronic hepatitis B, 305 cases of cirrhosis of the liver, and 417 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]). Genotyping results revealed that the polymorphism rs12304647A>C, which lies in the pri-miRNA region of miR-196a-2, has a significant minor allele frequency (0.210). Logistic analysis revealed that the rs12304647A>C SNP was associated with a significant protective effect against HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.70, P?=?0.005 in a codominant model; OR?=?0.73, P?=?0.03 in a dominant model; OR?=?0.31, P?=?0.004 in a recessive model), and in the patients with cirrhosis (OR?=?0.63, P?=?0.0009 in a codominant model; OR?=?0.66, P?=?0.01 in a dominant model; OR?=?0.25, P?=?0.001 in a recessive model). A Cox relative hazards model with adjustments for age, gender, HBeAg status, and cirrhosis revealed that rs12304647A>C retained its association with HCC in a codominant model (relative hazards [RH]?=?1.14, P?=?0.05) and in a recessive model (RH?=?1.44, P?=?0.03). However, the miR-196a-2 rs12304647A>C SNP had no association with HBV clearance. In conclusion, the miR-196a-2 rs12304647 CC genotype had a protective effect against development of HCC in comparison to the AA or AC genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A case of Susac syndrome.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The purpose of this article is to report on the first known Korean case of Susac syndrome. An 18-year-old female came to our clinic reporting blurred vision of the left eye for 2 days. She also complained of decreased hearing with tinnitus of the right ear and mild headache. She was previously healthy and had no remarkable medical history. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20 / 50 in the left eye and 20 / 20 in the right eye. An axiomatic triad of ocular, cochlear, and neurologic involvement was observed in the patient. Fluorescein angiography showed branched retinal arterial occlusions in the left eye. A sudden right sensorineural hearing loss was observed on audimetry. Magnetic resonance images showed a hyperintense lesion in the white matter around the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with high doses of systemic corticosteroids, and no neuropsychological sequelae were observed. This is the first case report of Susac syndrome in Korea. In cases of retinal arterial occlusion with hearing loss or neuropsychological symptoms, Susac syndrome should be suspected.
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Characteristic findings of optical coherence tomography in retinal angiomatous proliferation.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To identify the unique pathologic findings of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) in optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Multiplexed imaging of nanoparticles in tissues using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Imaging of nanomaterials in biological tissues provides vital information for the development of nanotherapeutics and diagnostics. Multiplexed imaging of different nanoparticles (NPs) greatly reduces costs, the need to use multiple animals, and increases the biodistribution information that can enhance diagnostic applications and accelerate the screening of potential therapeutics. Various approaches have been developed for imaging NPs; however, the readout of existing imaging techniques relies on specific properties of the core material or surface ligands, and these techniques are limited because of the relatively small number of NPs that can be simultaneously measured in a single experiment. Here, we demonstrate the use of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) in an imaging format to investigate surface chemistry dictated intraorgan distribution of NPs. This new LDI-MS imaging method enables multiplexed imaging of NPs with potentially unlimited readouts and without additional labeling of the NPs. It provides the capability to detect and image attomole levels of NPs with almost no interferences from biomolecules. Using this new imaging approach, we find that the intraorgan distributions of same-sized NPs are directly linked to their surface chemistry.
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Localized cortical thinning in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To investigate differences in cortical thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome and healthy controls.
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Replenishable dendrimer-nanoparticle hybrid membranes for sustained release of therapeutics.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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We report a versatile hybrid membrane for sustained release therapeutic delivery systems. Chemically-directed assembly of a hybrid membrane of nanoparticles and dendrimers was integrated with a fluidic delivery device and a refillable drug reservoir, providing continuous sustained release.
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Durability after discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide therapy in chronic HBeAg negative hepatitis patients.
Clin Mol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Relapse has been reported after stopping nucleos(t)ide (NUC) therapy in the majority of chronic HBeAg negative hepatitis patients. However, the ideal treatment duration of HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is not well known. We investigated the frequency of relapse in HBeAg negative CHB patients receiving NUC therapy.
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Brain Gray Matter Deficits in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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To investigate the structural changes in patients with chronic primary insomnia and the relationships with clinical features of insomnia.
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A genome-wide association study identified new variants associated with the risk of chronic hepatitis B.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the predominant risk factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of CHB identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci, including HLA-DP and HLA-DQ in Asian populations, as being associated with the risk of CHB. To confirm and identify the host genetic factors related to CHB infection, we performed another GWAS using a higher-density chip in Korean CHB carriers. We analyzed 1400 samples from Korean population (400 CHB cases and 1000 population controls) using a higher-density GWAS chip [1 140 419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. In subsequent replication analysis, we further analyzed in an independent study of a Korean CHB cohort consisting of 2909 Korean samples (971 cases and 1938 controls). Logistic regression methods were used for statistical analysis adjusting for age and sex as covariates. This study identified two new risk-associated loci for CHB on the HLA region of chromosome 6, e.g. rs652888 on euchromatic histone-lysine-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2, P = 7.07 × 10(-13)) and rs1419881 on transcription factor 19 (TCF19, P = 1.26 × 10(-18)). Conditional analysis with nearby HLA CHB loci that were previously known, confirmed the independent genetic effects of these two loci on CHB. Conclusion: The GWAS and the subsequent validation study identified new variants associated with the risk of CHB. These findings may advance the understanding of genetic susceptibility to CHB.
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Caspase-cleaved fragments of cytokeratin-18 as a marker of inflammatory activity in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The differential diagnosis between inactive carrier and active hepatitis is important in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection. Serum cytokeratin (CK)-18 fragments (M30-antigen) are proposed as biomarkers of apoptosis.
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Efficacy and safety of entecavir plus carnitine complex (GODEX®) compared to entecavir monotherapy in patient with ALT elevated chronic hepatitis B: randomized, multicenter open-label trials. The GOAL study.
Clin Mol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Carnitine and vitamin complex (Godex®) is widely used in patients with chronic liver disease who show elevated liver enzyme in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to identify the efficacy and safety of carnitine from entecavir combination therapy in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevated Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
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Scaffolding proteins DLG1 and CASK cooperate to maintain the nephron progenitor population during kidney development.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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DLG1 (discs-large homolog 1) and CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase) interact at membrane-cytoskeleton interfaces and function as scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules, receptors, and other scaffolding proteins at intercellular and synaptic junctions. Dlg1-null mice exhibit hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and occasionally hypoplastic kidneys, whereas Cask-null mice do not. To investigate whether DLG1 and CASK cooperate in the developing urogenital system, we generated mice deficient in both DLG1 and CASK either 1) globally, 2) in metanephric mesenchyme, or 3) in nephron progenitors. With each approach, Dlg1;Cask double-knockout (DKO) kidneys were severely hypoplastic and dysplastic and demonstrated rapid, premature depletion of nephron progenitors/stem cells. Several cellular and molecular defects were observed in the DKO kidneys, including reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of cells in the nephrogenic zone and a progressive decrease in the number of cells expressing SIX2, a transcription factor essential for maintaining nephron progenitors. Fgf8 expression was reduced in early-stage DKO metanephric mesenchyme, accompanied by reduced levels of components of the Ras pathway, which is activated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Moreover, Dlg1(+/-);Cask(-/-) (het/null) kidneys were moderately hypoplastic and demonstrated impaired aggregation of SIX2-positive cells around the ureteric bud tips. Nephron progenitor-specific het/null mice survived with small kidneys but developed glomerulocystic kidney disease and renal failure. Taken together, these results suggest that DLG1 and CASK play critical cooperative roles in maintaining the nephron progenitor population, potentially via a mechanism involving effects on FGF signaling.
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Effects of APOE ?4 on brain amyloid, lacunar infarcts, and white matter lesions: a study among patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The relationship between the apolipoprotein E ?4 allele (APOE4) and factors associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is unclear. We aimed to examine the effects of APOE4 on brain amyloid beta using Pittsburg compound B (PiB) and subcortical cerebrovascular disease, as assessed by lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in subcortical VCI (SVCI) patients. We recruited 230 subjects with normal cognition, 111 subjects with cognitive impairment due to clinically defined Alzheimers disease (ADCI), and 134 subjects with clinically defined SVCI. A PiB retention ratio greater than 1.5 was considered to be PiB positive. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether APOE4 increased the risk for each cognitive impairment group. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate whether APOE4 was associated with brain amyloid beta, lacunes, and WMH. APOE4 did not increase the risk of PiB(-) SVCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-2.84), whereas APOE4 increased the risk of PiB(+) SVCI (OR, 4.52; 95% CI, 1.70-11.97) and PiB(+) ADCI (odds ratio, 4.84; 95% CI, 2.54-7.91). In SVCI patients, APOE4 was positively associated with PiB retention ratio, whereas APOE4 was not associated with the number of lacunes or with WMH volume. Our results suggest that amyloid beta burden can occur in patients with and without subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and that it is associated with APOE4. However APOE4 might be independent of subcortical cerebrovascular disease.
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Onyx Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula, using Scepter C Balloon Catheter: a Case Report.
Neurointervention
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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We report our experience using Onyx for embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) under dual lumen balloon catheter flow arrest. Transfemoral cerebral angiography revealed a superior sagittal sinus (SSS) DAVF that was supplied via multiple branches of the external carotid arteries, the right anterior cerebral arteries, and the meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery. There was no anterograde venous drainage through the SSS, and venous drainage was almost retrograde through the medullary and cortical veins. Under general anesthesia, a transvenous approach was utilized to place the microcatheter close to the fistula site. After intravenous embolization with various coils, DAVF was partially occluded; Balloon catheter gained access to the DAVF via the right middle meningeal artery. We injected Onyx through the Scepter C catheter, after which DAVF was nearly completely occluded. Balloon-assisted Onyx embolization is a feasible and effective approach for the management of DAVF.
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The N-end rule proteolytic system in autophagy.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The N-end rule pathway is a cellular proteolytic system that utilizes specific N-terminal residues as degradation determinants, called N-degrons. N-degrons are recognized and bound by specific recognition components (N-recognins) that mediate polyubiquitination of low-abundance regulators and selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our earlier work identified UBR4/p600 as one of the N-recognins that promotes N-degron-dependent proteasomal degradation. In this study, we show that UBR4 is associated with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic vacuoles and is degraded by the lysosome. UBR4 loss causes multiple misregulations in autophagic pathways, including an increased formation of LC3 puncta. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis primarily due to defective vascular development in the yolk sac (YS), wherein UBR4 is associated with a bulk lysosomal degradation system that absorbs maternal proteins from the YS cavity and digests them into amino acids. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays a role not only in selective proteolysis of short-lived regulators through the proteasome, but also bulk degradation through the lysosome. Here, we discuss a possible mechanism of UBR4 as a regulatory component in the delivery of cargoes destined to interact with the autophagic core machinery.
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The Effectiveness of Early Tracheostomy (within at least 10 Days) in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Patients.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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This study aimed to determine the optimal time for tracheostomy by evaluating the benefits and safety of early versus late tracheostomy in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients.
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Effects of cerebrovascular disease and amyloid beta burden on cognition in subjects with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and amyloid burden are the most frequent pathologies in subjects with cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between CVD, amyloid burden, and cognition are largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether CVD (lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds) and amyloid burden (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] retention ratio) contribute to cognitive impairment independently or interactively. We recruited 136 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment who underwent magnetic resonance imaging, PiB-positron emission tomography, and neuropsychological testing. The number of lacunes was associated with memory, frontal dysfunctions, and disease severity. The volume of white matter hyperintensities and the PiB retention ratio were associated only with memory dysfunction. There was no direct correlation between CVD markers and PiB retention ratio except that the number of lacunes was negatively correlated with the PiB retention ratio. In addition, there were no interactive effects of CVD and PiB retention ratio on cognition. Our findings suggest that CVD and amyloid burden contribute independently and not interactively to specific patterns of cognitive dysfunction in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
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Pathogenesis of cerebral microbleeds: In vivo imaging of amyloid and subcortical ischemic small vessel disease in 226 individuals with cognitive impairment.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a neuroimaging marker of small vessel disease (SVD) with relevance for understanding disease mechanisms in cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and normal aging. It is hypothesized that lobar CMBs are due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and deep CMBs are due to subcortical ischemic SVD. We tested this hypothesis using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of subcortical SVD and in vivo imaging of amyloid in patients with cognitive impairment.
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Topographic distribution of cortical thinning in subtypes of multiple system atrophy.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Despite the predominant degeneration of subcortical structures, recent studies have suggested the evidence of cortical involvement in multiple system atrophy (MSA). This study aimed to identify the different topographic pattern of cortical thinning in MSA according to clinical subtypes, and the association of cortical thinning with cerebellar atrophy and other disease related metrics.
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UBR box N-recognin-4 (UBR4), an N-recognin of the N-end rule pathway, and its role in yolk sac vascular development and autophagy.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins act as degradation determinants (N-degrons). Substrates carrying N-degrons are recognized by N-recognins that mediate ubiquitylation-dependent selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our previous studies identified the mammalian N-recognin family consisting of UBR1/E3?, UBR2, UBR4/p600, and UBR5, which recognize destabilizing N-terminal residues through the UBR box. In the current study, we addressed the physiological function of a poorly characterized N-recognin, 570-kDa UBR4, in mammalian development. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis and exhibit pleiotropic abnormalities, including impaired vascular development in the yolk sac (YS). Vascular development in UBR4-deficient YS normally advances through vasculogenesis but is arrested during angiogenic remodeling of primary capillary plexus associated with accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. In the YS, UBR4 marks endoderm-derived, autophagy-enriched cells that coordinate differentiation of mesoderm-derived vascular cells and supply autophagy-generated amino acids during early embryogenesis. UBR4 of the YS endoderm is associated with a tissue-specific autophagic pathway that mediates bulk lysosomal proteolysis of endocytosed maternal proteins into amino acids. In cultured cells, UBR4 subpopulation is degraded by autophagy through its starvation-induced association with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic double membrane structures. UBR4 loss results in multiple misregulations in autophagic induction and flux, including synthesis and lipidation/activation of the ubiquitin-like protein LC3 and formation of autophagic double membrane structures. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays an important role in mammalian development, such as angiogenesis in the YS, in part through regulation of bulk degradation by lysosomal hydrolases.
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Coiling as Retreatment in Intracranial Aneurysm of de novo Formation or Regrowth: Case Report.
Neurointervention
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Development of de novo aneurysm or aneurysm regrowth after complete clipping of an intracranial aneurysm is rare. We report coiled cases of de novo aneurysm and aneurysm regrowth. We retrospectively reviewed 107 cases of intracranial aneurysm coiling performed in our hospital, identifying five cases of coiled aneurysm that were de novo aneurysm or aneurysm regrowth. In all the cases, total or near total occlusion was seen. There were no complications related to the procedure. In two of the three patients with ruptured aneurysms, consciousness level on admission was stupor. When the patient was discharged after the treatment, one of them had 4 of the modified Rankin Scale. The other one had 5 on discharge. The rest three patients had 0. As for a de novo aneurysm or a regrowth of aneurysm, coiling may be considered when clipping is difficult.
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A synergistic interaction between transcription factors nuclear factor-?B and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) has been implicated in gastric cancer metastasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of the interaction between NF-?B and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in controlling metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells.
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Cervicofacial tissue infarction in patients with acute invasive fungal sinusitis: prevalence and characteristic MR imaging findings.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Tissue infarction is known as one of the characteristic features of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristic MR imaging findings of cervicofacial tissue infarction (CFTI) associated with acute IFS.
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Transcranial direct current stimulation increases resting state interhemispheric connectivity.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been increasingly used to investigate human brain functions. Especially, tDCS on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances cognitive functions in both healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In spite of its effects on behavioral improvement, neural correlates of tDCS on the DLPFC have not been fully described. In this study, we acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data before and after real or sham stimulation on the left DLPFC. Resting state functional connectivity of the stimulated brain region was compared between the two groups. Compared to the sham stimulation group, the tDCS group showed increased DLPFC connectivity to the right hemisphere and decreased DLPFC connectivity to the brain regions around the stimulation site in the left hemisphere. Application of tDCS on the DLPFC may induce increased interhemispheric connectivity even at rest, possibly associated with the behavioral effects of tDCS.
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Comparison between Autogenous Bone Graft and Allogenous Cancellous Bone Graft in Medial Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy with 2-Year Follow-up.
Knee Surg Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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To compare the radiographic and clinical results of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) using autogenous bone graft and allogenous cancellous bone graft for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee with two-year follow-up.
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The role of surface functionality in determining nanoparticle cytotoxicity.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Surface properties dictate the behavior of nanomaterials in vitro, in vivo, and in the environment. Such properties include surface charge and hydrophobicity. Also key are more complex supramolecular interactions such as aromatic stacking and hydrogen bonding, and even surface topology from the structural to the atomic level. Surface functionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) provides an effective way to control the interface between nanomaterials and the biological systems they are designed to interact with. In medicine, for instance, proper control of surface properties can maximize therapeutic or imaging efficacy while minimizing unfavorable side effects. Meanwhile, in environmental science, thoughtful choice of particle coating can minimize the impact of manufactured nanomaterials on the environment. A thorough knowledge of how NP surfaces with various properties affect biological systems is essential for creating NPs with such useful therapeutic and imaging properties as low toxicity, stability, biocompatibility, favorable distribution throughout cells or tissues, and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles--and for reducing the potential environmental impact of manufactured nanomaterials, which are becoming increasingly prominent in the marketplace. In this Account, we discuss our research and that of others into how NP surface properties control interactions with biomolecules and cells at many scales, including the role the particle surface plays in determining in vivo behavior of nanomaterials. These interactions can be benign, beneficial, or lead to dysfunction in proteins, genes and cells, resulting in cytotoxic and genotoxic responses. Understanding these interactions and their consequences helps us to design minimally invasive imaging and delivery agents. We also highlight in this Account how we have fabricated nanoparticles to act as therapeutic agents via tailored interactions with biomacromolecules. These particles offer new therapeutic directions from traditional small molecule therapies, and with potentially greater versatility than is possible with proteins and nucleic acids.
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Longitudinal changes of cortical thickness in early- versus late-onset Alzheimers disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Early-onset Alzheimers disease (EOAD) has been shown to progress more rapidly than late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD). However, no studies have compared the topography of brain volume reduction over time. The purpose of this 3-year longitudinal study was to compare EOAD and LOAD in terms of their rates of decline in cognitive testing and topography of cortical thinning. We prospectively recruited 36 patients with AD (14 EOAD and 22 LOAD) and 14 normal controls. All subjects were assessed with neuropsychological tests and with magnetic resonance imaging at baseline, Year 1, and Year 3. The EOAD group showed more rapid decline than the LOAD group in attention, language, and frontal-executive tests. The EOAD group also showed more rapid cortical thinning in widespread association cortices. In contrast, the LOAD group presented more rapid cortical thinning than the EOAD group only in the left parahippocampal gyrus. Our study suggests that patients with EOAD show more rapid cortical atrophy than patients with LOAD, which accounts for faster cognitive decline on neuropsychological tests.
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Changes in subcortical structures in early- versus late-onset Alzheimers disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Patients with early-onset Alzheimers disease (EOAD) are reported to be different from those with late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD) in terms of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings. In this study, we aimed to compare the longitudinal volume changes of 6 subcortical structures (the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus, and caudate nucleus) between patients with EOAD and LOAD for 3 years. We prospectively recruited 36 patients with probable Alzheimers disease (14 EOAD, 22 LOAD) and 14 normal control subjects. We analyzed the volume of subcortical structures using an automatic surface-based method. At baseline, there were no differences in the volumes of subcortical structures between patients with EOAD and LOAD. However, over 3 years of longitudinal follow-up, patients with EOAD showed more rapid volumetric decline in the caudate, putamen, and thalamus than patients with LOAD, which is consistent with neuropsychological results. Our findings suggested that the cognitive reserve theory might be applicable to explain different decline rates of the volumes of the basal ganglia and thalamus according to onset age.
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Less depressive symptoms are associated with smaller hippocampus in subjective memory impairment.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI) tend to be at an increased risk for dementia and the majority of them have depressive symptoms, it remains unclear whether SMI with depression is associated with an increased or decreased risk of dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and hippocampal/amygdalar volume, a reliable biomarker in the prediction of progression to dementia in SMI. Ninety subjects with SMI participated in the study, and 28 healthy participants without memory complaints served as a normal control (NC) group. 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans were completed in all subjects. When the volumes of hippocampus and amygdala were compared among the groups, the SMI group showed significantly smaller volumes than the NC group. When multiple regression analysis was conducted in all subjects, neither hippocampal nor amygdalar volume showed significant interaction effect between group and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). However, when the analysis was conducted within each group, lower GDS score was associated with smaller hippocampal volume in the SMI group, and higher GDS score was associated with smaller amygdalar volume in the NC group. Thus, individuals with SMI and less depressive symptoms tend to have smaller hippocampus, which could be associated with more risk of dementia, than normal individuals.
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[Study on association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP7, MMP8, MMP9 genes and development of gastric cancer and lymph node metastasis].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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Matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) is known to be involved in tumor invasion and metastasis of cancer. This study investigated the association of MMP7 rs11568818, MMP8 rs11225395, MMP9 rs17576 and rs2250889 with gastric cancer (GC) development and lymph node metastasis (LNM).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.