JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Current Studies of Immunotherapy on Glioblastoma.
J Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma is a form of brain tumor with a very high morbidity and mortality. Despite decades of research, the best treatments currently in clinical practice only extend survival by a number of months. A promising alternative to conventional treatment for glioblastomas is immunotherapy. Although proposed over a century ago, the field of cancer immunotherapy has historically struggled to translate it into effective clinical treatments. Better understanding is needed of the various regulatory and co-stimulatory factors in the glioblastoma patient for more efficient immunotherapy treatments. The tumor microenvironment is anatomically shielded from normal immune-surveillance by the blood-brain barrier, irregular lymphatic drainage system, and it's in a potently immunosuppressive environment. Immunotherapy can potentially manipulate these forces effectively to enhance anti-tumor immune response and clinical benefit. New treatments utilizing the immune system show promise in terms of targeting and efficacy. This review article attempts to discuss current practices in glioblastoma treatment, the theory behind immunotherapy, and current research into various clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term outcomes following sirolimus conversion after renal transplantation.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long-term outcomes following renal transplantation remain limited due to chronic progressive injury partly as a result of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity. Thus, patients have been converted to non-CNI immunosuppressives despite the lack of evidence of long-term benefits from CNI free therapy. We now report our 10-year experience converting patients with well functioning transplants from CNI to sirolimus. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of patients receiving continuous CNI based therapy (CNI, n?=?309) or who were switched to sirolimus within the first year of post-transplantation (CONV, n?=?54). The groups were similar for most recipient, graft and donor characteristics, however, diabetes was more common in the CNI group and statin use was more frequent in the CONV group. The average time to conversion was 7.2 months and the creatinine level at the time of switching was 1.4?mg/dl. Ten year graft and patient survival rates were equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in the causes of death or graft loss in both groups. Renal function was available for 5 years posttransplant and was no different between groups. Thus, there is no evidence that routinely switching patients with well functioning renal allografts to sirolimus from CNI based immunosuppression provides long-term benefit.
Related JoVE Video
Emergency surgery for colorectal cancer does not result in nodal understaging compared with elective surgery.
Can J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been suggested that inadequate lymph node harvest may result in pathologically understaged or indeterminate staging of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We compared the adequacy of nodal staging in patients undergoing emergency surgery compared with elective surgery for CRC.
Related JoVE Video
Risks associated with red blood cell transfusion in the trauma population, a meta-analysis.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A previous meta-analysis has found an association between red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and mortality in critically ill patients, but no review has focused on the trauma population only.
Related JoVE Video
High long-term symptomatic recurrence rates after Chiari-1 decompression without dural opening: a single center experience.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated long-term outcomes of posterior fossa decompression (PFD) without duroplasty in consecutive patients with newly diagnosed Chiari-1 malformation.
Related JoVE Video
The use of "spin" in laparoscopic lower GI surgical trials with nonsignificant results: an assessment of reporting and interpretation of the primary outcomes.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spin has been defined as "specific reporting that could distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers."
Related JoVE Video
Materials design considerations involved in the fabrication of implantable bionics by metallization of ceramic substrates.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Pt metallization of co-fired Al2O3/SiO2 substrates containing Pt feedthroughs was shown to be a suitable means to construct implantable bionics. The use of forge welding to join an electrode to such a metallized feedthrough was demonstrated and subsequently evaluated through the use of metallography and electron microscopy. Metallurgical phenomena involved in forge welding relevant to the fabrication of all types of biomedical implants are discussed within this paper. The affect of thermal profiles used in brazing or welding to build implantable devices from metal components is analysed and the case for considered selection of alloys in implant design is put forward.
Related JoVE Video
High-concentration oxygen and surgical site infections in abdominal surgery: a meta-analysis.
Can J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There has been recent interest in using high-concentration oxygen to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs). Previous meta-analyses in this area have produced conflicting results. With the publication of 2 new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were not included in previous meta-analyses, an updated review is warranted. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis on RCTs comparing high- and low- concentration oxygen in adults undergoing open abdominal surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Laparoscopic surgery for Crohns disease: a meta-analysis of perioperative complications and long term outcomes compared with open surgery.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous meta-analyses have had conflicting conclusions regarding the differences between laparoscopic and open techniques in patients with Crohns Disease. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare outcomes in patients with Crohns disease undergoing laparoscopic or open surgical resection.
Related JoVE Video
Managing cardiovascular risk in overweight children and adolescents.
Paediatr Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The scientific, medical, and lay communities are currently confronted with a serious medical and public health problem related to the marked non-remitting worldwide epidemic of obesity. This ever-increasing prevalence of obesity is accompanied by a host of inherently associated co-morbidities. As a result, obesity is fast becoming the major cause of premature death in the developed world. As pediatric and adult cardiologists, we have seen a dramatic increase in office referrals of overweight and obese children and adolescents, who already have obesity-related degenerative disease processes such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as manifestations of early preclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, not previously observed in this age group. This article presents a review of the literature and recent scientific statements and recommendations issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) regarding the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, including newer identification and treatment strategies for obesity, dyslipidemia, and early subclinical coronary artery disease seen in high-risk children and adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Targeting oncogenic ALK and MET: a promising therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma.
Metab Brain Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma is the most common aggressive, highly glycolytic, and lethal brain tumor. In fact, it is among the most commonly diagnosed lethal malignancies, with thousands of new cases reported in the United States each year. Glioblastomas lethality is derived from a number of factors including highly active pro-mitotic and pro-metastatic pathways. Two factors increasingly associated with the intracellular signaling and transcriptional machinery required for such changes are anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or, more commonly MET). Both receptors are members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, which has itself gained much attention for its role in modulating mitosis, migration, and survival in cancer cells. ALK was first described as a vital oncogene in lymphoma studies, but it has since been connected to many carcinomas, including non-small cell lung cancer and glioblastoma. As the receptor for HGF, MET has also been highly characterized and regulates numerous developmental and wound healing events which, when upregulated in cancer, can promote tumor progression. The wealth of information gathered over the last 30 years regarding these RTKs suggests three downstream cascades that depend upon activation of STAT3, Ras, and AKT. This review outlines the significance of ALK and MET as they relate to glioblastoma, explores the significance of STAT3, Ras, and AKT downstream of ALK/MET, and touches on the potential for new chemotherapeutics targeting ALK and MET to improve glioblastoma patient prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Multi-targeted DATS prevents tumor progression and promotes apoptosis in ectopic glioblastoma xenografts in SCID mice via HDAC inhibition.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma, the most lethal brain tumor, remains incurable despite aggressive chemotherapy and surgical interventions. New chemotherapeutics for glioblastoma have been explored in preclinical models and some agents have reached the clinical setting. However, success rates are not significant. Previous investigations involving diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic compound, indicated significant anti-cancer effects in glioblastoma in vitro. DATS has also been shown to inhibit histone deacetylase activity and impede glioblastoma tumor progression. We hypothesized that DATS would block ectopic U87MG tumor by multiple pro-apoptotic pathways via inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC). To prove this, we developed ectopic U87MG tumors in SCID mice and treated them daily with intraperitoneal injections of DATS for 7 days. Results indicated that DATS (10 ?g/kg-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced tumor mass and number of mitotic cells within tumors. Histological and biochemical assays demonstrated that DATS reduced mitosis in tumors, decreased HDAC activity, increased acetylation of H3 and H4, inhibited cell cycle progression, decreased pro-tumor markers (e.g., survivin, Bcl-2, c-Myc, mTOR, EGFR, VEGF), promoted apoptotic factors (e.g., bax, mcalpian, active caspase-3), and induced DNA fragmentation. Our data also demonstrated an increase in p21Waf1 expression, which correlated with increased p53 expression and MDM2 degradation following DATS treatment. Finally, histological assessment and enzyme assays showed that even the highest dose of DATS did not negatively impact hepatic function. Collectively, our results clearly demonstrated that DATS could be an effective therapeutic agent in preventing tumor progression and inducing apoptosis in human glioblastoma in vivo, without impairing hepatic function.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Universal perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is not necessary in kidney transplantation.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite significant improvements in renal transplantation, certain basic issues remain unresolved such as the routine use of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP). To address the need for AMP, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical course of 442 consecutive renal transplant recipients (RTRs) who did not receive any AMP except for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Three hundred and forty RTRs received induction therapy with low-dose rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin, while the other 102 patients were treated with basiliximab. All RTRs received tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and prednisone. Nine patients (2%) developed surgical site infection (SSI). SSIs were more common in obese and older patients. All SSIs were superficial and responded well to wound drainage and outpatient antibiotic therapy. No patient or graft was lost owing to SSI. Our study shows that despite many predisposing factors, SSIs are rare following renal transplantation even in the absence of AMP. Therefore, to avoid the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, excessive costs, and antibiotic-related adverse events, we suggest that AMP should be used only in selected circumstances such as in recipients older than 65 yr or when the body mass index (BMI) is > 35.
Related JoVE Video
Methylphenidate modulates sustained attention and cortical activation in survivors of traumatic brain injury: a perfusion fMRI study.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methylphenidate (MPH), the most widely prescribed psychostimulant to treat many neuropsychiatric conditions, is reported to improve attention and speed of processing in survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The neural correlate of this efficacy, however, remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for treatment of diabetic macular edema in vitrectomized patients.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ozurdex (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) 0.7 mg in the treatment of diabetic macular edema in vitrectomized eyes.
Related JoVE Video
Review of breast conservation therapy: then and now.
ISRN Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast conservation therapy (BCT), which is the marriage of breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy to the breast, has revolutionized the treatment of breast cancer over the last few decades. Surgical direction had seen a heightened interest in the performance of cosmetically superior partial and segmental resections in breast conservation as well as increased demand by patients for breast preservation. The broadening of approaches to delivery of breast irradiation from whole breast to accelerated partial breast has allowed more patients to opt for breast conservation and allowed for what appears to be comparable measurable outcomes in emerging data. As well, the addition of state-of-the-art chemotherapeutic and hormonal therapies has allowed improved outcomes of patients from both local regional recurrence and overall survival standpoints. This paper will provide an overview of BCT and review some of the newest developments in optimizing this therapy for patients with breast cancer from a surgical-, medical-, and radiation-oncology standpoint.
Related JoVE Video
Stepwise approach for nerve sparing without countertraction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: technique and outcomes.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although subtle technical variation affects potency preservation during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP), most prostatectomy studies focus on achieving the optimal anatomic nerve-sparing dissection plane. However, the impact of active assistant/surgeon neurovascular bundle (NVB) countertraction on sexual function outcomes has not been studied or quantified.
Related JoVE Video
History and current state of neurosurgery at the Medical University of South Carolina.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We review the development of neurosurgery at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and the emergence of MUSC as a leading academic neurosurgical center in South Carolina. Historical records from the Waring Historical Library were studied, former and current faculty members were interviewed, and the personal records of Dr Phanor J Perot were examined. Dr Frederick E Kredel was the first to perform cerebral revascularization in stroke patients using omental flaps and the first to culture glioma cells in artificial media. The MUSC Neurosurgery residency program was established in 1964 by its first formally trained neurosurgeon, Julian Youmans, MD. The first graduate of the program, Dr Russell Travis, went on to become the President of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. In 1968, the longest serving chairman, Dr Perot, joined the department and conducted significant research in spinal cord injury, receiving a continuous, 20-year award from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A major change in the neurosurgery program occurred in 2004 when Dr Sunil Patel accepted the chairmanship. He integrated neurosurgery, neurology, and basic neuroscience departments into a comprehensive Department of Neurosciences to provide integrated clinical care. This department now ranks second in the country in National Institutes of Health research funding. Recently, the Center for Global Health and Global Neurosurgery was established with a vision of caring for patients beyond national borders. Neurosurgery at MUSC has been influenced by Drs Kredel and Perot and the current leadership is moving forward with a uniquely integrated department with novel areas such as global neurosurgery.
Related JoVE Video
Successful management of renal artery aneurysm rupture after cesarean section.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Renal artery aneurysm is a rare entity, and patients are usually asymptomatic at the time of presentation. These aneurysms are rare among pregnant patients, especially after childbirth, and usually form due to changes in vascular wall integrity secondary to hormonal and hemodynamic changes. Here we describe a patient with an intraparenchymal renal artery aneurysm that ruptured after a cesarean section but was immediately identified and managed appropriately, allowing for a successful outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Dural MALT lymphoma with disseminated disease.
Hematol Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma involving the dura mater is very rare and histologically is usually a subtype of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) termed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We present a case of a 46-year old woman with dural MALT lymphoma that was found to also involve a lacrimal gland, inguinal lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed an extra-axial enhancing mass approximately 6 cm in maximum diameter along the right frontotemporal convexity. Histopathology of the resected dural mass showed MALT lymphoma expressing CD20, CD52, CD19, and CD38. Molecular studies of the B-cell receptor heavy chain demonstrated monoclonality at the involved sites. The patient was treated with four cycles of fludarabine, mitoxantrone, and rituximab with complete remission. She had recurrence in the subcutaneous tissue of the back at 12 months but has remained free of intracranial disease for 31 months. A review of the literature reveals 57 cases of dural MALT lymphoma. Only 4 had extra-CNS involvement at presentation, and only 3 had local recurrence of the dural tumor. Because of the indolent behavior of this tumor, the intracranial portion can be treated conservatively after resection with or without chemotherapy. Deferral of brain radiation can be considered with close clinical and neuroimaging follow up.
Related JoVE Video
Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands of the spinal cord with diffuse leptomeningeal neuraxis dissemination.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 54-year-old Caucasian female presented with a 1 year history of intermittent numbness of the left leg progressing to bilateral, lower extremity sensory loss that advanced to include impaired vibration and proprioception. The subsequent thoracic spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a heterogeneous, avidly enhancing, centrally situated spinal cord mass involving T7 through T10 in association with thick linear enhancement of the anterior and posterior cord surfaces extending both superiorly and inferiorly. Both the cervical and lumbar spine MRI demonstrated diffuse leptomeningeal disease as well. A brain MRI revealed focal leptomeningeal enhancement in the left and right sylvian fissures, the suprasellar cistern, and the posterior fossa; a pattern consistent with metastatic disease. The patient underwent a T6-T10 laminectomy for tumor biopsy and debulking. Histology revealed a WHO grade III glioneuronal tumor with rosetted neuropil-like islands. Synaptophysin and neurofilament (NF) positive staining was noted within the neural appearing component, whereas, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunopositivity was evident in the fibrillary astrocytoma component of the tumor. The Ki-67 labeling index was 7%. This tumor pattern, now included in the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumours as a pattern variation of anaplastic astrocytoma (Kleihues et al. In: Louis et al. (eds) WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system, 2007), was first described in a four-case series by Teo et al. in 1999. The majority of subsequently reported cases described them as primary tumors of the cerebrum. Herein, we report a unique example of a spinal glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands with associated leptomeningeal dissemination involving the entire craniospinal axis.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of shunt response in suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease pathology.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the impact of cortical Alzheimer disease pathology on shunt responsiveness in individuals treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), 37 patients clinically diagnosed with iNPH participated in a prospective study in which performance on neurologic, psychometric, and gait measures before and 4 months after shunting was correlated with amyloid ? plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles observed in cortical biopsies obtained during shunt insertion. No complications resulted from biopsy acquisition. Moderate to severe pathology was associated with worse baseline cognitive performance and diminished postoperative improvement on NPH symptom severity scales, gait measures, and cognitive instruments compared to patients lacking pathology.
Related JoVE Video
Resting cerebral blood flow alterations in chronic traumatic brain injury: an arterial spin labeling perfusion FMRI study.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-invasive measurement of resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) may reflect alterations of brain structure and function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, previous imaging studies of resting state brain in chronic TBI have been limited by several factors, including measurement in relative rather than absolute units, use of crude spatial registration methods, exclusion of subjects with substantial focal lesions, and exposure to ionizing radiation, which limits repeated assessments. This study aimed to overcome those obstacles by measuring absolute CBF with an arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI technique, and using an image preprocessing protocol that is optimized for brains with mixed diffuse and focal injuries characteristic of moderate and severe TBI. Resting state CBF was quantified in 27 individuals with moderate to severe TBI in the chronic stage, and 22 demographically matched healthy controls. In addition to global CBF reductions in the TBI subjects, more prominent regional hypoperfusion was found in the posterior cingulate cortices, the thalami, and multiple locations in the frontal cortices. Diffuse injury, as assessed by tensor-based morphometry, was mainly associated with reduced CBF in the posterior cingulate cortices and the thalami, where the greatest volume losses were detected. Hypoperfusion in superior and middle frontal cortices, in contrast, was associated with focal lesions. These results suggest that structural lesions, both focal and diffuse, are the main contributors to the absolute CBF alterations seen in chronic TBI, and that CBF may serve as a tool to assess functioning neuronal volume. We also speculate that resting reductions in posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect alterations in the default-mode network, and may contribute to the attentional deficits common in TBI.
Related JoVE Video
Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Pegaptanib sodium as maintenance therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: the LEVEL study.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the efficacy of pegaptanib as maintenance therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD) patients after induction therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Closure of large skull base defects after endoscopic transnasal craniotomy. Clinical article.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors describe the utility of and outcomes after endoscopic transnasal craniotomy and skull reconstruction in the management of skull base pathologies.
Related JoVE Video
Factors contributing to failure in endoscopic skull base defect repair.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endoscopic repair of skull base (SB) defects is successful in over 90% of cases. Certain factors may contribute to failure of SB repair techniques or need for secondary repair.
Related JoVE Video
Response inhibition among early adolescents prenatally exposed to tobacco: an fMRI study.
Neurotoxicol Teratol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Children prenatally exposed to tobacco have been found to exhibit increased rates of behavior problems related to response inhibition deficits. The present study compared the brain function of tobacco-exposed (n=7) and unexposed (n=11) 12-year-olds during a Go/No-Go response inhibition task using an event-related functional MRI (fMRI) design. Prenatal alcohol exposure, neonatal medical problems, environmental risk, IQ, current environmental smoke exposure, and handedness were statistically controlled. Tobacco-exposed children showed greater activation in a relatively large and diverse set of regions, including left frontal, right occipital, and bilateral temporal and parietal regions. In contrast, unexposed but not exposed children showed activation in the cerebellum, which prior research has indicated is important for attention and motor preparation. The diversity of regions showing greater activation among tobacco-exposed children suggests that their brain function is characterized by an inefficient recruitment of regions required for response inhibition.
Related JoVE Video
High-dose radiotherapy to 78 Gy with or without temozolomide for high grade gliomas.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe outcomes associated with high-dose radiotherapy with and without temozolomide for high grade central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms.
Related JoVE Video
Traumatic spinal cord injury mortality, 1981-1998.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aim to assess the long-term trend of and identify risk factors for traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) mortality from 1981 through 1998 in the state of South Carolina (SC).
Related JoVE Video
The current status of robotic oncologic surgery.
CA Cancer J Clin
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of robotic assistance facilitates minimally invasive surgery and has been widely adopted across multiple specialties. This article reviews the published literature on use of this technology for treatment of oncologic conditions. PubMed searches were performed for articles published between 2000 and 2012 using the keywords "robotic" or "robotic surgery" in conjunction with "oncology" or "cancer." Although the most common use for robotics was to treat urologic oncologic conditions, it has also been widely adopted for gynecologic, general, thoracic, and head and neck surgeries. For several procedures, there is evidence that robotics offers short-term benefits such as shorter lengths of stay and lower intraoperative blood loss, with safety profiles and oncologic outcomes comparable to open or conventional laparoscopic approaches. However, long-term oncologic outcomes are generally lacking, and robotic surgeries are more costly than open or laparoscopic surgeries. Robotic technology is widely used in oncologic surgery with demonstrated short-term advantages. However, whether the benefits of robotics justify the higher costs warrant large comparative effectiveness studies with long-term outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Weekend admissions as an independent predictor of mortality: an analysis of Scottish hospital admissions.
BMJ Open
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Weekend admissions have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of mortality compared with weekday admissions for many diagnoses. We analysed emergency department admissions within the Scottish National Health Service to investigate whether mortality is increased in case of weekend emergency department admissions.
Related JoVE Video
High reprint orders in medical journals and pharmaceutical industry funding: case-control study.
BMJ
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the extent to which funding and study design are associated with high reprint orders.
Related JoVE Video
Hospital surgical volume, utilization, costs and outcomes of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testis cancer.
Adv Urol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) outcomes for testis cancer originate mostly from single-center series. We characterized population-based utilization, costs, and outcomes and assessed whether higher volume affects outcomes. Methods and Materials. Using the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2001-2008, we identified 993 RPLND and used propensity score methods to assess utilization, costs, and inpatient outcomes based on hospital surgical volume. Results. 51.6% of RPLND were performed at hospitals where there were two or fewer cases per year. RPLND was more commonly performed at large urban teaching hospitals, where men were younger, more likely to be white and earning incomes exceeding the 50th percentile (all P ? .05). Higher hospital volumes were associated with fewer complications and more routine home discharges (all P ? .047). However, higher volume hospitals had more transfusions (P = .004) and incurred $1,435 more in median costs (P < .001). Limitations include inability to adjust for tumor characteristics and absence of outpatient outcomes. Conclusions. Sociodemographic differences exist between high versus low volume RPLND hospitals. Although higher volume hospitals had more transfusions and higher costs, perhaps due to more complex cases, they experienced fewer complications. However, most RPLND are performed at hospitals where there were two or fewer cases per year.
Related JoVE Video
Preliminary observations on the vasomotor responses to electrical stimulation of the ventrolateral surface of the human medulla.
J. Neurosurg.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pulsatile arterial compression (AC) of the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) is hypothesized to produce the hypertension in a subset of patients with essential hypertension. In animals, a network of subpial neuronal aggregates in the VLM has been shown to control cardiovascular functions. Although histochemically similar, neurons have been identified in the retro-olivary sulcus (ROS) of the human VLM, but their function is unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of integrated cerebrovascular program on outcomes in patients with intracranial aneurysms.
J Neurointerv Surg
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent evidence indicates that multidisciplinary care improves patient outcomes in cerebrovascular (CV) disease. A multidisciplinary integrated CV program was recently instituted at a high-volume tertiary referral center, providing the opportunity to evaluate patient outcomes before and after its introduction.
Related JoVE Video
Phosphorylated tau/amyloid beta 1-42 ratio in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid reflects outcome in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Fluids Barriers CNS
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible cause of dementia and gait disturbance that is typically treated by operative placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The outcome from shunting is variable, and some evidence suggests that the presence of comorbid Alzheimers disease (AD) may impact shunt outcome. Evidence also suggests that AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may predict the presence of AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the phosphorylated tau/amyloid beta 1-42 (ptau/A?1-42) ratio in ventricular CSF and shunt outcome in patients with iNPH.
Related JoVE Video
A perfusion fMRI study of the neural correlates of sustained-attention and working-memory deficits in chronic traumatic brain injury.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Given that traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in chronic alteration of baseline cerebral perfusion, a perfusion functional MRI (fMRI) method that dissociates resting- and task-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes can be useful in noninvasively investigating the neural correlates of cognitive dysfunction and recovery in TBI.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Tracing patients on antiretroviral treatment lost-to-follow-up in an urban slum in India.
J Adv Nurs
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
? This article describes a cooperative initiative between an HIV-clinic and non-government organization network providing lost-to-follow-up tracing and delayed appointment follow-up of patients on antiretroviral treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Drug resistance in glioblastoma: a mini review.
Neurochem. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is recognized as the most common and lethal form of central nervous system cancer. Currently used surgical techniques, chemotherapeutic agents, and radiotherapy strategies have done very little in extending the life expectancies of patients diagnosed with GBM. The difficulty in treating this malignant disease lies both in its inherent complexity and numerous mechanisms of drug resistance. In this review, we summarize several of the primary mechanisms of drug resistance. We reviewed available published literature in the English language regarding drug resistance in glioblastoma. The reasons for drug resistance in glioblastoma include drug efflux, hypoxic areas of tumor cells, cancer stem cells, DNA damage repair, and miRNAs. Many potential therapies target these mechanisms, including a series of investigated alternative and plant-derived agents. Future research and clinical trials in glioblastoma patients should pursue combination of therapies to help combat drug resistance. The emerging new data on the potential of plant-derived therapeutics should also be closely considered and further investigated.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.