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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells (EECs), although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the T1R1/T1R3 umami taste receptor, which mediates the response to umami ligands such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) in taste cells. Ascending contraction, descending relaxation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release were measured in 3-chamber flat-sheet preparations of rat colon in response to MSG alone or with inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP). Velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion was measured in guinea pig distal colon using videorecording. T1R1/T1R3 receptors were present in EECs of colonic sections from human, rat, mouse, and guinea pig. MSG initiated ascending contraction and descending relaxation components of the peristaltic reflex and CGRP release in flat-sheet preparations. IMP augmented the MSG-induced effects, suggesting activation of umami (T1R1/T1R3) taste receptors. In T1R1(-/-) mice, mucosal stroking, but not MSG, elicited a peristaltic reflex. Intraluminal perfusion of MSG enhanced the velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion, which was also augmented by IMP. Propulsion was also increased by L-cysteine but not L-tryptophan, supporting a role of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. We conclude that T1R1/T1R3 umami receptor activation by luminal MSG or L-cysteine elicits a peristaltic reflex, CGRP release, and increases the velocity of pellet propulsion in distal colon. This mechanism may explain how nutrients regulate colonic propulsion.
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Inhibition of MLC20 phosphorylation downstream of Ca2+ and RhoA: A novel mechanism involving phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase interacting protein (M-RIP) by PKG and stimulation of MLC phosphatase activity.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Previous studies have shown that cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) act on several targets in the contractile pathway to reduce intracellular Ca(2+) and/or augment RhoA-regulated myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity and cause muscle relaxation. Recent studies have identified a novel protein M-RIP that associates with MYPT1, the regulatory subunit of MLCP. Herein, we examine whether PKG enhance MLCP activity downstream of Ca(2+) and RhoA via phosphorylation of M-RIP in gastric smooth muscle cells. Treatment of permeabilized muscle cells with 10 ?M Ca(2+) caused an increase in MLC20 phosphorylation and muscle contraction, but had no effect on Rho kinase activity. Activators of PKG (GSNO or cGMP) decreased MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction in response to 10 ?M Ca(2+), implying existence of inhibitory mechanism independent of Ca(2+) and RhoA. The effect of PKG on Ca(2+)-induced MLC20 phosphorylation was attenuated by M-RIP siRNA. Both GSNO and 8-pCPT-cGMP induced phosphorylation of M-RIP; phosphorylation was accompanied by an increase in the association of M-RIP with MYPT1 and MLCP activity. Taken together, these results provide evidence that PKG induces phosphorylation of M-RIP and enhances its association with MYPT1 to augment MLCP activity and MLC20 dephosphorylation and inhibits muscle contraction, downstream of Ca(2+)- or RhoA-dependent pathways.
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Cytokine-Induced S-Nitrosylation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Expression of Phosphodiesterase 1A Contribute to Dysfunction of Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Relaxation.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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The following manuscript was published as a Fast Forward article on September 9, 2014: Rajagopal S, Nalli AD, Kumar DP, Bhattacharya S, Hu W, Mahavadi S, Grider JR, and Murthy KS, Cytokine-Induced S-Nitrosylation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Expression of Phosphodiesterase 1A Contribute to Dysfunction of Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Relaxation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther jpet.114.218156; doi:10.1124/jpet.114.218156. It was later found that the chemical identity of IC86340 was not sufficiently disclosed. The authors are unable, at this time, to provide this information in accordance with the editorial policies of The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. As a result, the manuscript has been withdrawn from publication. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause JPET's readers. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
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Cytokine-induced iNOS and ERK1/2 inhibit adenylyl cyclase type 5/6 activity and stimulate phosphodiesterase 4D5 activity in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This study identified a distinctive pattern of expression and activity of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms in mouse colonic longitudinal smooth muscle cells and determined the changes in their expression and/or activity in response to proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) in vitro and 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colonic inflammation in vivo. AC5/6 and PDE4D5, expressed in circular muscle cells, were also expressed in longitudinal smooth muscle. cAMP formation was tightly regulated via feedback phosphorylation of AC5/6 and PDE4D5 by PKA. Inhibition of PKA activity by myristoylated PKI blocked phosphorylation of AC5/6 and PDE4D5 and enhanced cAMP formation. TNBS treatment in vivo and IL-1? and TNF-? in vitro induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, stimulated ERK1/2 activity, caused iNOS-mediated S-nitrosylation and inhibition of AC5/6, and induced phosphorylation of PDE4D5 and stimulated its activity. The resultant decrease in AC5/6 activity and increase in PDE4D5 activity decreased cAMP formation and smooth muscle relaxation. S-nitrosylation and inhibition of AC5/6 activity were reversed by the iNOS inhibitor 1400W, whereas phosphorylation and activation of PDE4D5 were reversed by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. The effects of IL-1? or TNF-? on forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation and smooth muscle relaxation reflected inhibition of AC5/6 activity and activation of PDE4D5 and were partly reversed by 1400W or PD98059 and completely reversed by a combination of the two inhibitors. The changes in the cAMP/PKA signaling and smooth muscle relaxation contribute to colonic dysmotility during inflammation.
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Regulation of G??i-dependent PLC-?3 activity in smooth muscle: inhibitory phosphorylation of PLC-?3 by PKA and PKG and stimulatory phosphorylation of G?i-GTPase-activating protein RGS2 by PKG.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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In gastrointestinal smooth muscle, agonists that bind to Gi-coupled receptors activate preferentially PLC-?3 via G?? to stimulate phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) leading to IP3-dependent Ca(2+) release and muscle contraction. In the present study, we identified the mechanism of inhibition of PLC-?3-dependent PI hydrolysis by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, caused an increase in PI hydrolysis in a concentration-dependent fashion; stimulation was blocked by expression of the carboxyl-terminal sequence of GRK2(495-689), a G??-scavenging peptide, or G?i minigene but not G?q minigene. Isoproterenol and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) induced phosphorylation of PLC-?3 and inhibited CPA-induced PI hydrolysis, Ca(2+) release, and muscle contraction. The effect of isoproterenol on all three responses was inhibited by PKA inhibitor, myristoylated PKI, or AKAP inhibitor, Ht-31, whereas the effect of GSNO was selectively inhibited by PKG inhibitor, Rp-cGMPS. GSNO, but not isoproterenol, also phosphorylated G?i-GTPase-activating protein, RGS2, and enhanced association of G?i3-GTP and RGS2. The effect of GSNO on PI hydrolysis was partly reversed in cells (i) expressing constitutively active GTPase-resistant G?i mutant (Q204L), (ii) phosphorylation-site-deficient RGS2 mutant (S46A/S64A), or (iii) siRNA for RGS2. We conclude that PKA and PKG inhibit G??i-dependent PLC-?3 activity by direct phosphorylation of PLC-?3. PKG, but not PKA, also inhibits PI hydrolysis indirectly by a mechanism involving phosphorylation of RGS2 and its association with G?i-GTP. This allows RGS2 to accelerate G?i-GTPase activity, enhance G???i trimer formation, and inhibit G??i-dependent PLC-?3 activity.
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Hypercontractility of intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle induced by cytokines is mediated by the nuclear factor-?B/AMP-activated kinase/myosin light chain kinase pathway.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Recent studies have identified AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) as a target of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK?) and a negative regulator of myosin light-chain (MLC) kinase (MLCK). The present study examined whether a change in expression or activity of AMPK is responsible for hypercontractility of intestinal longitudinal muscle during inflammation or in response to proinflammatory cytokines. In mouse colonic longitudinal muscle cells, acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated AMPK and MLCK phosphorylation and activity and induced MLC20 phosphorylation and muscle contraction. Blockade of CaMKK? with STO609 (7-oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid acetate) inhibited AMPK and MLCK phosphorylation and augmented MLCK activity, MLC20 phosphorylation, and smooth muscle cell contraction. In muscle cells isolated from the colon of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid)-treated mice or from strips treated with interleukin-1? or tumor necrosis factor-?, nuclear factor ?B was activated as indicated by an increase in p65 phosphorylation and I?B? degradation, and AMPK was phosphorylated at a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-specific site (Ser(485)) that is distinct from the stimulatory CaMKK? site (Thr(172)), resulting in attenuation of ACh-stimulated AMPK activity and augmentation of MLCK activity and muscle cell contraction. Inhibition of nuclear factor-?B activity with MG-132 (carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal Z-LLL-CHO) or PKA activity with myristoylated PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide blocked phosphorylation of AMPK at Ser(485) and restored MLCK activity and muscle cell contraction to control levels. The results imply that PKA released from I?B? complex phosphorylated AMPK at a PKA-specific site and inhibited its activity, thereby relieving the inhibitory effect of AMPK on MLCK and increasing MLCK activity and muscle cell contraction. We conclude that hypercontractility of intestinal longitudinal muscle induced by inflammation or proinflammatory cytokines is mediated by nuclear factor ?B/PKA-dependent inhibition of AMPK and activation of MLCK.
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Jun kinase-induced overexpression of leukemia-associated Rho GEF (LARG) mediates sustained hypercontraction of longitudinal smooth muscle in inflammation.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The signaling pathways mediating sustained contraction of mouse colonic longitudinal smooth muscle and the mechanisms involved in hypercontractility of this muscle layer in response to cytokines and TNBS-induced colitis have not been fully explored. In control longitudinal smooth muscle cells, ACh acting via m3 receptors activated sequentially G?12, RhoGEF (LARG), and the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. There was abundant expression of MYPT1, minimal expression of CPI-17, and a notable absence of a PKC/CPI-17 pathway. LARG expression was increased in longitudinal muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured for 24 h with IL-1? or TNF-? or obtained from the colon of TNBS-treated mice. The increase in LARG expression was accompanied by a significant increase in ACh-stimulated Rho kinase and ZIP kinase activities, and sustained muscle contraction. The increase in LARG expression, Rho kinase and ZIP kinase activities, and sustained muscle contraction was abolished in cells pretreated with the Jun kinase inhibitor, SP600125. Expression of the MLCP activator, telokin, and MLCP activity were also decreased in longitudinal muscle cells from TNBS-treated mice or from strips treated with IL-1? or TNF-?. In contrast, previous studies had shown that sustained contraction in circular smooth muscle is mediated by sequential activation of G?13, p115RhoGEF, and dual RhoA-dependent pathways involving phosphorylation of MYPT1 and CPI-17. In colonic circular smooth muscle cells isolated from TNBS-treated mice or from strips treated with IL-1? or TNF-?, CPI-17 expression and sustained muscle contraction were decreased. The disparate changes in the two muscle layers contribute to intestinal dysmotility during inflammation.
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Inhibition of G?i activity by G?? is mediated by PI 3-kinase-?- and cSrc-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of G?i and recruitment of RGS12.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Others and we have characterized several G??-dependent effectors in smooth muscle, including G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), PLC?3, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-?, and have identified various signaling targets downstream of PI 3-kinase-?, including cSrc, integrin-linked kinase, and Rac1-Cdc42/p21-activated kinase/p38 MAP kinase. This study identified a novel mechanism whereby G?? acting via PI 3-kinase-? and cSrc exerts an inhibitory influence on G?i activity. The Gi2-coupled ?-opioid receptor agonist d-penicillamine (2,5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) activated cSrc, stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of G?i2, and induced regulator of G protein signaling 12 (RGS12) association; all three events were blocked by PI 3-kinase (LY294002) and cSrc (PP2) inhibitors and by expression of the COOH-terminal sequence of GRK2-(495-689), a G??-scavenging peptide. Inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP and muscle relaxation by DPDPE was augmented by PP2, LY294002, and a selective PI 3-kinase-? inhibitor, AS-605420. Expression of tyrosine-deficient (Y69F, Y231F, or Y321F) G?i2 mutant or knockdown of RGS12 blocked G?i2 phosphorylation and G?i2-RGS12 association and caused greater inhibition of cAMP. Parallel studies using somatostatin, cyclopentyl adenosine, or ACh to activate, respectively, Gi1-coupled somatostatin (sstr3) receptors, and Gi3-coupled adenosine A1 or muscarinic m2 receptors elicited cSrc activation, G?i1 or G?i3 phosphorylation, G?i1-RGS12 or G?i3-RGS12 association, and inhibition of cAMP. Inhibition of cAMP and muscle relaxation was greatly increased by AS-605240 and PP2. The results demonstrate that G??-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of G?i1/2/3 by cSrc facilitated recruitment of RGS12, a G?i-specific RGS protein with a unique phosphotyrosine-binding domain, resulting in rapid deactivation of G?i and facilitation of smooth muscle relaxation.
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Inhibitory signaling by CB1 receptors in smooth muscle mediated by GRK5/?-arrestin activation of ERK1/2 and Src kinase.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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We examined whether CB1 receptors in smooth muscle conform to the signaling pattern observed with other Gi-coupled receptors that stimulate contraction via two G??-dependent pathways (PLC-?3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/integrin-linked kinase). Here we show that the anticipated G??-dependent signaling was abrogated. Except for inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via G?i, signaling resulted from G??-independent phosphorylation of CB1 receptors by GRK5, recruitment of ?-arrestin1/2, and activation of ERK1/2 and Src kinase. Neither uncoupling of CB1 receptors from Gi by pertussis toxin (PTx) or Gi minigene nor expression of a G??-scavenging peptide had any effect on ERK1/2 activity. The latter was abolished in muscle cells expressing ?-arrestin1/2 siRNA. CB1 receptor internalization and both ERK1/2 and Src kinase activities were abolished in cells expressing kinase-deficient GRK5(K215R). Activation of ERK1/2 and Src kinase endowed CB1 receptors with the ability to inhibit concurrent contractile activity. We identified a consensus sequence (102KSPSKLSP109) for phosphorylation of RGS4 by ERK1/2 and showed that expression of a RGS4 mutant lacking Ser103/Ser108 blocked the ability of anandamide to inhibit acetylcholine-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis or enhance G?q:RGS4 association and inactivation of G?q. Activation of Src kinase by anandamide enhanced both myosin phosphatase RhoA-interacting protein (M-RIP):RhoA and M-RIP:MYPT1 association and inhibited Rho kinase activity, leading to increase of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase activity and inhibition of sustained muscle contraction. Thus, unlike other Gi-coupled receptors in smooth muscle, CB1 receptors did not engage G?? but signaled via GRK5/?-arrestin activation of ERK1/2 and Src kinase: ERK1/2 accelerated inactivation of G?q by RGS4, and Src kinase enhanced MLC phosphatase activity, leading to inhibition of ACh-stimulated contraction.
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Release of GLP-1 and PYY in response to the activation of G protein-coupled bile acid receptor TGR5 is mediated by Epac/PLC-? pathway and modulated by endogenous H2S.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Activation of plasma membrane TGR5 receptors in enteroendocrine cells by bile acids is known to regulate gastrointestinal secretion and motility and glucose homeostasis. The endocrine functions of the gut are modulated by microenvironment of the distal gut predominantly by sulfur-reducing bacteria of the microbiota that produce H2S. However, the mechanisms involved in the release of peptide hormones, GLP-1 and PYY in response to TGR5 activation by bile acids and the effect of H2S on bile acid-induced release of GLP-1 and PYY are unclear. In the present study, we have identified the signaling pathways activated by the bile acid receptor TGR5 to mediate GLP-1 and PYY release and the mechanism of inhibition of their release by H2S in enteroendocrine cells. The TGR5 ligand oleanolic acid (OA) stimulated G?s and cAMP formation, and caused GLP-1 and PYY release. OA-induced cAMP formation and peptide release were blocked by TGR5 siRNA. OA also caused an increase in PI hydrolysis and intracellular Ca(2+). Increase in PI hydrolysis was abolished in cells transfected with PLC-? siRNA. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, a selective activator of Epac, stimulated PI hydrolysis, and GLP-1 and PYY release. L-Cysteine, which activates endogenous H2S producing enzymes cystathionine-?-lyase and cystathionine-?-synthase, and NaHS and GYY4137, which generate H2S, inhibited PI hydrolysis and GLP-1 and PYY release in response to OA or 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. Propargylglycine, an inhibitor of CSE, reversed the effect of L-cysteine on PI hydrolysis and GLP-1 and PYY release. We conclude: (i) activation of G?s-coupled TGR5 receptors causes stimulation of PI hydrolysis, and release of GLP-1 and PYY via a PKA-independent, cAMP-dependent mechanism involving Epac/PLC-?/Ca(2+) pathway, and (ii) H2S has potent inhibitory effects on GLP-1 and PYY release in response to TGR5 activation, and the mechanism involves inhibition of PLC-?/Ca(2+) pathway.
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Increased PDE5 activity and decreased Rho kinase and PKC activities in colonic muscle from caveolin-1-/- mice impair the peristaltic reflex and propulsion.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Caveolae are specialized regions of the plasma membrane that concentrate receptors and associated signaling molecules critical in regulation of cellular response to transmitters and hormones. We have determined the effects of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) deletion, caveolin-1 siRNA, and caveolar disruption in mice on the signaling pathways that mediate contraction and relaxation in colonic smooth muscle and on the components of the peristaltic reflex in isolated tissue and propulsion in intact colonic segments. In Cav-1(-/-) mice, both relaxation and contraction were decreased in smooth muscle cells and muscle strips, as well as during both phases of the peristaltic reflex and colonic propulsion. The decrease in relaxation in response to the nitric oxide (NO) donor was accompanied by a decrease in cGMP levels and an increase in phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity. Relaxation by a PDE5-resistant cGMP analog was not affected in smooth muscle of Cav-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that inhibition of relaxation was due to augmentation of PDE5 activity. Similar effects on relaxation, PDE5 and cGMP were obtained in muscle cells upon disruption of caveolae by methyl-?-cyclodextrin or suppression of Cav-1. Sustained contraction mediated via inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity is regulated by Rho kinase and PKC via phosphorylation of two endogenous inhibitors of MLCP: myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit (MYPT1) and 17-kDa PKC-potentiated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor protein (CPI-17), respectively. The activity of both enzymes and phosphorylation of MYPT1 and CPI-17 were decreased in smooth muscle from Cav-1(-/-) mice. We conclude that the integrity of caveolae is essential for contractile and relaxant activity in colonic smooth muscle and the maintenance of neuromuscular function at organ level.
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Changes in the expression of smooth muscle contractile proteins in TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis in mice.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Thin filament-associated proteins such as calponin, caldesmon, tropomyosin, and smoothelin are thought to regulate acto-myosin interaction and thus, muscle contraction. However, the effect of inflammation on the expression of thin filament-associated proteins is not known. The aim of the present study is to determine the changes in the expression of calponin, caldesmon, tropomyosin, and smoothelin in colonic smooth muscle from trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)- and dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Expression of h-caldesmon, h2-calponin, ?-tropomyosin, and smoothelin-A was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Contraction in response to acetylcholine in dispersed muscle cells was measured by scanning micrometry. mRNA and protein expression of ?-actin, h2-calponin, h-caldesmon, smoothelin, and ?-tropomyosin in colonic muscle strips from mice with TNBS- or DSS-induced colitis was significantly increased compared to control animals. Contraction in response to acetylcholine was significantly decreased in muscle cells isolated from inflamed regions of TNBS- or DSS-treated mice compared to control mice. Our results show that increase in the expression of thin filament-associated contractile proteins, which inhibit acto-myosin interaction, could contribute to decrease in smooth muscle contraction in inflammation.
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Differential regulation of muscarinic M2 and M3 receptor signaling in gastrointestinal smooth muscle by caveolin-1.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Caveolae act as scaffolding proteins for several G protein-coupled receptor signaling molecules to regulate their activity. Caveolin-1, the predominant isoform in smooth muscle, drives the formation of caveolae. The precise role of caveolin-1 and caveolae as scaffolds for G protein-coupled receptor signaling and contraction in gastrointestinal muscle is unclear. Thus the aim of this study was to examine the role of caveolin-1 in the regulation of Gq- and Gi-coupled receptor signaling. RT-PCR, Western blot, and radioligand-binding studies demonstrated the selective expression of M2 and M3 receptors in gastric smooth muscle cells. Carbachol (CCh) stimulated phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis, Rho kinase and zipper-interacting protein (ZIP) kinase activity, induced myosin phosphatase 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation (at Thr(696)) and 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation (at Ser(19)) and muscle contraction, and inhibited cAMP formation. Stimulation of PI hydrolysis, Rho kinase, and ZIP kinase activity, phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC20, and muscle contraction in response to CCh were attenuated by methyl ?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) or caveolin-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Similar inhibition of PI hydrolysis, Rho kinase, and ZIP kinase activity and muscle contraction in response to CCh and gastric emptying in vivo was obtained in caveolin-1-knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Agonist-induced internalization of M2, but not M3, receptors was blocked by M?CD or caveolin-1 siRNA. Stimulation of PI hydrolysis, Rho kinase, and ZIP kinase activities in response to other Gq-coupled receptor agonists such as histamine and substance P was also attenuated by M?CD or caveolin-1 siRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that caveolin-1 facilitates signaling by Gq-coupled receptors and contributes to enhanced smooth muscle function.
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Differential expression of multidrug resistance protein 5 and phosphodiesterase 5 and regulation of cGMP levels in phasic and tonic smooth muscle.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Previous studies have identified differences in the expression of proteins that regulate myosin light chain phosphorylation and contraction in tonic and phasic smooth muscle. cGMP plays a critical role in smooth muscle relaxation and is important for optimal function of phasic and tonic smooth muscle. The intracellular cGMP levels are regulated by its hydrolysis via phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) and efflux via novel multidrug resistance protein 5 (MRP5). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the differences in the phasic and tonic behavior of smooth muscles may be related to differences in mechanisms that terminate cGMP signaling. Expression of PDE5 and MRP5 was significantly (more than 2-fold) higher in fundus compared with antrum. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) caused an increase in PDE5 activity and intra- and extracellular cGMP levels in both fundus and antrum. Stimulation of PDE5 activity and increase in extracellular cGMP were significantly higher in fundus, whereas increase in intracellular cGMP was significantly higher in antrum. GSNO-induced increase in extracellular cGMP was blocked in dispersed cells by the cyclic nucleotide export blocker probenecid and in cultured muscle cells by depletion of ATP or suppression of MRP5 by siRNA, providing evidence that cGMP efflux was mediated by ATP-dependent export via MRP5. Consistent with the higher expression and activity levels of PDE5 and MRP5, GSNO-induced PKG activity and muscle relaxation were significantly lower in muscle cells from fundus compared with antrum. Thus higher expression of PDE5 and MRP5 in muscle cells from fundus correlates with tonic phenotype of muscle.
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Characterization of signaling pathways coupled to melatonin receptors in gastrointestinal smooth muscle.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Melatonin, a close derivative of serotonin, is involved in physiological regulation of circadian rhythms. In the gastrointestinal (GI) system, melatonin exhibits endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions and is implicated in the regulation of GI motility. However, it is not known whether melatonin can also act directly on GI smooth muscle cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of melatonin receptors in smooth muscle and identify their signaling pathways. MT1, but not MT2 receptors are expressed in freshly dispersed and cultured gastric smooth muscle cells. Melatonin selectively activated Gq and stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in freshly dispersed and cultured muscle cells. PI hydrolysis was blocked by the expression of Gq, but not Gi minigene in cultured muscle cells. Melatonin also caused rapid increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) as determined by epifluorescence microscopy in fura-2 loaded single smooth muscle cells, and induced rapid contraction. Melatonin-induced PI hydrolysis and contraction were blocked by a non-selective MT1/MT2 antagonist luzindole (1 ?M), but not by a selective MT2 antagonist 4P-PDOT (100 nM), and by the PLC inhibitor U73122. MT2 selective agonist IIK7 (100 nM) had no effect on PI hydrolysis and contraction. We conclude that rabbit gastric smooth muscle cells express melatonin MT1 receptors coupled to Gq. Activation of these receptors causes stimulation of PI hydrolysis and increase in cytosolic Ca(2+), and elicits muscle contraction.
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Caveolae-dependent internalization and homologous desensitization of VIP/PACAP receptor, VPAC?, in gastrointestinal smooth muscle.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The main membrane proteins of caveolae (caveolin-1, -2 and -3) oligomerize within lipid rich domains to form regular invaginations of smooth muscle plasma membrane and participate in receptor internalization and desensitization independent of clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis. We have previously shown that Gs-coupled VIP/PACAP receptors, VPAC2, predominantly expressed in smooth muscle cells of the gut, are exclusively phosphorylated by GRK2 leading to receptor internalization and desensitization. Herein, we characterized the role of caveolin-1 in VPAC2 receptor internalization and desensitization in gastric smooth muscle using three approaches: (i) methyl ?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) to deplete cholesterol and disrupt caveolae in dispersed muscle cells, (ii) caveolin-1 siRNA to suppress caveolin-1 expression in cultured muscle cells, and (iii) caveolin-1 knockout mice (caveolin-1(-/-)). Pretreatment of gastric muscle cells with VIP stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1, and induced VPAC2 receptor internalization (measured as decrease in (125)I-VIP binding after pretreatment) and desensitization (measured as decrease in VIP-induced cAMP formation after pretreatment). Caveolin-1 phosphorylation, and VPAC2 receptor internalization and desensitization were blocked by disruption of caveolae with M?CD, suppression of caveolin-1 with caveolin-1 siRNA or inhibition of Src kinase activity by PP2. Pretreatment with VIP significantly inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity and muscle relaxation in response to subsequent addition of VIP in freshly dispersed muscle cells and in muscle strips isolated from wild type and caveolin-1(-/-) mice; however, the inhibition was significantly attenuated in caveolin-1(-/-) mice. These results suggest that caveolin-1 plays an important role in VPAC2 receptor internalization and desensitization.
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Distinctive G Protein-Dependent Signaling by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Smooth Muscle: Feedback Inhibition of RhoA by cAMP-Independent PKA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We examined expression of protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and characterized their signaling pathways in rabbit gastric muscle cells. The PAR2 activating peptide SLIGRL (PAR2-AP) stimulated Gq, G13, Gi1, PI hydrolysis, and Rho kinase activity, and inhibited cAMP formation. Stimulation of PI hydrolysis was partly inhibited in cells expressing PAR2 siRNA, Gaq or Gai minigene and in cells treated with pertussis toxin, and augmented by expression of dominant negative regulator of G protein signaling (RGS4(N88S)). Stimulation of Rho kinase activity was abolished by PAR-2 or Ga13 siRNA, and by Ga13 minigene. PAR2-AP induced a biphasic contraction; initial contraction was selectively blocked by the inhibitor of PI hydrolysis (U73122) or MLC kinase (ML-9), whereas sustained contraction was selectively blocked by the Rho kinase inhibitor (Y27632). PAR2-AP induced phosphorylation of MLC20, MYPT1 but not CPI-17. PAR2-AP also caused a decrease in the association of NF-kB and PKA catalytic subunit: the effect of PAR2-AP was blocked by PAR2 siRNA or phosphorylation-deficient RhoA (RhoA(S188A)). PAR2-AP-induced degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB were abolished by the blockade of RhoA activity by Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme suggesting RhoA-dependent activation of NF-kB. PAR2-AP-stimulated Rho kinase activity was significantly augmented by the inhibitors of PKA (myristoylated PKI), IKK2 (IKKIV) or NF-kB (MG132), and in cells expressing dominant negative mutants of IKK (IKK(K44A), IkBa (IkBa (S32A/S36A)) or RhoA(S188A), suggesting feedback inhibition of Rho kinase activity via PKA derived from NF-kB pathway. PAR2-AP induced phosphorylation of RhoA and the phosphorylation was attenuated in cells expressing phosphorylation-deficient RhoA(S188A). Our results identified signaling pathways activated by PAR2 to mediate smooth muscle contraction and a novel pathway for feedback inhibition of PAR2-stimulated RhoA. The pathway involves activation of the NF-kB to release catalytic subunit of PKA from its binding to IkBa and phosphorylation of RhoA at Ser(188).
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Mechanisms of enhanced vascular reactivity in preeclampsia.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Preeclamptic women have enhanced blood pressure response to angiotensin II and extensive systemic vascular infiltration of neutrophils. Neutrophils release reactive oxygen species that might activate the RhoA kinase pathway to enhance vascular reactivity. We hypothesized that enhanced vascular reactivity in preeclampsia is attributed to neutrophil-mediated reactive oxygen species activation of the RhoA kinase pathway. Omental arteries were obtained at cesarean section and studied using a myograph system. We found that arteries of preeclamptic women had extensive infiltration of neutrophils and enhanced reactivity to angiotensin II. Treatment of arteries of normal pregnant women with reactive oxygen species or activated neutrophils enhanced vessel reactivity to angiotensin II mimicking preeclamptic vessels. Pretreatment with superoxide dismutase/catalase to quench reactive oxygen species or RhoA kinase inhibitor blocked enhanced responses in preeclamptic and normal vessels. Reactive oxygen species also enhanced vessel reactivity to norepinephrine, which was blocked by RhoA kinase inhibition. Treatment of arteries with reactive oxygen species increased RhoA kinase activity 3-fold, whereas culture of human vascular smooth muscle cells with angiotensin II and activated neutrophils or reactive oxygen species resulted in phosphorylation of key proteins in the RhoA kinase pathway. We conclude that enhanced vascular reactivity of omental arteries in preeclampsia is attributed to reactive oxygen species activation of the RhoA kinase pathway and that enhanced vascular reactivity is likely attributed to the infiltration of neutrophils. We speculate that neutrophil infiltration into systemic vasculature of preeclamptic women is an important mechanism for hypertension.
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Strain differences in the neural, behavioral, and molecular correlates of sweet and salty taste in naive, ethanol- and sucrose-exposed P and NP rats.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Strain differences between naive, sucrose- and ethanol-exposed alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats were investigated in their consumption of ethanol, sucrose, and NaCl; chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet and salty stimuli; and gene expression in the anterior tongue of T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t. Preference for 5% ethanol and 10% sucrose, CT responses to sweet stimuli, and T1R3 expression were greater in naive P rats than NP rats. The enhancement of the CT response to 0.5 M sucrose in the presence of varying ethanol concentrations (0.5-40%) in naive P rats was higher and shifted to lower ethanol concentrations than NP rats. Chronic ingestion of 5% sucrose or 5% ethanol decreased T1R3 mRNA in NP and P rats. Naive P rats also demonstrated bigger CT responses to NaCl+benzamil and greater TRPV1/TRPV1t expression. TRPV1t agonists produced biphasic effects on NaCl+benzamil CT responses, enhancing the response at low concentrations and inhibiting it at high concentrations. The concentration of a TRPV1/TRPV1t agonist (Maillard reacted peptides conjugated with galacturonic acid) that produced a maximum enhancement in the NaCl+benzamil CT response induced a decrease in NaCl intake and preference in P rats. In naive P rats and NP rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm, the biphasic TRPV1t agonist vs. NaCl+benzamil CT response profiles were higher and shifted to lower agonist concentrations than in naive NP rats. TRPV1/TRPV1t mRNA expression increased in NP rats but not in P rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm. We conclude that P and NP rats differ in T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t expression and neural and behavioral responses to sweet and salty stimuli and to chronic sucrose and ethanol exposure.
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Endogenous IGFBP-3 regulates excess collagen expression in intestinal smooth muscle cells of Crohns disease strictures.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Stricture formation occurs in ?30% of patients with Crohns disease (CD) and is a significant cause of morbidity. Strictures are characterized by intestinal smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hypertrophy, and fibrosis due to excess net extracellular matrix production, including collagen. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) has profibrotic effects in many tissues due to its ability to regulate collagen expression and extracellular matrix dynamics. We previously showed that both insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and TGF-?1 are expressed by normal human intestinal smooth muscle cells, bind to, and activate TGF-?RII/I receptors in these cells.
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RNA-binding protein HuR regulates RGS4 mRNA stability in rabbit colonic smooth muscle cells.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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Regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4) regulates the strength and duration of G protein signaling and plays an important role in smooth muscle contraction, cardiac development, and psychiatric disorders. Little is known about the posttranscriptional regulation of RGS4 expression. We cloned the full-length cDNA of rabbit RGS4, which contains a long 3-untranslated region (UTR) with several AU-rich elements (AREs). We determined whether RGS4 mRNA stability is mediated by the RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) and contributes to IL-1?-induced upregulation of RGS4 expression. We show that IL-1? treatment in colonic smooth muscle cells doubled the half-life of RGS4 mRNA. Addition of RGS4 3-UTR to the downstream of Renilla luciferase reporter induced dramatic reduction in the enzyme activity and mRNA expression of luciferase, which was attenuated by the site-directed mutation of the two 3-most ARE sites. IL-1? increased luciferase mRNA stability in a UTR-dependent manner. Knockdown of HuR significantly aggravated UTR-mediated instability of luciferase and inhibited IL-1?-induced upregulation of RGS4 mRNA. In addition, IL-1? increased cytosolic translocation and RGS4 mRNA binding of HuR. These findings suggest that 3-most ARE sites within RGS4 3-UTR are essential for the instability of RGS4 mRNA and IL-1? promotes the stability of RGS4 mRNA through HuR.
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Amelioration of excess collagen I?I, fibrosis, and smooth muscle growth in TNBS-induced colitis in IGF-I(+/-) mice.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Strictures occur in ? 30% of patients with Crohns disease (CD) and are characterized by intestinal smooth muscle hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and fibrosis due to excess extracellular matrix production including collagen. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) expression is increased in smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria in CD and in animal models of CD, including trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. While upregulated IGF-I is conjectured to cause smooth muscle cell growth and collagen production in the inflamed intestine, its role in the development of fibrosis has not been directly demonstrated.
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Regulation of the putative TRPV1t salt taste receptor by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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Regulation of the putative amiloride and benzamil (Bz)-insensitive TRPV1t salt taste receptor by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) was studied by monitoring chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses to 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing Bz (5 x 10(-6) M; a specific ENaC blocker) and resiniferatoxin (RTX; 0-10 x 10(-6) M; a specific TRPV1 agonist) in Sprague-Dawley rats and in wildtype (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. In rats and WT mice, RTX elicited a biphasic effect on the NaCl + Bz CT response, increasing the CT response between 0.25 x 10(-6) and 1 x 10(-6) M. At concentrations >1 x 10(-6) M, RTX inhibited the CT response. An increase in PIP(2) by topical lingual application of U73122 (a phospholipase C blocker) or diC8-PIP(2) (a short chain synthetic PIP(2)) inhibited the control NaCl + Bz CT response and decreased its sensitivity to RTX. A decrease in PIP(2) by topical lingual application of phenylarsine oxide (a phosphoinositide 4 kinase blocker) enhanced the control NaCl + Bz CT response, increased its sensitivity to RTX stimulation, and inhibited the desensitization of the CT response at RTX concentrations >1 x 10(-6) M. The ENaC-dependent NaCl CT responses were not altered by changes in PIP(2). An increase in PIP(2) enhanced CT responses to sweet (0.3 M sucrose) and bitter (0.01 M quinine) stimuli. RTX produced the same increase in the Bz-insensitive Na(+) response when present in salt solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl + Bz, 0.1 M monosodium glutamate + Bz, 0.1 M NaCl + Bz + 0.005 M SC45647, or 0.1 M NaCl + Bz + 0.01 M quinine. No effect of RTX was observed on CT responses in WT mice and rats in the presence of the TRPV1 blocker N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (1 x 10(-6) M) or in TRPV1 KO mice. We conclude that PIP(2) is a common intracellular effector for sweet, bitter, umami, and TRPV1t-dependent salt taste, although in the last case, PIP(2) seems to directly regulate the taste receptor protein itself, i.e., the TRPV1 ion channel or its taste receptor variant, TRPV1t.
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Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 stimulates growth of human intestinal muscle cells by activation of G{alpha}i3.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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In human intestinal smooth muscle cells, endogenous insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates growth and IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) expression. The effects of IGF-I are facilitated by IGFBP-5. We previously showed that IGFBP-5 acts independently of IGF-I in human intestinal muscle to stimulate proliferation and upregulate IGF-I production by activation of Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK. Thus a positive feedback loop exists between IGF-I and IGFBP-5, whereby both stimulate muscle growth and production of the other factor. In Crohns disease, IGF-I and IGFBP-5 expression are increased and contribute to stricture formation through this effect on muscle growth. To determine the signaling pathways coupling IGFBP-5 to MAPK activation and growth, smooth muscle cells were isolated from muscularis propria of human intestine and placed into primary culture. Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation and type I collagen production were measured by immunoblot. Proliferation was measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Activation of specific G proteins was measured by ELISA. AG1024, an IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was used to isolate the IGF-I-independent effects of IGFBP-5. IGFBP-5-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK and proliferation were abolished by pertussis toxin, implying the participation of Gi. IGFBP-5 specifically activated Gi3 but not other G proteins. Transfection of an inhibitory Galphai minigene specifically inhibited MAPK activation, proliferation, and both collagen-I and IGF-I production. Our results indicate that endogenous IGFBP-5 activates Gi3 and regulates smooth muscle growth, IGF-I production, and collagen production via the alpha-subunit of Gi3, independently of IGF-I, in normal human intestinal muscle cells.
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Modulation of motor and sensory pathways of the peristaltic reflex by cannabinoids.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Cannabinoids have long been known to be potent inhibitors of intestinal and colonic propulsion. This effect has generally been attributed to their ability to prejunctionally inhibit release of acetylcholine from excitatory motor neurons that mediate, in part, the ascending contraction phase of the peristaltic reflex. In the present study we examined the effect of cannabinoids on the other transmitters known to participate in the peristaltic reflex using a three-compartment preparation of rat colon that allows separation of ascending contraction, descending relaxation, and the sensory components of the reflex. On addition to the orad motor compartment, anandamide decreased and AM-251, a CB-1 antagonist, increased ascending contraction and the concomitant substance P (SP) release. Similarly, on addition to the caudad motor compartment, anandamide decreased and AM-251 increased descending relaxation and the concomitant vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) release. On addition to the central sensory compartment, anandamide decreased and AM-251 increased both ascending contraction and SP release orad, and descending relaxation and VIP release caudad. This suggested a role for CB-1 receptors in modulation of sensory transmission that was confirmed by the demonstration that central addition of anandamide decreased and AM-251 increased release of the sensory transmitter, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). We conclude that the potent antipropulsive effect of cannabinoids is the result of inhibition of both excitatory cholinergic/tachykininergic and inhibitory VIPergic motor neurons that mediate ascending contraction and descending relaxation, respectively, as well as inhibition of the intrinsic sensory CGRP-containing neurons that initiate the peristaltic reflex underlying propulsive motility.
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Regulation of the benzamil-insensitive salt taste receptor by intracellular Ca2+, protein kinase C, and calcineurin.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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The regulation of the benzamil (Bz)-insensitive salt taste receptor was investigated by intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), protein kinase C (PKC), and the Ca2+-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase, calcineurin (PP2B), by monitoring chorda tympani taste nerve responses to 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing Bz (5x10(-6) M) and resiniferatoxin (RTX; 0-10x10(-6) M) in Sprague-Dawley rats and in wild-type (WT) and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 knockout (TRPV1 KO) mice. In rats and WT mice, RTX increased the NaCl+Bz chorda tympani responses between 0.25x10(-6) and 1x10(-6) M and inhibited the responses above 1x10(-6) M. Decreasing taste receptor cell (TRC) [Ca2+]i with BAPTA loading, activation of PKC with 4alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (PMA), or inhibition of PP2B by cyclosporin A or FK-506, enhanced the magnitude of the Bz-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani responses in the presence of RTX and either minimized or completely eliminated the decrease in the chorda tympani response>1x10(-6) M RTX. In contrast, increasing TRC [Ca2+]i with ionomycin inhibited Bz-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani responses in the presence of RTX. No effect of the cited modulators was observed on the chorda tympani responses in WT mice and rats in the presence of TRPV1 blocker SB-366791 (1x10(-6) M) or in TRPV1 KO mice. 32P-labeling demonstrated direct phosphorylation of TRPV1 or TRPV1t in anterior lingual epithelium by PMA, cyclosporin A, or FK-506. PMA also enhanced the RTX-sensitive unilateral apical Na+ flux in polarized fungiform TRC in vitro. We conclude that TRPV1 or its variant TRPV1t is phosphorylated and dephosphorylated by PKC and PP2B, respectively, and either sensitizes or desensitizes the Bz-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani responses to RTX stimulation.
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Upregulation of RGS4 expression by IL-1beta in colonic smooth muscle is enhanced by ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK and inhibited by the PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta pathway.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Initial Ca(2+)-dependent contraction of intestinal smooth muscle is inhibited upon IL-1beta treatment. The decrease in contraction reflects the upregulation of regulator of G protein signaling-4 (RGS4) via the canonical inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase-2 (IKK2)/IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. Here, we show that the activation of various protein kinases, including ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), differentially modulates IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4 in rabbit colonic muscle cells. IL-1beta treatment caused a transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. It also caused the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta), sequential downstream effectors of PI3K. Pretreatment with PD-98059 (an ERK inhibitor) and SB-203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited IL-1beta-induced RGS4 expression. In contrast, LY-294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) augmented, whereas GSK3beta inhibitors inhibited, IL-1beta-induced RGS4 expression. PD-98059 blocked IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IKK2, degradation of IkappaB-alpha, and phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB subunit p65, whereas SB-203580 had a marginal effect, implying that the effect of ERK1/2 is exerted on the canonical IKK2/IkappaB-alpha/p65 pathway of NF-kappaB activation but that the effect of p38 MAPK may not predominantly involve NF-kappaB signaling. The increase in RGS4 expression enhanced by LY-294002 was accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of IKK2/IkappaB-alpha/p65 and blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of IKK2 (IKK2-IV) and IkappaB-alpha (MG-132). Inhibition of GSK3beta abolished IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IKK2/p65. These findings suggest that ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK enhance IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4; the effect of ERK1/2 reflects its ability to promote IKK2 phosphorylation and increase NF-kappaB activity. GSK3beta acts normally to augment the activation of the canonical NF-kappaB signaling. The PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta pathway attenuates IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4 expression by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation.
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Activation of G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, TGR5, induces smooth muscle relaxation via both Epac- and PKA-mediated inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
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The present study characterized the TGR5 expression and the signaling pathways coupled to this receptor that mediates the relaxation of gastric smooth muscle. TGR5 was detected in gastric muscle cells by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Treatment of cells with the TGR5-selective ligand oleanolic acid (OA) activated G?s, but not G?q, G?i1, G?i2, or G?i3, and increased cAMP levels. OA did not elicit contraction, but caused relaxation of carbachol-induced contraction of gastric muscle cells from wild-type mice, but not tgr5(-/-) mice. OA, but not a selective exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) ligand (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP), caused phosphorylation of RhoA and the phosphorylation was blocked by the PKA inhibitor, myristoylated PKI, and by the expression of phosphorylation-deficient mutant RhoA (S188A). Both OA and Epac ligand stimulated Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) and inhibited carbachol (CCh)-induced Rho kinase activity. Expression of RhoA (S188A) or PKI partly reversed the inhibition of Rho kinase activity by OA but had no effect on inhibition by Epac ligand. However, suppression of Rap1 with siRNA blocked the inhibition of Rho kinase by Epac ligand, and partly reversed the inhibition by OA; the residual inhibition was blocked by PKI. Muscle relaxation in response to OA, but not Epac ligand, was partly reversed by PKI. We conclude that activation of TGR5 causes relaxation of gastric smooth muscle and the relaxation is mediated through inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway via both cAMP/Epac-dependent stimulation of Rap1 and cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RhoA at Ser(188). TGR5 receptor activation on smooth muscle reveals a novel mechanism for the regulation of gut motility by bile acids.
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Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic ? cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic ? cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic ? cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G?(s) and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+). OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G?(s) inhibitor) or U73122 (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, U73122 or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G(s)/cAMP/Ca(2+) pathway. 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic ? cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.
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MEKK1-MKK4-JNK-AP1 pathway negatively regulates Rgs4 expression in colonic smooth muscle cells.
PLoS ONE
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Regulator of G-protein Signaling 4 (RGS4) plays an important role in regulating smooth muscle contraction, cardiac development, neural plasticity and psychiatric disorder. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Our recent studies have shown that upregulation of Rgs4 by interleukin (IL)-1? is mediated by the activation of NF?B signaling and modulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. Here we investigate the effect of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway on Rgs4 expression in rabbit colonic smooth muscle cells.
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