There is limited understanding of the epidemiology of meningitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults with suspected meningitis in Uganda, to comprehensively evaluate the etiologies of meningitis. Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycobacterial etiologies, including neurosyphilis,16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacteria, Plex-ID broad viral assay, quantitative-PCR for HSV-1/2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Toxoplasma gondii; reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for Enteroviruses and arboviruses, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Cryptococcal meningitis accounted for 60% (188 of 314) of all causes of meningitis. Of 117 samples sent for viral PCR, 36% were EBV positive. Among cryptococcal antigen negative patients, the yield of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22% (8 of 36). After exclusion of cryptococcosis and bacterial meningitis, 61% (43 of 71) with an abnormal CSF profile had no definitive diagnosis. Exploration of new TB diagnostics and diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of meningitis in resource-limited settings remains critical.
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may be acquired in very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants from breast milk. The clinical relevance of such infections is uncertain. There is no consensus on whether screening breast milk for CMV, freezing/pasteurizing milk before feeding, or performing virological monitoring on at-risk infants is warranted. We describe an ELBW infant who acquired CMV postnatally from breast milk and developed CMV sepsis syndrome and clinical evidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) at ? 5 weeks of age. The availability of serial dried blood spots from day of life (DOL) 4 to 21, coincidentally obtained for a metabolic study, provided the novel opportunity to retrospectively test for and quantify the magnitude of CMV DNAemia. DNAemia was present for several weeks before the onset of severe CMV disease, first being noted on DOL 18 and increasing in magnitude daily to 4.8 log10 genomes/mL on DOL 21, approximately 8 days before the onset of abdominal distension and 15 days before the onset of CMV sepsis syndrome and NEC. After surgical resection, supportive care, and ganciclovir therapy, the infant recovered. This case underscores the importance of including CMV infection in the differential diagnosis of sepsis and NEC in premature infants. This case also suggests the value of prospective virological monitoring in at-risk low birth weight and ELBW infants. Future studies should examine the potential utility of preemptive monitoring for, and possibly treatment of, CMV DNAemia in premature infants, which may herald the onset of serious disease.
Life-threatening splenic rupture is rare in neonates with severe hemophilia. There are only 3 cases of splenic rupture in neonates with hemophilia reported in the literature. We present the case of an infant, born to a hemophilia A carrier mother. The infant was asymptomatic until discharge at 48 hours of age, but presented on the third day of life with shock, abdominal distension, and severe anemia. Computed tomography of the abdomen confirmed the diagnosis of splenic rupture with hemoperitoneum. The infant recovered after extensive supportive care surgery and factor replacement.
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