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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Combination of Curcumin with Either Gramicidin or Ouabain Selectively Kills Cells That Express the Multidrug Resistance-linked ABCG2 Transporter.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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This paper introduces a strategy to kill selectively multidrug-resistant cells that express the ABCG2 transporter (also called breast cancer resistance protein, or BCRP). The approach is based on specific stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by ABCG2 transporters with subtoxic doses of curcumin combined with stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with subtoxic doses of gramicidin A or ouabain. After 72 h of incubation with the drug combinations, the resulting overconsumption of ATP by both pathways inhibits the efflux activity of ABCG2 transporters, leads to depletion of intracellular ATP levels below the viability threshold, and kills resistant cells selectively over cells that lack ABCG2 transporters. This strategy, which was also tested on a clinically relevant human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7/FLV1), exploits the overexpression of ABCG2 transporters and induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death selectively in resistant cells. This work thus introduces a novel strategy to exploit collateral sensitivity (CS) with a combination of two clinically used compounds that individually do not exert CS. Collectively, this work expands the current knowledge on ABCG2-mediated CS and provides a potential strategy for discovery of CS drugs against drug-resistant cancer cells.
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Evidence for a molecular diode-based mechanism in a multispecific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter: SER-1368 as a gatekeeping residue in the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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ATP-binding cassette multidrug efflux pumps transport a wide range of substrates. Current models suggest that a drug binds relatively tightly to a transport site in the transmembrane domains when the protein is in the closed inward facing conformation. Upon binding of ATP, the transporter can switch to an outward facing (drug off or drug releasing) structure of lower affinity. ATP hydrolysis is critically important for remodeling the drug-binding site to facilitate drug release and to reset the transporter for a new transport cycle. We characterized the novel phenotype of an S1368A mutant that lies in the putative drug-binding pocket of the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5. This substitution created broad, severe drug hypersensitivity, although drug binding, ATP hydrolysis, and intradomain signaling were indistinguishable from the wild-type control. Several different rhodamine 6G efflux and accumulation assays yielded evidence consistent with the possibility that Ser-1368 prevents reentry of the excluded drug.
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Icotinib antagonizes ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance, but not the pemetrexed resistance mediated by thymidylate synthase and ABCG2.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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ABCG2 is a potential biomarker causing multidrug resistance (MDR) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this study to investigate whether Icotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, could interact with ABCG2 transporter in NSCLC. Our results showed that Icotinib reversed ABCG2-mediated MDR by antagonizing the drug efflux function of ABCG2. Icotinib stimulated the ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, demonstrating that it interacts at the drug-binding pocket. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of Icotinib at Asn629 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, Icotinib at reversal concentration did not affect the expression levels of AKT and ABCG2. Furthermore, a combination of Icotinib and topotecan exhibited significant synergistic anticancer activity against NCI-H460/MX20 tumor xenografts. However, the inhibition of transport activity of ABCG2 was insufficient to overcome pemetrexed resistance in NCI-H460/MX20 cells, which was due to the co-upregulated thymidylate synthase (TS) and ABCG2 expression. This is the first report to show that the up-regulation of TS in ABCG2-overexpressing cell line NCI-H460/MX20 may play a role of resistance to pemetrexate. Our findings suggested different possible strategies of overcoming the resistance of topotecan and pemetrexed in the NSCLC patients.
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Icotinib antagonizes ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance, but not the pemetrexed resistance mediated by thymidylate synthase and ABCG2.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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ABCG2 is a potential biomarker causing multidrug resistance (MDR) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this study to investigate whether Icotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, could interact with ABCG2 transporter in NSCLC. Our results showed that Icotinib reversed ABCG2-mediated MDR by antagonizing the drug efflux function of ABCG2. Icotinib stimulated the ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, demonstrating that it interacts at the drug-binding pocket. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of Icotinib at Asn629 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, Icotinib at reversal concentration did not affect the expression levels of AKT and ABCG2. Furthermore, a combination of Icotinib and topotecan exhibited significant synergistic anticancer activity against NCI-H460/MX20 tumor xenografts. However, the inhibition of transport activity of ABCG2 was insufficient to overcome pemetrexed resistance in NCI-H460/MX20 cells, which was due to the co-upregulated thymidylate synthase (TS) and ABCG2 expression. This is the first report to show that the up-regulation of TS in ABCG2-overexpressing cell line NCI-H460/MX20 may play a role of resistance to pemetrexate. Our findings suggested different possible strategies of overcoming the resistance of topotecan and pemetrexed in the NSCLC patients.
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Pharmacophore modeling of nilotinib as an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase using a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship approach.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Nilotinib (Tasigna) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA to treat chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. It is also a transport substrate of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) and ABCG2 (BCRP), which may have an effect on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of this drug. The goal of this study was to identify pharmacophoric features of nilotinib in order to potentially develop specific inhibitors of BCR-ABL kinase with minimal interactions with ABC drug transporters. Three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were carried out on a series of nilotinib analogues to identify chemical features that contribute to inhibitory activity of nilotinib against BCR-ABL kinase activity, P-gp, and ABCG2. Twenty-five derivatives of nilotinib were synthesized and were then tested to measure their activity to inhibit BCR-ABL kinase and to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters. A set of in vitro experiments including kinase activity and cell-based transport assays and photolabeling of P-gp and ABCG2 with a transport substrate, [(125)I]-iodoarylazido-prazosin (IAAP), were carried out in isolated membranes to evaluate the potency of the derivatives to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase. Sixteen, fourteen, and ten compounds were selected as QSAR data sets, respectively, to generate PHASE v3.1 pharmacophore models for BCR-ABL kinase, ABCG2, and P-gp inhibitors. The IC50 values of these derivatives against P-gp, ABCG2, or BCR-ABL kinase were used to generate pharmacophore features required for optimal interactions with these targets. A seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for BCR-ABL kinase inhibitory activity, a six-point pharmacophore (ADHRRR) for ABCG2 inhibitory activity, and a seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for P-gp inhibitory activity were generated. The derived models clearly demonstrate high predictive power for test sets of BCR-ABL, ABCG2, and P-gp inhibitors. In aggregate, these results should aid in the development of specific inhibitors of BCR-ABL kinase that exhibit no or minimal interaction with ABC drug transporters.
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Design and synthesis of human ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) inhibitors by peptide coupling of diverse chemical scaffolds on carboxyl and amino termini of (S)-valine-derived thiazole amino acid.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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P-glycoprotein (P-gp) serves as a therapeutic target for the development of multidrug resistance reversal agents. In this study, we synthesized 21 novel compounds by peptide coupling at corresponding carboxyl and amino termini of (S)-valine-based bis-thiazole and monothiazole derivatives with diverse chemical scaffolds. Using calcein-AM efflux assay, we identified compound 28 (IC50 = 1.0 ?M) carrying 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl and 2-aminobenzophenone groups, respectively, at the amino and carboxyl termini of the monothiazole zwitter-ion. Compound 28 inhibited the photolabeling of P-gp with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin with IC50 = 0.75 ?M and stimulated the basal ATP hydrolysis of P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 ATPase = 0.027 ?M). Compound 28 at 3 ?M reduced resistance in cytotoxicity assay to paclitaxel in P-gp-expressing SW620/Ad300 and HEK/ABCB1 cell lines. Biochemical and docking studies showed site-1 to be the preferable binding site for 28 within the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp.
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Motesanib (AMG706), a potent multikinase inhibitor, antagonizes multidrug resistance by inhibiting the efflux activity of the ABCB1.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Cancer cells often become resistant to chemotherapy through a phenomenon known as multidrug resistance (MDR). Several factors are responsible for the development of MDR, preeminent among them being the accelerated drug efflux mediated by overexpression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Some small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were recently reported to modulate the activity of ABC transporters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if motesanib, a multikinase inhibitor, could reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR. The results showed that motesanib significantly sensitized both ABCB1-transfected and drug-selected cell lines overexpressing this transporter to its substrate anticancer drugs. Motesanib significantly increased the accumulation of [(3)H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing cells by blocking the efflux function of ABCB1 transporter. In contrast, no significant change in the expression levels and localization pattern of ABCB1 was observed when ABCB1 overexpressing cells were exposed to 3?M motesanib for 72h. Moreover, motesanib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1 in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating a direct interaction with the transporter. Consistent with these findings, the docking studies indicated favorable binding of motesanib within the transmembrane region of homology modeled human ABCB1. Here, we report for the first time, motesanib, at clinically achievable plasma concentrations, antagonizes MDR by inhibiting the efflux activity of the ABCB1 transporter. These findings may be useful for cancer combination therapy with TKIs in the clinic.
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Linsitinib (OSI-906) antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 and subfamily C member 10-mediated drug resistance.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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In this study we investigated the effect of linsitinib on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily members ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC1 and ABCC10. Our results indicate for the first time that linsitinib significantly potentiate the effect of anti-neoplastic drugs mitoxantrone (MX) and SN-38 in ABCG2-overexpressing cells; paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine in ABCC10-overexpressing cells. Linsitinib moderately enhanced the cytotoxicity of vincristine in cell lines overexpressing ABCB1, whereas it did not alter the cytotoxicity of substrates of ABCC1. Furthermore, linsitinib significantly increased the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of [(3)H]-MX in ABCG2-overexpressing cells and [(3)H]-paclitaxel in ABCC10-overexpressing cells. However, linsitinib, at a concentration that reversed MDR, did not significantly alter the expression levels of either the ABCG2 or ABCC10 transporter proteins. Furthermore, linsitinib did not significantly alter the intracellular localization of ABCG2 or ABCC10. Moreover, linsitinib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our study suggests that linsitinib attenuates ABCG2- and ABCC10-mediated MDR by directly inhibiting their function as opposed to altering ABCG2 or ABCC10 protein expression.
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ARRY-334543 reverses multidrug resistance by antagonizing the activity of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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ARRY-334543 is a small molecule inhibitor of ErbB1 and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases. We conducted this study to determine whether ARRY-334543 can enhance the efficacy of conventional anticancer drugs through interaction with ABC transporters. Lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 and its ABCG2-overexpressing NCI-H460/MX20, as well as the ABCG2-, ABCB1-, and ABCC10-overexpressing transfected cell lines were used for the reversal study. Our results demonstrated that ARRY-334543 (1.0??M) significantly reversed ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) by directly inhibiting the drug efflux function of ABCG2, resulting in the elevated intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs in the ABCG2-overexpressing cell lines. In addition, in isolated membranes, ARRY-334543 stimulated ATPase activity and inhibited photolabeling of ABCG2 with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner indicating that this drug directly interacts at the drug-binding pocket of this transporter. ARRY-334543 (1.0??M) only slightly reversed ABCB1- and partially reversed ABCC10-mediated MDR suggesting that it exhibits high affinity toward ABCG2. Moreover, homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of ARRY-334543 at Arg482 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, ARRY-334543 at reversal concentrations did not affect the expression level of ABCG2, AKT and ERK1/2 and regulate the re-localization of ABCG2. We conclude that ARRY-334543 significantly reverses drug resistance mediated by ABCG2.
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WHI-P154 enhances the chemotherapeutic effect of anticancer agents in ABCG2-overexpressing cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transmembrane proteins evidently decrease the intracellular accumulation of substrate chemotherapeutic drugs by extruding them against a concentration gradient, thereby inducing drug resistance. Here we reported the effect of WHI-P154, an irreversible inhibitor of Janus kinase 3 and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, on reversing ABC transporters-mediated drug resistance. We found that WHI-P154 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of ABCG2-overexpressing cells to its substrates. WHI-P154 moderately sensitized ABCB1-overexpressing KB-C2 cells to its substrates whereas showed no sensitizing effect on ABCC1-, ABCC2 or ABCC10-mediated drug resistance. Moreover, WHI-P154 produced a significant increase in the intracellular accumulation of [³H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2-overexpressing cells. The expression levels nor the localization of the ABCG2 protein was altered after treatment of ABCG2-overexpressing cells with WHI-P154. Further studies indicated that WHI-P154 enhanced the ATPase activity of ABCG2 at low concentrations (<10 ?M). Additionally, a docking model predicted the binding conformation of WHI-P154 within the transmembrane region of homology-modeled human ABCG2 transporter. Collectively, these findings highlighted WHI-P154 could significantly reverse ABCG2-mediated multidrug drug resistance by directly blocking the efflux function.
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MDR1 synonymous polymorphisms alter transporter specificity and protein stability in a stable epithelial monolayer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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The drug efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by MDR1 can be influenced by genetic polymorphisms, including two synonymous changes in the coding region of MDR1. Here we report that the conformation of P-gp and its drug efflux activity can be altered by synonymous polymorphisms in stable epithelial monolayers expressing P-gp. Several cell lines with similar MDR1 DNA copy number were developed and termed LLC-MDR1-WT (expresses wild-type P-gp), LLC-MDR1-3H (expresses common haplotype P-gp), and LLC-MDR1-3HA (a mutant that carries a different valine codon in position 3435). These cell lines express similar levels of recombinant mRNA and protein. P-gp in each case is localized on the apical surface of polarized cells. However, the haplotype and its mutant P-gps fold differently from the wild-type, as determined by UIC2 antibody shift assays and limited proteolysis assays. Surface biotinylation experiments suggest that the non-wild-type P-gps have longer recycling times. Drug transport assays show that wild-type and haplotype P-gp respond differently to P-gp inhibitors that block efflux of rhodamine-123 or mitoxantrone. In addition, cytotoxicity assays show that the LLC-MDR1-3H cells are more resistant to mitoxantrone than the LLC-MDR1-WT cells after being treated with a P-gp inhibitor. Expression of polymorphic P-gp, however, does not affect the host cells morphology, growth rate, or monolayer formation. Also, ATPase activity assays indicate that neither basal nor drug-stimulated ATPase activities are affected in the variant P-gps. Taken together, our findings indicate that "silent" polymorphisms significantly change P-gp function, which would be expected to affect interindividual drug disposition and response.
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Tivozanib reverses multidrug resistance mediated by ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 (BCRP).
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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 Aim: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of reversal of multidrug resistance mediated by ABC transporters with tivozanib (AV-951 and KRN-951). Tivozanib is a potent inhibitor of VEGF-1, -2 and -3 receptors. Materials & methods: ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cell lines were treated with respective substrate antineoplastic agents in the presence or absence of tivozanib. Results: The results indicate that tivozanib can significantly reverse ABCB1-mediated resistance to paclitaxel, vinblastine and colchicine, as well as ABCG2-mediated resistance to mitoxantrone, SN-38 and doxorubicin. Drug efflux assays showed that tivozanib increased the intracellular accumulation of substrates by inhibiting the ABCB1 and ABCG2 efflux activity. Furthermore, at a higher concentration, tivozanib inhibited the ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCB1 or ABCG2. Conclusion: We conclude that tivozanib at noncytotoxic concentrations has the previously unknown activity of reversing multidrug resistance mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters.
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Bioluminescent imaging of drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier mediated by the transporter ABCG2.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a group of transmembrane proteins that maintain chemical homeostasis through efflux of compounds out of organelles and cells. Among other functions, ABC transporters play a key role in protecting the brain parenchyma by efflux of xenobiotics from capillary endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). They also prevent the entry of therapeutic drugs at the BBB, thereby limiting their efficacy. One of the key transporters playing this role is ABCG2. Although other ABC transporters can be studied through various imaging modalities, no specific probe exists for imaging ABCG2 function in vivo. Here we show that d-luciferin, the endogenous substrate of firefly luciferase, is a specific substrate for ABCG2. We hypothesized that ABCG2 function at the BBB could be evaluated by using bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase in the brain. Bioluminescence signal in the brain of mice increased with coadministration of the ABCG2 inhibitors Ko143, gefitinib, and nilotinib, but not an ABCB1 inhibitor. This method for imaging ABCG2 function at the BBB will facilitate understanding of the function and pharmacokinetic inhibition of this transporter.
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Interindividual Variability in Hepatic Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides and P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Protein Expression: Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectroscopy and Influence of Genotype, Age, and Sex.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Interindividual variability in protein expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and multidrug resistance-linked P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or ABCB1 was quantified in frozen human livers (n = 64) and cryopreserved human hepatocytes (n = 12) by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method. Membrane isolation, sample workup, and LC-MS/MS analyses were as described before by our laboratory. Briefly, total native membrane proteins, isolated from the liver tissue and cryopreserved hepatocytes, were trypsin digested and quantified by LC-MS/MS using signature peptide(s) unique to each transporter. The mean ± S.D. (maximum/minimum range in parentheses) protein expression (fmol/µg of membrane protein) in human liver tissue was OATP1B1- 2.0 ± 0.9 (7), OATP1B3- 1.1 ± 0.5 (8), OATP2B1- 1 1.7 ± 0.6 (5), and P-gp- 0.4 ± 0.2 (8). Transporter expression in the liver tissue was comparable to that in the cryopreserved hepatocytes. Most important is that livers with SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) haplotypes *14/*14 and *14/*1a [i.e., representing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.388A > G, and c.463C > A] had significantly higher (P < 0.0001) protein expression than the reference haplotype (*1a/*1a). Based on these genotype-dependent protein expression data, we predicted (using Simcyp) an up to ?40% decrease in the mean area under the curve of rosuvastatin or repaglinide in subjects harboring these variant alleles compared with those harboring the reference alleles. SLCO1B3 (encoding OATP1B3) SNPs did not significantly affect protein expression. Age and sex were not associated with transporter protein expression. These data will facilitate the prediction of population-based human transporter-mediated drug disposition, drug-drug interactions, and interindividual variability through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.
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Conserved Walker A cysteines 431 and 1074 in human P-glycoprotein are accessible to thiol-specific agents in the apo and ADP-vanadate trapped conformations.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter involved in the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Although the mechanism of P-gp efflux has been extensively studied, aspects of its catalytic and transport cycle are still unclear. In this study, we used conserved C431 and C1074 in the Walker A motif of nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) as reporter sites to interrogate the interaction between the two NBDs during the catalytic cycle. Disulfide cross-linking of the C431 and C1074 residues in a Cys-less background can be observed in the presence of M14M and M17M cross-linkers, which have spacer arm lengths of 20 and 25 Å, respectively. However, cross-linking with both cross-linkers was prevented in the ADP-vanadate trapped (closed) conformation. Both C431 and C1074 alone or together (double mutant) in the apo and closed conformations were found to be accessible to fluorescein 5-maleimide (FM) and methanethiosulfonate derivatives of rhodamine and verapamil. In addition, C1074 showed 1.4- and 2-fold higher degrees of FM labeling than C431 in the apo and closed conformations, respectively, demonstrating that C1074 is more accessible than C431 in both conformations. In the presence of P-gp substrates, cross-linking with M17M is still observed, suggesting that binding of substrate in the transmembrane domains does not change the accessibility of the cysteines in the NBDs. In summary, the cysteines in the Walker A motifs of NBDs of human P-gp are differentially accessible to thiol-specific agents in the apo and closed conformations.
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Mutations in intracellular loops 1 and 3 lead to misfolding of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) that can be rescued by cyclosporine A, which reduces its association with chaperone Hsp70.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP binding cassette transporter that effluxes a variety of structurally diverse compounds including anticancer drugs. Computational models of human P-gp in the apo- and nucleotide-bound conformation show that the adenine group of ATP forms hydrogen bonds with the conserved Asp-164 and Asp-805 in intracellular loops 1 and 3, respectively, which are located at the interface between the nucleotide binding domains and transmembrane domains. We investigated the role of Asp-164 and Asp-805 residues by substituting them with cysteine in a cysteine-less background. It was observed that the D164C/D805C mutant, when expressed in HeLa cells, led to misprocessing of P-gp, which thus failed to transport the drug substrates. The misfolded protein could be rescued to the cell surface by growing the cells at a lower temperature (27 °C) or by treatment with substrates (cyclosporine A, FK506), modulators (tariquidar), or small corrector molecules. We also show that short term (4-6 h) treatment with 15 ?M cyclosporine A or FK506 rescues the pre-formed immature protein trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum in an immunophilin-independent pathway. The intracellularly trapped misprocessed protein associates more with chaperone Hsp70, and the treatment with cyclosporine A reduces the association of mutant P-gp, thus allowing it to be trafficked to the cell surface. The function of rescued cell surface mutant P-gp is similar to that of wild-type protein. These data demonstrate that the Asp-164 and Asp-805 residues are not important for ATP binding, as proposed earlier, but are critical for proper folding and maturation of a functional transporter.
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The deviant ATP-binding site of the multidrug efflux pump Pdr5 plays an active role in the transport cycle.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Pdr5 is the founding member of a large subfamily of evolutionarily distinct, clinically important fungal ABC transporters containing a characteristic, deviant ATP-binding site with altered Walker A, Walker B, Signature (C-loop), and Q-loop residues. In contrast to these motifs, the D-loops of the two ATP-binding sites have similar sequences, including a completely conserved aspartate residue. Alanine substitution mutants in the deviant Walker A and Signature motifs retain significant, albeit reduced, ATPase activity and drug resistance. The D-loop residue mutants D340A and D1042A showed a striking reduction in plasma membrane transporter levels. The D1042N mutation localized properly had nearly WT ATPase activity but was defective in transport and was profoundly hypersensitive to Pdr5 substrates. Therefore, there was a strong uncoupling of ATPase activity and drug efflux. Taken together, the properties of the mutants suggest an additional, critical intradomain signaling role for deviant ATP-binding sites.
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Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of (S)-Valine Thiazole-Derived Cyclic and Noncyclic Peptidomimetic Oligomers as Modulators of Human P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1).
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Multidrug resistance caused by ATP binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) through extrusion of anticancer drugs from the cells is a major cause of failure in cancer chemotherapy. Previously, selenazole-containing cyclic peptides were reported as P-gp inhibitors and were also used for co-crystallization with mouse P-gp, which has 87?% homology to human P-gp. It has been reported that human P-gp can simultaneously accommodate two to three moderately sized molecules at the drug binding pocket. Our in silico analysis, based on the homology model of human P-gp, spurred our efforts to investigate the optimal size of (S)-valine-derived thiazole units that can be accommodated at the drug binding pocket. Towards this goal, we synthesized varying lengths of linear and cyclic derivatives of (S)-valine-derived thiazole units to investigate the optimal size, lipophilicity, and structural form (linear or cyclic) of valine-derived thiazole peptides that can be accommodated in the P-gp binding pocket and affects its activity, previously an unexplored concept. Among these oligomers, lipophilic linear (13) and cyclic trimer (17) derivatives of QZ59S-SSS were found to be the most and equally potent inhibitors of human P-gp (IC50 =1.5 ?M). As the cyclic trimer and linear trimer compounds are equipotent, future studies should focus on noncyclic counterparts of cyclic peptides maintaining linear trimer length. A binding model of the linear trimer 13 within the drug binding site on the homology model of human P-gp represents an opportunity for future optimization, specifically replacing valine and thiazole groups in the noncyclic form.
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Human ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 mediate resistance to BI 2536, a potent and selective inhibitor of Polo-like kinase 1.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The overexpression of the serine/threonine specific Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) has been detected in various types of cancer, and thus has fast become an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. BI 2536 is the first selective inhibitor of Plk1 that inhibits cancer cell proliferation by promoting G2/M cell cycle arrest at nanomolar concentrations. Unfortunately, alike most chemotherapeutic agents, the development of acquired resistance to BI 2536 is prone to present a significant therapeutic challenge. One of the most common mechanisms for acquired resistance in cancer chemotherapy is associated with the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Here, we discovered that overexpressing of either ABCB1 or ABCG2 is a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to BI 2536 in human cancer cells. Moreover, BI 2536 stimulates the ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibits the drug substrate transport mediated by these transporters. More significantly, the reduced chemosensitivity and BI 2536-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest in cancer cells overexpressing either ABCB1 or ABCG2 can be significantly restored in the presence of selective inhibitor or other chemotherapeutic agents that also interact with ABCB1 and ABCG2, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors nilotinib and lapatinib. Taken together, our findings indicate that in order to circumvent ABCB1 or ABCG2-mediated acquired resistance to BI 2536, a combined regimen of BI 2536 and inhibitors or clinically active drugs that potently inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters, should be considered as a potential treatment strategy in the clinic.
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Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors interact with ATP binding cassette transporter 4/multidrug resistance protein 4: a basis for unanticipated enhanced cytotoxicity.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV-associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside-based antiretroviral medications and cancer chemotherapeutics.
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Tandutinib (MLN518/CT53518) targeted to stem-like cells by inhibiting the function of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Tandutinib is a novel inhibitor of tyrosine kinases FLT3, PDGFR and KIT. Our study was to explore the capability of tandutinib to reverse ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance. Tandutinib reversed ABCG2-mediated drug resistance in ABCG2-482-R2, ABCG2-482-G2, ABCG2-482-T7 and S1-M1-80 cells and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin, rhodamine 123 and [H(3)] mitoxantrone in ABCG2-overexpressing cells. Importantly, tandutinib selectively sensitized side population cells to mitoxantrone. Taken together, our results advocate the potency of tandutinib as an ABCG2 modulator and stem-like cells targeted agent to increase efficiency of anticancer drugs.
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PD173074, a selective FGFR inhibitor, reverses ABCB1-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors were recently reported to modulate the activity of ABC transporters, leading to an increase in the intracellular concentration of their substrate drugs. In this study, we determine whether PD173074, a specific fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor, could reverse ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.
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Multiple Transport-Active Binding Sites Are Available for a Single Substrate on Human P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) is an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter that is associated with the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Pgp transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds using the energy from ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, to elucidate the binding sites on Pgp for substrates and modulators, we employed site-directed mutagenesis, cell- and membrane-based assays, molecular modeling and docking. We generated single, double and triple mutants with substitutions of the Y307, F343, Q725, F728, F978 and V982 residues at the proposed drug-binding site with cys in a cysless Pgp, and expressed them in insect and mammalian cells using a baculovirus expression system. All the mutant proteins were expressed at the cell surface to the same extent as the cysless wild-type Pgp. With substitution of three residues of the pocket (Y307, Q725 and V982) with cysteine in a cysless Pgp, QZ59S-SSS, cyclosporine A, tariquidar, valinomycin and FSBA lose the ability to inhibit the labeling of Pgp with a transport substrate, [(125)I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, indicating these drugs cannot bind at their primary binding sites. However, the drugs can modulate the ATP hydrolysis of the mutant Pgps, demonstrating that they bind at secondary sites. In addition, the transport of six fluorescent substrates in HeLa cells expressing triple mutant (Y307C/Q725C/V982C) Pgp is also not significantly altered, showing that substrates bound at secondary sites are still transported. The homology modeling of human Pgp and substrate and modulator docking studies support the biochemical and transport data. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that a large flexible pocket in the Pgp transmembrane domains is able to bind chemically diverse compounds. When residues of the primary drug-binding site are mutated, substrates and modulators bind to secondary sites on the transporter and more than one transport-active binding site is available for each substrate.
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The FLT3 inhibitor quizartinib inhibits ABCG2 at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, with implications for both chemosensitization and adverse drug interactions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The oral second-generation bis-aryl urea fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor quizartinib (AC220) has favorable kinase selectivity and pharmacokinetics. It inhibits mutant and wild-type FLT3 in vivo at 0.1 and 0.5 µM, respectively, and has shown favorable activity and tolerability in phase I and II trials in acute myeloid leukemia, with QT prolongation as the dose-limiting toxicity. Co-administration with chemotherapy is planned. We characterized interactions of quizartinib with the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein). Its effects on uptake of fluorescent substrates and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, binding to ABCB1 and ABCG2 drug-binding sites by effects on [¹²?I]iodoarylazidoprazosin ([¹²?I]-IAAP) photolabeling and ATPase activity, and cell viability by the WST-1 colorimetric assay. Quizartinib inhibited transport of fluorescent ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrates in ABCG2- and ABCB1-overexpressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner, from 0.1 to 5 µM and from 0.5 to 10 µM, respectively, and inhibited [¹²?I]-IAAP photolabeling of ABCG2 and ABCB1 with IC?? values of 0.07 and 3.3 µM, respectively. Quizartinib at higher concentrations decreased ABCG2, but not ABCB1, ATPase activity. Co-incubation with quizartinib at 0.1 to 1 µM sensitized ABCG2-overexpressing K562/ABCG2 and 8226/MR20 cells to ABCG2 substrate chemotherapy drugs in a concentration-dependent manner in cell viability and apoptosis assays. Additionally, quizartinib increased cellular uptake of the ABCG2 substrate fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin, which also prolongs the QT interval, in a concentration-dependent manner, predicting altered ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics when co-administered with quizartinib. Thus quizartinib inhibits ABCG2 at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, with implications for both chemosensitization and adverse drug interactions. These interactions should be considered in the design of treatment regimens combining quizartinib and chemotherapy drugs and in choice of concomitant medications to be administered with quizartinib.
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Screening compounds with a novel high-throughput ABCB1-mediated efflux assay identifies drugs with known therapeutic targets at risk for multidrug resistance interference.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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ABCB1, also known as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), is a membrane-associated multidrug transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. It is one of the most widely studied transporters that enable cancer cells to develop drug resistance. Reliable high-throughput assays that can identify compounds that interact with ABCB1 are crucial for developing new therapeutic drugs. A high-throughput assay for measuring ABCB1-mediated calcein AM efflux was developed using a fluorescent and phase-contrast live cell imaging system. This assay demonstrated the time- and dose-dependent accumulation of fluorescent calcein in ABCB1-overexpressing KB-V1 cells. Validation of the assay was performed with known ABCB1 inhibitors, XR9576, verapamil, and cyclosporin A, all of which displayed dose-dependent inhibition of ABCB1-mediated calcein AM efflux in this assay. Phase-contrast and fluorescent images taken by the imaging system provided additional opportunities for evaluating compounds that are cytotoxic or produce false positive signals. Compounds with known therapeutic targets and a kinase inhibitor library were screened. The assay identified multiple agents as inhibitors of ABCB1-mediated efflux and is highly reproducible. Among compounds identified as ABCB1 inhibitors, BEZ235, BI 2536, IKK 16, and ispinesib were further evaluated. The four compounds inhibited calcein AM efflux in a dose-dependent manner and were also active in the flow cytometry-based calcein AM efflux assay. BEZ235, BI 2536, and IKK 16 also successfully inhibited the labeling of ABCB1 with radiolabeled photoaffinity substrate [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. Inhibition of ABCB1 with XR9576 and cyclosporin A enhanced the cytotoxicity of BI 2536 to ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells, HCT-15-Pgp, and decreased the IC50 value of BI 2536 by several orders of magnitude. This efficient, reliable, and simple high-throughput assay has identified ABCB1 substrates/inhibitors that may influence drug potency or drug-drug interactions and predict multidrug resistance in clinical treatment.
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Redefining the relevance of established cancer cell lines to the study of mechanisms of clinical anti-cancer drug resistance.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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Although in vitro models have been a cornerstone of anti-cancer drug development, their direct applicability to clinical cancer research has been uncertain. Using a state-of-the-art Taqman-based quantitative RT-PCR assay, we investigated the multidrug resistance (MDR) transcriptome of six cancer types, in established cancer cell lines (grown in monolayer, 3D scaffold, or in xenograft) and clinical samples, either containing >75% tumor cells or microdissected. The MDR transcriptome was determined a priori based on an extensive curation of the literature published during the last three decades, which led to the enumeration of 380 genes. No correlation was found between clinical samples and established cancer cell lines. As expected, we found up-regulation of genes that would facilitate survival across all cultured cancer cell lines evaluated. More troubling, however, were data showing that all of the cell lines, grown either in vitro or in vivo, bear more resemblance to each other, regardless of the tissue of origin, than to the clinical samples they are supposed to model. Although cultured cells can be used to study many aspects of cancer biology and response of cells to drugs, this study emphasizes the necessity for new in vitro cancer models and the use of primary tumor models in which gene expression can be manipulated and small molecules tested in a setting that more closely mimics the in vivo cancer microenvironment so as to avoid radical changes in gene expression profiles brought on by extended periods of cell culture.
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Use of baculovirus BacMam vectors for expression of ABC drug transporters in mammalian cells.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters ABCB1 [P-glycoprotein (Pgp)] and ABCG2 are expressed in many tissues including those of the intestines, the liver, the kidney and the brain and are known to influence the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of therapeutic drugs. In vitro studies involving their functional characteristics provide important information that allows improvements in drug delivery or drug design. In this study, we report use of the BacMam (baculovirus-based expression in mammalian cells) expression system to express and characterize the function of Pgp and ABCG2 in mammalian cell lines. BacMam-Pgp and BacMam-ABCG2 baculovirus-transduced cell lines showed similar cell surface expression (as detected by monoclonal antibodies with an external epitope) and transport function of these transporters compared to drug-resistant cell lines that overexpress the two transporters. Transient expression of Pgp was maintained in HeLa cells for up to 72 h after transduction (48 h after removal of the BacMam virus). These BacMam-baculovirus-transduced mammalian cells expressing Pgp or ABCG2 were used for assessing the functional activity of these transporters. Crude membranes isolated from these cells were further used to study the activity of these transporters by biochemical techniques such as photo-cross-linking with transport substrate and adenosine triphosphatase assays. In addition, we show that the BacMam expression system can be exploited to coexpress both Pgp and ABCG2 in mammalian cells to determine their contribution to the transport of a common anticancer drug substrate. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the BacMam-baculovirus-based expression system can be used to simultaneously study the transport function and biochemical properties of ABC transporters.
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Discovering natural product modulators to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Multidrug resistance caused by the overexpression of ABC drug transporters is a major obstacle in clinical cancer chemotherapy. For several years, it appeared that direct inhibition of ABC transporters would be the cheapest and most efficient way to combat this problem. Unfortunately, progress in finding a potent, selective inhibitor to modulate ABC transporters and restore drug sensitivity in multidrug-resistant cancer cells has been slow and challenging. Candidate drugs should ideally be selective, potent and relatively non-toxic. Many researchers in recent years have turned their attention to utilizing natural products as the building blocks for the development of the next generation of inhibitors, especially after the disappointing results obtained from inhibitors of the first three generations at the clinical trial stage. The first step is to discover natural substances (distinct from the first three generation inhibitors) that are potent, selective and relatively non-toxic in order to be used clinically. Here, we present a brief overview of the prospect of using natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters clinically and their impact on human physiology and pharmacology.
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Biochemical mechanism of modulation of human P-glycoprotein by stemofoline.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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The resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs by cancer cells is considered to be one of the major obstacles for success in the treatment of cancer. A major mechanism underlying this multidrug resistance is the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), resulting in insufficient drug delivery to the tumor sites. A previous study has shown that stemofoline, an alkaloid isolated from Stemona burkillii, could enhance the sensitivity of chemotherapeutics in a synergistic fashion. In the present study, we have focused on the effect of stemofoline on the modulation of P-gp function in a multidrug resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line (KB-V1). The effects of stemofoline on a radiolabeled drug, [(3)H]-vinblastine, and fluorescent P-gp substrates, rhodamine 123 and calcein-AM accumulation or retention were investigated to confirm this finding. Stemofoline could increase the accumulation or retention of radiolabeled drugs or fluorescent P-gp substrates in a dose-dependent manner. For additional studies on drug-P-gp binding, P-gp ATPase activity was stimulated by stemofoline in a concentration-dependent manner. More evidence was offered that stemofoline inhibits the effect on photoaffinity labeling of P-gp with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner. These data indicate that stemofoline may interact directly with P-gp and inhibit P-gp activity, whereas stemofoline has no effect on P-gp expression. Taken together, the results exhibit that stemofoline possesses an effective MDR modulator, and may be used in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs to reverse MDR in cancer cells.
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Clinical relevance of multidrug resistance gene expression in ovarian serous carcinoma effusions.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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The presence of tumor cells in effusions within serosal cavities is a clinical manifestation of advanced-stage cancer and is generally associated with poor survival. Identifying molecular targets may help to design efficient treatments to eradicate these aggressive cancer cells and improve patient survival. Using a state-of-the-art TaqMan-based qRT-PCR assay, we investigated the multidrug resistance (MDR) transcriptome of 32 unpaired ovarian serous carcinoma effusion samples obtained at diagnosis or at disease recurrence following chemotherapy. MDR genes were selected a priori based on an extensive curation of the literature published during the last three decades. We found three gene signatures with a statistically significant correlation with overall survival (OS), response to treatment [complete response (CR) vs other], and progression free survival (PFS). The median log-rank p-values for the signatures were 0.023, 0.034, and 0.008, respectively. No correlation was found with residual tumor status after cytoreductive surgery, treatment (with or without chemotherapy) and stage defined according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Further analyses demonstrated that gene expression alone can effectively predict the survival outcome of women with ovarian serous carcinoma (OS, log-rank p = 0.0000; and PFS, log-rank p = 0.002). Interestingly, the signature for overall survival is the same in patients at first presentation and those who had chemotherapy and relapsed. This pilot study highlights two new gene signatures that may help in optimizing the treatment for ovarian carcinoma patients with effusions.
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In vitro and in vivo modulation of ABCG2 by functionalized aurones and structurally related analogs.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Over-expression of ABCG2 is linked to multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. We have previously shown that functionalized aurones effectively reduced the efflux of pheophorbide A (an ABCG2 substrate) from ABCG2 over-expressing MDA-MB-231/R ("R") cells. In the present report, we investigated the functional relevance of this observation and the mechanisms by which it occurs. Aurones and related analogs were investigated for re-sensitization of R cells to mitoxantrone (MX, a chemotherapeutic substrate of ABCG2) in cell-based assays, accumulation of intracellular MX by cell cytometry, interaction with ABCG2 by biochemical assays and in vivo efficacy in MX resistant nude mice xenografts. We found that methoxylated aurones interacted directly with ABCG2 to inhibit efflux activity, possibly by competing for occupancy of one of the substrate binding sites on ABCG2. The present evidence suggests that they are not transported by ABCG2 although they stimulate ABCG2-ATPase activity. Alteration of ABCG2 protein expression was also discounted. One member was found to re-sensitize R cells to MX in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Our study identified methoxylated aurones as promising compounds associated with low toxicities and potent modulatory effects on the ABCG2 efflux protein. Thus, they warrant further scrutiny as lead templates for development as reversal agents of multidrug resistance.
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Synthesis and characterization of a BODIPY conjugate of the BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor Tasigna (nilotinib): evidence for transport of Tasigna and its fluorescent derivative by ABC drug transporters.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Tasigna (Nilotinib) is a BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration, which is indicated for the treatment of drug-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The efflux of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, which actively pump these drugs out of cells utilizing ATP as an energy source, has been linked to the development of drug resistance in CML patients. We report here the synthesis and characterization of a fluorescent derivative of Tasigna to study its interaction with two major ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and ABCG2, in in vitro and ex vivo assays. A fluorescent derivative of Tasigna, BODIPY FL Tasigna, inhibited the BCR-ABL kinase activity in K562 cells and was also effluxed by Pgp- and ABCG2-expressing cells in both cultured cells and rat brain capillaries expressing Pgp and ABCG2. In addition, [(3)H]-Tasigna was found to be transported by Pgp-expressing polarized LLC-PK1 cells in a transepithelial transport assay. Consistent with these results, both Tasigna and BODIPY FL Tasigna were less effective at inhibiting the phosphorylation of Crkl (a substrate of BCR-ABL kinase) in Pgp- and ABCG2-expressing K562 cells due to their reduced intracellular concentration. Taken together, these data provide evidence that BODIPY FL Tasigna is transported by Pgp and ABCG2, and Tasigna is transported by Pgp. Further, we propose that BODIPY FL Tasigna can potentially be used as a probe for functional analysis of Pgp and ABCG2 in cancer cells and in other preclinical studies.
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Inhibition of multidrug resistance-linked P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) function by 5-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5-adenosine: evidence for an ATP analogue that interacts with both drug-substrate-and nucleotide-binding sites.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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5-Fluorosulfonylbenzonyl 5-adenosine (FSBA) is an ATP analogue that covalently modifies several residues in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of several ATPases, kinases, and other proteins. P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of amphipathic anticancer agents from cancer cells. We investigated the interactions of FSBA with P-gp to study the catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Incubation of P-gp with FSBA inhibited ATP hydrolysis (IC(50 )= 0.21 mM) and the binding of 8-azido[?-(32)P]ATP (IC(50) = 0.68 mM). In addition, (14)C-FSBA cross-links to P-gp, suggesting that FSBA-mediated inhibition of ATP hydrolysis is irreversible due to covalent modification of P-gp. However, when the NBDs were occupied with a saturating concentration of ATP prior to treatment, FSBA stimulated ATP hydrolysis by P-gp. Furthermore, FSBA inhibited the photo-cross-linking of P-gp with [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP; IC(50) = 0.17 mM). As IAAP is a transport substrate for P-gp, this suggests that FSBA affects not only the NBDs but also the transport-substrate site in the transmembrane domains. Consistent with these results, FSBA blocked efflux of rhodamine 123 from P-gp-expressing cells. Additionally, mass spectrometric analysis identified FSBA cross-links to residues within or nearby the NBDs but not in the transmembrane domains, and docking of FSBA in a homology model of human P-gp NBDs supports the biochemical studies. Thus, FSBA is an ATP analogue that interacts with both the drug-binding and ATP-binding sites of P-gp, but fluorosulfonyl-mediated cross-linking is observed only at the NBDs.
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The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil is a potent inhibitor of ABCB1/P-glycoprotein transporter.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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One of the major causes of chemotherapy failure in cancer treatment is multidrug resistance (MDR) which is mediated by the ABCB1/P-glycoprotein. Previously, through the use of an extensive screening process, we found that vardenafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor significantly reverses MDR in ABCB1 overexpressing cancer cells, and its efficacy was greater than that of tadalafil, another PDE-5 inhibitor. The present study was designed to determine the reversal mechanisms of vardenafil and tadalafil on ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Vardenafil or tadalafil alone, at concentrations up to 20 µM, had no significant toxic effects on any of the cell lines used in this study, regardless of their membrane transporter status. However, vardenafil when used in combination with anticancer substrates of ABCB1, significantly potentiated their cytotoxicity in ABCB1 overexpressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and this effect was greater than that of tadalafil. The sensitivity of the parenteral cell lines to cytotoxic anticancer drugs was not significantly altered by vardenafil. The differential effects of vardenafil and tadalafil appear to be specific for the ABCB1 transporter as both vardenafil and tadalafil had no significant effect on the reversal of drug resistance conferred by ABCC1 (MRP1) and ABCG2 (BCRP) transporters. Vardenafil significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-paclitaxel in the ABCB1 overexpressing KB-C2 cells. In addition, vardenafil significantly stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1 and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCB1 with [(125)I]-IAAP. Furthermore, Western blot analysis indicated the incubation of cells with either vardenafil or tadalafil for 72 h did not alter ABCB1 protein expression. Overall, our results suggest that vardenafil reverses ABCB1-mediated MDR by directly blocking the drug efflux function of ABCB1.
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Kuguacin J isolated from Momordica charantia leaves inhibits P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major factor in the failure of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Resistance to chemotherapy has been correlated to the overexpression of ABC drug transporters including P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that actively efflux chemotherapeutic drugs from cancer cells. Our previous study showed that bitter melon (Momordica charantia) leaf extract (BMLE) was able to reverse the MDR phenotype by increasing the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present study, bioguided fractionation was used to identify the active component(s) of BMLE that is able to modulate the function of P-gp and the MDR phenotype in a human cervical carcinoma cell line (KB-V1). We found that kuguacin J, one of the active components in BMLE, increased sensitivity to vinblastine and paclitaxel in KB-V1 cells. A flow cytometry assay indicated that kuguacin J inhibits the transport function of P-gp and thereby significantly increases the accumulation of rhodamine 123 and calcein AM in the cells. These results were confirmed by [³H]-vinblastine transport assay. Kuguacin J significantly increases intracellular [³H]-vinblastine accumulation and decreased the [³H]-vinblastine efflux in the cells. Kuguacin J also inhibited the incorporation of [¹²?I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin into P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that kuguacin J directly interacts with the drug-substrate-binding site on P-gp. These results indicate that kuguacin J modulates the function of P-gp by directly interacting at the drug-substrate-binding site, and it appears to be an effective inhibitor of P-gp activity in vitro and thus could be developed as an effective chemosensitizer to treat multidrug-resistant cancers.
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Sildenafil reverses ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated chemotherapeutic drug resistance.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Sildenafil is a potent and selective inhibitor of the type 5 cGMP (cyclic guanosine 3,5-monophosphate)-specific phosphodiesterase that is used clinically to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Here, we report that sildenafil has differential effects on cell surface ABC transporters such as ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 that modulate intracompartmental and intracellular concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs. In ABCB1-overexpressing cells, nontoxic doses of sildenafil inhibited resistance and increased the effective intracellular concentration of ABCB1 substrate drugs such as paclitaxel. Similarly, in ABCG2-overexpressing cells, sildenafil inhibited resistance to ABCG2 substrate anticancer drugs, for example, increasing the effective intracellular concentration of mitoxantrone or the fluorescent compound BODIPY-prazosin. Sildenafil also moderately inhibited the transport of E(2)17?G and methotrexate by the ABCG2 transporter. Mechanistic investigations revealed that sildenafil stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited photolabeling of ABCB1 with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP), whereas it only slightly stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity and inhibited photolabeling of ABCG2 with [(125)I]-IAAP. In contrast, sildenafil did not alter the sensitivity of parental, ABCB1-, or ABCG2-overexpressing cells to non-ABCB1 and non-ABCG2 substrate drugs, nor did sildenafil affect the function of another ABC drug transporter, ABCC1. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of sildenafil within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1. Overall, we found that sildenafil inhibits the transporter function of ABCB1 and ABCG2, with a stronger effect on ABCB1. Our findings suggest a possible strategy to enhance the distribution and potentially the activity of anticancer drugs by jointly using a clinically approved drug with known side effects and drug-drug interactions.
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Prolonged drug selection of breast cancer cells and enrichment of cancer stem cell characteristics.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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Cancer stem cells are presumed to have virtually unlimited proliferative and self-renewal abilities and to be highly resistant to chemotherapy, a feature that is associated with overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters. We investigated whether prolonged continuous selection of cells for drug resistance enriches cultures for cancer stem-like cells.
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Apatinib (YN968D1) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the efflux function of multiple ATP-binding cassette transporters.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Apatinib, a small-molecule multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is in phase III clinical trial for the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and gastric cancer in China. In this study, we determined the effect of apatinib on the interaction of specific antineoplastic compounds with P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2). Our results showed that apatinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of ABCB1 or ABCG2 substrate drugs in KBv200, MCF-7/adr, and HEK293/ABCB1 cells overexpressing ABCB1 and in S1-M1-80, MCF-7/FLV1000, and HEK293/ABCG2-R2 cells overexpressing ABCG2 (wild-type). In contrast, apatinib did not alter the cytotoxicity of specific substrates in the parental cells and cells overexpressing ABCC1. Apatinib significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin in the multidrug resistance (MDR) cells. Furthermore, apatinib significantly inhibited the photoaffinity labeling of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 with [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner. The ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 was significantly increased by apatinib. However, apatinib, at a concentration that produced a reversal of MDR, did not significantly alter the ABCB1 or ABCG2 protein or mRNA expression levels or the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Importantly, apatinib significantly enhanced the effect of paclitaxel against the ABCB1-resistant KBv200 cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, apatinib reverses ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR by inhibiting their transport function, but not by blocking the AKT or ERK1/2 pathway or downregulating ABCB1 or ABCG2 expression. Apatinib may be useful in circumventing MDR to other conventional antineoplastic drugs.
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The "specific" P-glycoprotein inhibitor Tariquidar is also a substrate and an inhibitor for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Tariquidar was developed as a specific inhibitor of the efflux transporter ABCB1. Recent positron emission tomographic brain imaging studies using [(11)C]tariquidar to measure ABCB1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein) density in mice indicate that the inhibitor may not be as specific as previously thought. We examined its selectivity as an inhibitor and a substrate for the human transporters P-gp, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1). Our results show that at low concentrations, tariquidar acts selectively as an inhibitor of P-gp and also as a substrate of BCRP. At much higher concentrations (?100 nM), tariquidar acts as an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP. Thus, the in vivo specificity of tariquidar depends on concentration and the relative density and capacity of P-gp vs BCRP.
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Marine sponge-derived sipholane triterpenoids reverse P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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Previously, we reported sipholenol A, a sipholane triterpenoid from the Red Sea sponge Callyspongia siphonella, as a potent reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells that overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Through extensive screening of several related sipholane triterpenoids that have been isolated from the same sponge, we identified sipholenone E, sipholenol L and siphonellinol D as potent reversals of MDR in cancer cells. These compounds enhanced the cytotoxicity of several P-gp substrate anticancer drugs, including colchicine, vinblastine and paclitaxel, and significantly reversed the MDR-phenotype in P-gp-overexpressing MDR cancer cells KB-C2 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, these three sipholanes had no effect on the response to cytotoxic agents in cells lacking P-gp expression or expressing MRP1 (ABCC1) or MRP7 (ABCC10) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). All three sipholanes (IC(50) >50 ?M) were not toxic to all the cell lines that were used. [(3)H]-Paclitaxel accumulation and efflux studies demonstrated that all three triterpenoids time-dependently increased the intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-paclitaxel by directly inhibiting P-gp-mediated drug efflux. Sipholanes also inhibited calcein-AM transport from P-gp-overexpressing cells. The Western blot analysis revealed that these three triterpenoids did not alter the expression of P-gp. However, they stimulated P-gp ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the photolabeling of this transporter with its transport substrate [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin. In silico molecular docking aided the virtual identification of ligand binding sites of these compounds. In conclusion, sipholane triterpenoids efficiently inhibit the function of P-gp through direct interactions and may represent potential reversal agents for the treatment of MDR.
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The skin cancer chemotherapeutic agent ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005) is a substrate for the epidermal multidrug transporter (ABCB1) and targets tumor vasculature.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Ingenol-3-angelate (Ing3A), extracted from Euphorbia peplus, is currently in clinical trials for eradicating basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ by topical application. Although structurally related to phorbol esters and a protein kinase C activator, topical Ing3A, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), inhibited the growth of subcutaneous tumors derived from PAM212 (mouse SCC) and B16 (mouse melanoma). Ing3A and PMA both induced acute neutrophilic inflammation on mouse skin, but only Ing3A caused subcutaneous hemorrhage and vascular damage. Both Ing3A and PMA activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in epidermis, but Ing3A also activated ERK1/2 in skin dermal fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Pretreatment with topical cyclosporin A (CsA), verapamil, or XR9576, modulators of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), prevented Ing3A-induced hemorrhage but not neutrophil infiltration. CsA also impaired the anticancer activity of Ing3A, whereas the anti-inflammatory dexamethasone did not. Ing3A, but not PMA, blocked photoaffinity labeling of human P-gp with [(125)I]iodoaryazidoprazosin and inhibited P-gp-mediated drug resistance to HCT-15 cells. The intracellular levels of Ing3A were significantly lower in P-gp-expressing cells, and treatment with XR9576 increased the levels to those of cells that do not express P-gp, showing that Ing3A binds to and is transported by P-gp. Taken together, our results suggest that P-gp-mediated absorptive transport, dermal penetration, and vascular damage contribute to the anticancer activity of Ing3A in vivo.
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The signaling interface of the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5 adopts a cis conformation, and there are functional overlap and equivalence of the deviant and canonical Q-loop residues.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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ABC transporters are polytopic proteins. ATP hydrolysis and substrate transport take place in separate domains, and these activities must be coordinated through a signal interface. We previously characterized a mutation (S558Y) in the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5 that uncouples ATP hydrolysis and drug transport. To characterize the transmission interface, we used a genetic screen to isolate second-site mutations of S558Y that restore drug transport. We recovered suppressors that restore drug resistance; their locations provide functional evidence for an interface in the cis rather than the trans configuration indicated by structural and cross-linking studies of bacterial and eukaryotic efflux transporters. One mutation, E244G, defines the Q-loop of the deviant portion of NBD1, which is the hallmark of this group of fungal transporters. When moved to an otherwise wild-type background, this mutation and its counterpart in the canonical ATP-binding site Q951G show a similar reduction in drug resistance and in the very high basal-level ATP hydrolysis characteristic of Pdr5. A double E244G, Q951G mutant is considerably more drug sensitive than either of the single mutations. Surprisingly, then, the deviant and canonical Q-loop residues are functionally overlapping and equivalent in a strikingly asymmetric ABC transporter.
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Comparison of ATP-binding cassette transporter interactions with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Although the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to control the unregulated activity of BCR-ABL revolutionized the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia, resistance to TKIs is a clinical reality. Among the postulated mechanisms of resistance is the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2), which mediate reduced intracellular drug accumulation. We compared the interactions of the TKIs imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib with ABCB1 and ABCG2 in ex vivo and in vitro systems. The TKIs inhibited rhodamine 123 and Hoechst 33342 efflux mediated by endogenous expression of the transporters in murine and human hematopoietic stem cells with potency order nilotinib > imatinib > dasatinib. Studies with ABCB1-, ABCG2-, and ABCC1-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells verified that nilotinib was the most potent inhibitor of ABCB1 and ABCG2. Cytotoxicity assays in stably transduced K562-ABCG2 and K562-ABCB1 cells confirmed that the TKIs were also substrates for the two transporters. Like imatinib, both nilotinib and dasatinib decreased ABCG2 surface expression in K562-ABCG2 cells. Finally, we found that all TKIs were able to compete labeling of ABCB1 and ABCG2 by the photo-cross-linkable prazosin analog [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin, suggesting interaction at the prazosin-binding site of both proteins. Our experiments support the hypothesis that all three TKIs are substrates of ABC transporters and that, at higher concentrations, TKIs overcome transporter function. Taken together, the results suggest that therapeutic doses of imatinib and nilotinib may diminish the potential of ABCB1 and ABCG2 to limit oral absorption or confer resistance. Clinical data are required to definitively answer the latter question.
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Analysis of expression of drug resistance-linked ABC transporters in cancer cells by quantitative RT-PCR.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) boasts many advantages over microarrays. For instance, very low amounts of total RNA are required to yield highly accurate and reproducible detection of transcript levels. As a consequence, qRT-PCR has become a popular technique for assessing gene expression levels and is now the gold standard. In this chapter, qRT-PCR using two distinct chemistries, SYBR Green and TaqMan, are described. We compare ABC transporter levels in various drug-resistant cancer cell lines by employing each method. SYBR Green yields reproducible results; nevertheless, TaqMan chemistry is superior to SYBR Green, as it displays higher specificity and sensitivity. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR is a powerful technique and shows potential as a diagnostic tool for predicting drug response in cancer patients.
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Divergent signature motifs of nucleotide binding domains of ABC multidrug transporter, CaCdr1p of pathogenic Candida albicans, are functionally asymmetric and noninterchangeable.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of the multidrug transporter of Candida albicans, CaCdr1p, possess unique divergent amino acids in their conserved motifs. For example, NBD1 (N-terminal-NBD) possesses conserved signature motifs, while the same motif is divergent in NBD2 (C-terminal-NBD). In this study, we have evaluated the contribution of these conserved and divergent signature motifs of CaCdr1p in ATP catalysis and drug transport. By employing site-directed mutagenesis, we made three categories of mutant variants. These included mutants where all the signature motif residues were replaced with either alanines or mutants with exchanged equipositional residues to mimic the conservancy and degeneracy in opposite domain. In addition, a set of mutants where signature motifs were swapped to have variants with either both the conserved or degenerated entire signature motif. We observed that conserved and equipositional residues of NBD1 and NBD2 and swapped signature motif mutants showed high susceptibility to all the tested drugs with simultaneous abrogation in ATPase and R6G efflux activities. However, some of the mutants displayed a selective increase in susceptibility to the drugs. Notably, none of the mutant variants and WT-CaCdr1p showed any difference in drug and nucleotide binding. Our mutational analyses show not only that certain conserved residues of NBD1 signature sequence (S304, G306, and E307) are important in ATP hydrolysis and R6G efflux but also that a few divergent residues (N1002 and E1004) of NBD2 signature motif have evolved to be functionally relevant and are not interchangeable. Taken together, our data suggest that the signature motifs of CaCdr1p, whether it is divergent or conserved, are nonexchangeable and are functionally critical for ATP hydrolysis.
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Peripheral CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade improves cardiometabolic risk in mouse models of obesity.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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Obesity and its metabolic consequences are a major public health concern worldwide. Obesity is associated with overactivity of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in the regulation of appetite, lipogenesis, and insulin resistance. Cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists reduce body weight and improve cardiometabolic abnormalities in experimental and human obesity, but their therapeutic potential is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects. Here we have demonstrated that a CB1R neutral antagonist largely restricted to the periphery does not affect behavioral responses mediated by CB1R in the brains of mice with genetic or diet-induced obesity, but it does cause weight-independent improvements in glucose homeostasis, fatty liver, and plasma lipid profile. These effects were due to blockade of CB1R in peripheral tissues, including the liver, as verified through the use of CB1R-deficient mice with or without transgenic expression of CB1R in the liver. These results suggest that targeting peripheral CB1R has therapeutic potential for alleviating cardiometabolic risk in obese patients.
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Dependence of multidrug resistance protein-mediated cyclic nucleotide efflux on the background sodium conductance.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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Anterior pituitary cells fire action potentials and release cyclic nucleotides both spontaneously and in response to agonist stimulation, but the relationship between electrical activity and cyclic nucleotide efflux has not been studied. In these cells, a tetrodotoxin-resistant background N(+) conductance is critical for firing of action potentials, and multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) MRP4 and MRP5 contribute to cyclic nucleotide efflux. Here, we show that abolition of the background Na(+) conductance in rat pituitary cells by complete or partial replacement of extracellular Na(+) with organic cations or sucrose induced a rapid and reversible hyperpolarization of cell membranes and inhibition of action potential firing, accompanied by a rapid inhibition of cyclic nucleotide efflux. Valinomycin-induced hyperpolarization of plasma membranes also inhibited cyclic nucleotide efflux, whereas depolarization of cell membranes induced by the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx or stimulation of Na(+) influx by gramicidin was accompanied by a facilitation of cyclic nucleotide efflux. In contrast, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide efflux by probenecid did not affect the background Na(+) conductance. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably transfected with human MRP4 or MRP5, replacement of bath Na(+) with organic cations also hyperpolarized the cell membranes and inhibited cyclic nucleotide efflux. In these cells, the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter monensin did not affect the membrane potential and was practically ineffective in altering cyclic nucleotide efflux. In both pituitary and MRP4- and MRP5-expressing cells, 3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571) inhibited cyclic nucleotide efflux. These results indicate that the MRP4/5-mediated cyclic nucleotide efflux can be rapidly modulated by membrane potential determined by the background Na(+) conductance.
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Silent (synonymous) SNPs: should we care about them?
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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One of the surprising findings of the Human Genome Project was that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which, by definition, have a minor allele frequency greater than 1%, occur at higher rates than previously suspected. When occurring in the gene coding regions, SNPs can be synonymous (i.e., not causing a change in the amino acid) or nonsynonymous (when the amino acid is altered). It has long been assumed that synonymous SNPs are inconsequential, as the primary sequence of the protein is retained. A number of studies have questioned this assumption over the last decade, showing that synonymous mutations are also under evolutionary pressure and they can be implicated in disease. More importantly, several of the mechanisms by which synonymous mutations alter the structure, function, and expression level of proteins are now being elucidated. Studies have demonstrated that synonymous polymorphisms can affect messenger RNA splicing, stability, and structure as well as protein folding. These changes can have a significant effect on the function of proteins, change cellular response to therapeutic targets, and often explain the different responses of individual patients to a certain medication.
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Identification of compounds that correlate with ABCG2 transporter function in the National Cancer Institute Anticancer Drug Screen.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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ABCG2 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that counts multiple anticancer compounds among its substrates and is believed to regulate oral bioavailability as well as serve a protective role in the blood-brain barrier, the maternal-fetal barrier, and hematopoietic stem cells. We sought to determine whether novel compounds that interact with the transporter could be identified through analysis of cytotoxicity profiles recorded in the NCI Anticancer Drug Screen database. A flow cytometric assay was used to measure ABCG2 function in the 60 cell lines and generate a molecular profile for COMPARE analysis. This strategy identified >70 compounds with Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs) >0.4, where reduced drug sensitivity correlated with ABCG2 expression, as well as >120 compounds with PCCs < -0.4, indicating compounds to which ABCG2 expression conferred greater sensitivity. Despite identification of known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABCG2 gene in a number of the cell lines, omission of these lines from the COMPARE analysis did not affect PCCs. Available compounds were subjected to validation studies to confirm interaction with the transporter, including flow cytometry, [(125)I]IAAP binding, and cytotoxicity assays, and interaction was documented in 20 of the 27 compounds studied. Although known substrates of ABCG2 such as mitoxantrone or topotecan were not identified, we characterized three novel substrates-5-hydroxypicolinaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (NSC107392), (E)-N-(1-decylsulfanyl-3-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-3-(6-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1H-pyrimidin-5-yl)prop-2-enamide (NSC265473), and 1,2,3,4,7-pentahydroxy-1,3,4,4a,5,11b-hexahydro[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-j]phenanthridin-6(2H)-one [NSC349156 (pancratistatin)]-and four compounds that inhibited transporter function-2-[methyl(2-pyridin-2-ylethyl)-amino]fluoren-9-one hydroiodide (NSC24048), 5-amino-6-(7-amino-5,8-dihydro-6-methoxy-5,8-dioxo-2-quinolinyl)-4-(2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester (NSC45384), (17beta)-2,4-dibromo-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol (NSC103054), and methyl N-(pyridine-4-carbonylamino)carbamodithioate (NSC636795). In summary, COMPARE analysis of the NCI drug screen database using the ABCG2 functional profile was able to identify novel substrates and transporter-interacting compounds.
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Evaluation of current methods used to analyze the expression profiles of ATP-binding cassette transporters yields an improved drug-discovery database.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy remains a major challenge in the treatment of cancer. Resistance exists against every effective anticancer drug and can develop by multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms can act individually or synergistically, leading to MDR, in which the cell becomes resistant to a variety of structurally and mechanistically unrelated drugs in addition to the drug initially administered. Although extensive work has been done to characterize MDR mechanisms in vitro, the translation of this knowledge to the clinic has not been successful. Therefore, identifying genes and mechanisms critical to the development of MDR in vivo and establishing a reliable method for analyzing highly homologous genes from small amounts of tissue is fundamental to achieving any significant enhancement in our understanding of MDR mechanisms and could lead to treatments designed to circumvent it. In this study, we use a previously established database that allows the identification of lead compounds in the early stages of drug discovery that are not ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrates. We believe this can serve as a model for appraising the accuracy and sensitivity of current methods used to analyze the expression profiles of ABC transporters. We found two platforms to be superior methods for the analysis of expression profiles of highly homologous gene superfamilies. This study also led to an improved database by revealing previously unidentified substrates for ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2, transporters that contribute to MDR.
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Botryllamides: natural product inhibitors of ABCG2.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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ABCG2 is a membrane-localized, human transporter protein that has been demonstrated to reduce the intracellular accumulation of substrates through ATP-dependent efflux. Highly expressed in placental syncytiotrophoblasts, brain microvasculature, and the gastrointestinal tract, ABCG2 has been shown to mediate normal tissue protection as well as limit oral bioavailability of substrate compounds. Development of ABCG2 inhibitors for clinical use may allow increased penetration of therapeutic agents into sanctuary sites and increased gastrointestinal absorption. Previously identified inhibitors have lacked potency or specificity or were toxic at concentrations needed to inhibit ABCG2; none are in clinical development. A previously developed high-throughput assay measuring inhibition of ABCG2-mediated pheophorbide a transport was applied to natural product extract libraries. Among the active samples were extracts from the marine ascidian Botryllus tyreus. Bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in purification of a series of botryllamides. Ten botryllamides were obtained, two of which (designated I and J) were novel. Activity against ABCG2 was confirmed by assessing the ability of the compounds to inhibit ABCG2-mediated BODIPY-prazosin transport in ABCG2-transfected HEK293 cells, compete with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) labeling of ABCG2, stimulate ABCG2-associated ATPase activity, and reverse ABCG2-mediated resistance.
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Curcumin modulates efflux mediated by yeast ABC multidrug transporters and is synergistic with antifungals.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Curcumin (CUR), a natural product of turmeric, from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, is a known agent of reversal of drug resistance phenotypes in cancer cells overexpressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, viz., ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC1. In the present study, we evaluated whether CUR could also modulate multidrug transporters of yeasts that belong either to the ABC family or to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). The effect of CUR on multidrug transporter proteins was demonstrated by examining rhodamine 6G (R6G) efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells overexpressing the Candida albicans ABC transporters Cdr1p and Cdr2p (CaCdr1p and CaCdr2p, respectively) and the MFS transporters CaMdr1p and S. cerevisiae Pdr5p. CUR decreased the extracellular concentration of R6G in ABC transporter-expressing cells but had no effect on methotrexate efflux mediated through the MFS transporter CaMdr1p. CUR competitively inhibited R6G efflux and the photolabeling of CaCdr1p by [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin, a drug analogue of the substrate prazosin (50% inhibitory concentration, 14.2 microM). Notably, the mutant variants of CaCdr1p that displayed abrogated efflux of R6G also showed reduced modulation by CUR. Drug susceptibility testing of ABC protein-expressing cells by spot assays and checkerboard tests revealed that CUR was selectively synergistic with drug substrates such as R6G, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole but not with fluconazole, voriconazole, anisomycin, cycloheximide, or FK520. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that CUR modulates only ABC multidrug transporters and could be exploited in combination with certain conventional antifungal drugs to reverse multidrug resistance in Candida cells.
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Sunitinib (Sutent, SU11248), a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocks function of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and ABCG2.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Sunitinib malate (Sutent, SU11248) is a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits cellular signaling of multiple targets such as the platelet-derived growth factor receptors and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and is used in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Because tyrosine kinase inhibitors are known to increase the p.o. bioavailability and brain penetration of chemotherapy drugs in animal models, we sought to examine the effect of sunitinib on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1), and ABCG2, which are known to transport a wide variety of anticancer drugs. In this study, we show that sunitinib inhibits P-gp- and ABCG2-mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates in cells overexpressing these transporters. In 4-day cytotoxicity assays, at a nontoxic concentration (2 microM) sunitinib was able to partially reverse drug resistance mediated by P-gp and completely reverse resistance mediated by ABCG2. We further show a direct interaction of sunitinib with the substrate binding pocket of these transporters as it inhibited binding of the photoaffinity substrate [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin to P-gp (IC(50) = 14.2 microM) and ABCG2 (IC(50) = 1.33 microM). Sunitinib stimulated the ATP hydrolysis by both transporters in a concentration-dependent manner. Conformation-sensitive antibody binding assays with the P-gp- and ABCG2-specific antibodies, UIC2 and 5D3, respectively, also confirmed the interaction of sunitinib with these transporters. Taken together, this is the first report showing that sunitinib inhibits transport mediated by ABC drug transporters, which may affect the bioavailability of drugs coadministered with sunitinib.
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The amino acid residues of transmembrane helix 5 of multidrug resistance protein CaCdr1p of Candida albicans are involved in substrate specificity and drug transport.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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In view of the importance of Candida Drug Resistance Protein (Cdr1p) of pathogenic Candida albicans in azole resistance, we have characterized its ability to efflux variety of substrates by subjecting its entire transmembrane segment (TMS) 5 to site directed mutagenesis. All the mutant variants of putative 21 amino acids of TMS 5 and native CaCdr1p were over expressed as a GFP-tagged protein in a heterologous host Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the drug susceptibility pattern, the mutant variants could be grouped into two categories. The variants belonging to first category were susceptible to all the tested drugs, as compared to those belonging to second category which exhibited resistance to selective drugs. The mutant variants of both the categories were analyzed for their ATP catalysis and drug efflux properties. Irrespective of the categories, most of the mutant variants of TMS 5 showed an uncoupling between ATP hydrolysis and drug efflux. The mutant variants such as M667A, F673A, I675A and P678A were an exception since they reflected a sharp reduction in both K(m) and V(max) values of ATPase activity when compared with WT CaCdr1p-GFP. Based on the competition experiments, we could identify TMS 5 residues which are specific to interact with select drugs. TMS 5 residues of CaCdr1p thus not only impart substrate specificity but also selectively act as a communication link between ATP hydrolysis and drug transport.
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Curcumin inhibits the activity of ABCG2/BCRP1, a multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter in mice.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of curcumin as an inhibitor of the multidrug-resistance-linked ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) drug transporter, ABCG2.
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Inhibiting the function of ABCB1 and ABCG2 by the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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The tyrphostin 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) is a potent and specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI); its promising pre-clinical results have led to clinical trials. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 is one of the main causes of multidrug resistance (MDR) and usually results in the failure of cancer chemotherapy. However, the interaction of AG1478 with these ABC transporters is still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated this interaction and found that AG1478 has differential effects on these transporters. In ABCB1-overexpressing cells, non-toxic doses of AG1478 were found to partially inhibit resistance to ABCB1 substrate anticancer drugs as well as increase intracellular accumulation of [3H]-paclitaxel. Similarly, in ABCG2-overexpressing cells, AG1478 significantly reversed resistance to ABCG2 substrate anticancer drugs and increased intracellular accumulation of [3H]-mitoxantrone as well as fluorescent compound BODIPY-prazosin. AG1478 also profoundly inhibited the transport of [3H]-E(2)17betaG and [3H]-methotrexate by ABCG2. We also found that AG1478 slightly stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and significantly stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity. Interestingly, AG1478 did not inhibit the photolabeling of ABCB1 or ABCG2 with [125I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin. Additionally, AG1478 did not alter the sensitivity of parental, ABCB1- or ABCG2-overexpressing cells to non-ABCB1 and non-ABCG2 substrate drug and had no effect on the function of ABCC1. Overall, we conclude that AG1478 is able to inhibit the function of ABCB1 and ABCG2, with a more pronounced effect on ABCG2. Our findings provide valuable contributions to the development of safer and more effective EGFR TKIs for use as anticancer agents in the clinic.
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Sensitization of ABCB1 overexpressing cells to chemotherapeutic agents by FG020326 via binding to ABCB1 and inhibiting its function.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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The effectiveness of chemotherapeutic treatment is usually limited by the overexpression of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate multidrug resistance (MDR) by acting as efflux pumps to remove chemotherapeutic agents from MDR cancer cells. Thus, the inhibition of ABC transporters may represent a promising strategy to reverse MDR. This study was to characterize the actions of FG020326, a newly synthesized triaryl-substituted imidazole derivative, to reverse MDR in vitro and in vivo. FG020326 significantly potentiated the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and vincristine in the ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) overexpressing cells KBv200 and MCF-7/adr, but not in the ABCB1 negative parental cell lines KB and MCF-7. However, FG020326 did not alter the cytotoxicity of the aforementioned drugs in ABCC1 (MRP1), ABCC4 (MRP4), ABCG2 (BCRP) and LRP overexpressing cell lines, KB-CV60, NIH3T3/MRP4-2, S1-M1-80 and SW1573/2R120, respectively. FG020326, following p.o. administration, was present in concentrations sufficient for reversal of MDR in mice. The co-administration of FG020326 with paclitaxel or vincristine significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of these drugs without significantly increasing toxicity in the mice bearing the KBv200 cell xenografts. In addition, FG020326, at concentrations that reversed MDR, did not significantly affect the activity of CYP3A4 or alter the pharmacokinetic profile of paclitaxel after co-administration with paclitaxel. FG020326 produced a significant concentration-dependent displacement of [3H]azidopine and inhibition of efflux of drug from cells. Furthermore, FG020326 was co-localized with ABCB1 in cell membranes. Hence, FG020326 is characterized as a third generation MDR modulator that holds great promise for the treatment of cancer patients with ABCB1-mediated MDR.
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Becatecarin (rebeccamycin analog, NSC 655649) is a transport substrate and induces expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCG2, in lung carcinoma cells.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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ABCG2 overexpression has been linked to resistance to topoisomerase inhibitors, leading us to examine the potential interaction between ABCG2 and becatecarin.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues of the kinase inhibitor nilotinib as Abl and Kit inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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The importance of the trifluoromethyl group in the polypharmacological profile of nilotinib was investigated. Molecular editing of nilotinib led to the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues where the trifluoromethyl group was replaced by a proton, fluorine and a methyl group. While these analogues were less active than nilotinib toward Abl, their activity toward Kit was comparable, with the monofluorinated analogue being the most active. Docking of nilotinib and of analogues 2a-c to the binding pocket of Abl and of Kit showed that the lack of shape complementarity in Kit is compensated by the stabilizing effect from its juxtamembrane region.
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The Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
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Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux proteins P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) on malignant cells is associated with inferior chemotherapy outcomes. Both, ABCB1 and ABCG2, are substrates of the serine/threonine kinase Pim-1; Pim-1 knockdown decreases their cell surface expression, but SGI-1776, the first clinically tested Pim inhibitor, was shown to reverse drug resistance by directly inhibiting ABCB1-mediated transport. We sought to characterize Pim-1-dependent and -independent effects of SGI-1776 on drug resistance. SGI-1776 at the Pim-1-inhibitory and non-cytotoxic concentration of 1 ?M decreased the IC(50)s of the ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrate drugs in cytotoxicity assays in resistant cells, with no effect on the IC(50) of non-substrate drug, nor in parental cells. SGI-1776 also increased apoptosis of cells overexpressing ABCG2 or ABCB1 exposed to substrate chemotherapy drugs and decreased their colony formation in the presence of substrate, but not non-substrate, drugs, with no effect on parental cells. SGI-1776 decreased ABCB1 and ABCG2 surface expression on K562/ABCB1 and K562/ABCG2 cells, respectively, with Pim-1 overexpression, but not HL60/VCR and 8226/MR20 cells, with lower-level Pim-1 expression. Finally, SGI-1776 inhibited uptake of ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrates in a concentration-dependent manner irrespective of Pim-1 expression, inhibited ABCB1 and ABCG2 photoaffinity labeling with the transport substrate [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin ([(125)I]IAAP) and stimulated ABCB1 and ABCG2 ATPase activity. Thus SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 and inhibits drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. Decrease in ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell surface expression mediated by Pim-1 inhibition represents a novel mechanism of chemosensitization.
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The transmission interface of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae multidrug transporter Pdr5: Val-656 located in intracellular loop 2 plays a major role in drug resistance.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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Pdr5 is a major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporter regarded as the founding member of a fungal subfamily of clinically significant efflux pumps. When these proteins are overexpressed, they confer broad-spectrum ultraresistance. To better understand the evolution of these proteins under selective pressure, we exposed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain already overexpressing Pdr5 to a lethal concentration of cycloheximide. This approach gave mutations that confer greater resistance to a subset of transport substrates. One of these mutations, V656L, is located in intracellular loop 2 (ICL2), a region predicted by structural studies with several other ABC transporters to play a critical role in the transmission interface between the ATP hydrolysis and drug transport domains. We show that this mutation increases drug resistance, possibly by altering the efficiency with which the energy from ATP hydrolysis is used for transport. Val-656 is a conserved residue, and an alanine substitution creates a nearly null phenotype for drug transport as well as reduced ATPase activity. We posit that despite its unusually small size, ICL2 is part of the transmission interface, and that alterations in this pathway can increase or decrease resistance to a broad spectrum of drugs.
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Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 as a potential mechanism of acquired resistance to vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E) mutant cancer cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
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Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer with a high potential for metastasis and very low survival rates. The discovery of constitutive activation of the BRAF kinase caused by activating BRAF(V600E) kinase mutation in most melanoma patients led to the discovery of the first potent BRAF(V600E) signaling inhibitor, vemurafenib. Vemurafenib was effective in treating advanced melanoma patients and was proposed for the treatment of other BRAF(V600E) mutant cancers as well. Unfortunately, the success of vemurafenib was hampered by the rapid development of acquired resistance in different types of BRAF(V600E) mutant cancer cells. It becomes important to identify and evaluate all of the potential mechanisms of cellular resistance to vemurafenib. In this study, we characterized the interactions of vemurafenib with three major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. We found that vemurafenib stimulated the ATPase activity and potently inhibited drug efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2. Vemurafenib also restored drug sensitivity in ABCG2-overexpressing cells. Moreover, we revealed that in the presence of functional ABCG2, BRAF kinase inhibition by vemurafenib is reduced in BRAF(V600E) mutant A375 cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that ABCG2 confers resistance to vemurafenib in A375 cells, suggesting involvement of this transporter in acquired resistance to vemurafenib. Thus, combination chemotherapy targeting multiple pathways could be an effective therapeutic strategy to overcome acquired resistance to vemurafenib for cancers harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.
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Distinct contributions of Orai1 and TRPC1 to agonist-induced [Ca(2+)](i) signals determine specificity of Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression.
PLoS ONE
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Regulation of critical cellular functions, including Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression, is determined by the temporal and spatial aspects of agonist-induced Ca(2+) signals. Stimulation of cells with physiological concentrations of agonists trigger increases [Ca(2+)](i) due to intracellular Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) influx. While Orai1-STIM1 channels account for agonist-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase as well as activation of NFAT in cells such as lymphocytes, RBL and mast cells, both Orai1-STIM1 and TRPC1-STIM1 channels contribute to [Ca(2+)](i) increases in human submandibular gland (HSG) cells. However, only Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) entry regulates the activation of NFAT in HSG cells. Since both TRPC1 and Orai1 are activated following internal Ca(2+) store depletion in these cells, it is not clear how the cells decode individual Ca(2+) signals generated by the two channels for the regulation of specific cellular functions. Here we have examined the contributions of Orai1 and TRPC1 to carbachol (CCh)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) signals and activation of NFAT in single cells. We report that Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) entry generates [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations at different [CCh], ranging from very low to high. In contrast, TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+) entry generates sustained [Ca(2+)](i) elevation at high [CCh] and contributes to frequency of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations at lower [agonist]. More importantly, the two channels are coupled to activation of distinct Ca(2+) dependent gene expression pathways, consistent with the different patterns of [Ca(2+)](i) signals mediated by them. Nuclear translocation of NFAT and NFAT-dependent gene expression display "all-or-none" activation that is exclusively driven by local [Ca(2+)](i) generated by Orai1, independent of global [Ca(2+)](i) changes or TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+) entry. In contrast, Ca(2+) entry via TRPC1 primarily regulates NF?B-mediated gene expression. Together, these findings reveal that Orai1 and TRPC1 mediate distinct local and global Ca(2+) signals following agonist stimulation of cells, which determine the functional specificity of the channels in activating different Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression pathways.
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BBA, a derivative of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid, potently reverses ABCB1-mediated drug resistance in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Pharm.
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23-O-(1,4-Bipiperidine-1-carbonyl)betulinic acid (BBA), a synthetic derivative of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid (23-HBA), shows a reversal effect on multidrug resistance (MDR) in our preliminary screening. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC1 has been reported in recent studies to be a major factor contributing to MDR. Our study results showed that BBA enhanced the cytotoxicity of ABCB1 substrates and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin or rhodamine123 in ABCB1 overexpressing cells, but had no effect on non ABCB1 substrate, such as cisplatin; whats more, BBA slightly reversed ABCG2-mediated resistance to SN-38, but did not affect the ABCC1-mediated MDR. Further studies on the mechanism indicated that BBA did not alter the expression of ABCB1 at mRNA or protein levels, but affected the ABCB1 ATPase activity by stimulating the basal activity at lower concentrations and inhibiting the activity at higher concentrations. In addition, BBA inhibited the verapamil-stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and the photolabeling of ABCB1 with [(125)I] iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that BBA directly interacts with ABCB1. The docking study confirmed this notion that BBA could bind to the drug binding site(s) on ABCB1, but its binding position was only partially overlapping with that of verapamil or iodoarylazidoprazosin. Importantly, BBA increased the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing KB-C2 cell xenografts in nude mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that BBA can reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR by inhibiting its efflux function of ABCB1, which supports the development of BBA as a novel potential MDR reversal agent used in the clinic.
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Ceramide glycosylation by glucosylceramide synthase selectively maintains the properties of breast cancer stem cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Cancer stem cells are distinguished from normal adult stem cells by their stemness without tissue homeostasis control. Glycosphingolipids (GSLs), particularly globo-series GSLs, are important markers of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, but little is known about whether or not ceramide glycosylation, which controls glycosphingolipid synthesis, plays a role in modulating stem cells. Here, we report that ceramide glycosylation catalyzed by glucosylceramide synthase, which is enhanced in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) but not in normal mammary epithelial stem cells, maintains tumorous pluripotency of BCSCs. Enhanced ceramide glycosylation and globotriosylceramide (Gb3) correlate well with the numbers of BCSCs in breast cancer cell lines. In BCSCs sorted with CD44(+)/ESA(+)/CD24(-) markers, Gb3 activates c-Src/?-catenin signaling and up-regulates the expression of FGF-2, CD44, and Oct-4 enriching tumorigenesis. Conversely, silencing glucosylceramide synthase expression disrupts Gb3 synthesis and selectively kills BCSCs through deactivation of c-Src/?-catenin signaling. These findings highlight the unexploited role of ceramide glycosylation in selectively maintaining the tumorous pluripotency of cancer stem cells. It speculates that disruption of ceramide glycosylation or globo-series GSL is a useful approach to specifically target BCSCs specifically.
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The novel BCR-ABL and FLT3 inhibitor ponatinib is a potent inhibitor of the MDR-associated ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
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Ponatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against BCR-ABL with mutations, including T315I, and also against fms-like tyrosine kinase 3. We tested interactions between ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 50 to 200 nmol/L and the MDR-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2. Ponatinib enhanced uptake of substrates of ABCG2 and ABCB1, but not ABCC1, in cells overexpressing these proteins, with a greater effect on ABCG2 than on ABCB1. Ponatinib potently inhibited [(125)I]-IAAP binding to ABCG2 and ABCB1, indicating binding to their drug substrate sites, with IC(50) values of 0.04 and 0.63 ?mol/L, respectively. Ponatinib stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity at low concentrations, consistent with it being a substrate of both proteins at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The ponatinib IC(50) values of BCR-ABL-expressing K562 cells transfected with ABCB1 and ABCG2 were approximately the same as and 2-fold higher than that of K562, respectively, consistent with ponatinib being a substrate of both proteins, but inhibiting its own transport, and resistance was also attenuated to a small degree by ponatinib-induced downregulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell-surface expression on resistant K562 cells. Ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations produced synergistic cytotoxicity with ABCB1 and ABCG2 substrate chemotherapy drugs and enhanced apoptosis induced by these drugs, including daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and flavopiridol, in cells overexpressing these transport proteins. Combinations of ponatinib and chemotherapy drugs warrant further testing.
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OSI-930 analogues as novel reversal agents for ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
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OSI-930, a dual c-Kit and KDR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is reported to have undergone a Phase I dose escalation study in patients with advanced solid tumors. A series of fifteen pyridyl and phenyl analogues of OSI-930 were designed and synthesized. Extensive screening of these compounds led to the discovery that nitropyridyl and ortho-nitrophenyl analogues, VKJP1 and VKJP3, were effective in reversing ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) transporter-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). VKJP1 and VKJP3 significantly sensitized ABCG2-expressing cells to established substrates of ABCG2 including mitoxantrone, SN-38, and doxorubicin in a concentration-dependent manner, but not to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin. However, they were unable to reverse ABCB1- or ABCC1-mediated MDR indicating their selectivity for ABCG2. Western blotting analysis was performed to evaluate ABCG2 expression and it was found that neither VKJP1 nor VKJP3 significantly altered ABCG2 protein expression for up to 72 h. [(3)H]-mitoxantrone accumulation study demonstrated that VKJP1 and VKJP3 increased the intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-mitoxantrone, a substrate of ABCG2. VKJP1 and VKJP3 also remarkably inhibited the transport of [(3)H]-methotrexate by ABCG2 membrane vesicles. Importantly, both VKJP1 and VKJP3 were efficacious in stimulating the activity of ATPase of ABCG2 and inhibited the photoaffinity labeling of this transporter by its substrate [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin. The results suggested that VKJP1 and VKJP3, specifically inhibit the function of ABCG2 through direct interaction with its substrate binding site(s). Thus VKJP1 and VKJP3 represent a new class of drugs for reducing MDR in ABCG2 over-expressing tumors.
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Saracatinib (AZD0530) is a potent modulator of ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo.
Int. J. Cancer
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Saracatinib, a highly selective, dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In our study, we investigated the effect of saracatinib on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that saracatinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of ABCB1 substrate drugs in ABCB1 overexpressing HeLa/v200, MCF-7/adr and HEK293/ABCB1 cells, an effect that was stronger than that of gefitinib, whereas it had no effect on the cytotoxicity of the substrates in ABCC1 overexpressing HL-60/adr cells and its parental sensitive cells. Additionally, saracatinib significantly increased the doxorubicin (Dox) and Rho 123 accumulation in HeLa/v200 and MCF-7/adr cells, whereas it had no effect on HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, saracatinib stimulated the ATPase activity and inhibited photolabeling of ABCB1 with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of saracatinib within the large hydrophobic drug-binding cavity of human ABCB1. However, neither the expression level of ABCB1 nor the phosphorylation level of Akt was altered at the reversal concentrations of saracatinib. Importantly, saracatinib significantly enhanced the effect of paclitaxel against ABCB1-overexpressing HeLa/v200 cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, saracatinib reverses ABCB1-mediated MDR in vitro and in vivo by directly inhibiting ABCB1 transport function, without altering ABCB1 expression or AKT phosphorylation. These findings may be helpful to attenuate the effect of MDR by combining saracatinib with other chemotherapeutic drugs in the clinic.
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Multidrug resistance-linked gene signature predicts overall survival of patients with primary ovarian serous carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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This study assesses the ability of multidrug resistance (MDR)-associated gene expression patterns to predict survival in patients with newly diagnosed carcinoma of the ovary. The scope of this research differs substantially from that of previous reports, as a very large set of genes was evaluated whose expression has been shown to affect response to chemotherapy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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