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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Developing theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing in 4 Asian American populations, 2006-2011.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Hepatitis B infection is 5 to 12 times more common among Asian Americans than in the general US population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer among Asians. The purpose of this article is to describe the step-by-step approach that we followed in community-based participatory research projects in 4 Asian American groups, conducted from 2006 through 2011 in California and Washington state to develop theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing. We provide examples to illustrate how intervention messages addressing identical theoretical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework were modified to be culturally appropriate for each community.
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Impact of a biospecimen collection seminar on willingness to donate biospecimens among Chinese Americans: results from a randomized, controlled community-based trial.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Biospecimen collection from diverse populations can advance cancer disparities research, but is currently underrepresented.
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Systematic temporal patterns in the relationship between housing development and forest bird biodiversity.
Conserv. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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As people encroach increasingly on natural areas, one question is how this affects avian biodiversity. The answer to this is partly scale-dependent. At broad scales, human populations and biodiversity concentrate in the same areas and are positively associated, but at local scales people and biodiversity are negatively associated with biodiversity. We investigated whether there is also a systematic temporal trend in the relationship between bird biodiversity and housing development. We used linear regression to examine associations between forest bird species richness and housing growth in the conterminous United States over 30 years. Our data sources were the North American Breeding Bird Survey and the 2000 decennial U.S. Census. In the 9 largest forested ecoregions, housing density increased continually over time. Across the conterminous United States, the association between bird species richness and housing density was positive for virtually all guilds except ground nesting birds. We found a systematic trajectory of declining bird species richness as housing increased through time. In more recently developed ecoregions, where housing density was still low, the association with bird species richness was neutral or positive. In ecoregions that were developed earlier and where housing density was highest, the association of housing density with bird species richness for most guilds was negative and grew stronger with advancing decades. We propose that in general the relationship between human settlement and biodiversity over time unfolds as a 2-phase process. The first phase is apparently innocuous; associations are positive due to coincidence of low-density housing with high biodiversity. The second phase is highly detrimental to biodiversity, and increases in housing density are associated with biodiversity losses. The long-term effect on biodiversity depends on the final housing density. This general pattern can help unify our understanding of the relationship of human encroachment and biodiversity response.
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Efficient identification of low-income Asian American women at high risk for hepatitis B.
J Health Care Poor Underserved
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Hepatitis B disproportionately affects Asian Americans. Because outreach to promote testing and vaccination can be intensive and costly, we assessed the feasibility of an efficient strategy to identify Asian Americans at risk. Prior research with Californias statewide toll-free phone service where low-income women call for free cancer screening found 50% of English-and Spanish-speaking callers were willing to participate in a study on health topics other than cancer screening. The current study ascertained whether Asian Americans could be recruited. Among 200 eligible callers, 50% agreed to take part (95% confidence interval 43%-57%), a rate comparable to our previous study. Subsequent qualitative interviews revealed that receptivity to recruitment was due to trust in the phone service and womens need for health services and information. This was a relatively low-intensity intervention in that, on average, only five minutes additional call time was required to identify women at risk and provide a brief educational message. Underserved women from diverse backgrounds may be reached in large numbers through existing communication channels.
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US trends in quality-adjusted life expectancy from 1987 to 2008: combining national surveys to more broadly track the health of the nation.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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We used data from multiple national health surveys to systematically track the health of the US adult population.
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The 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Working Formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the pathologic diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in heart transplantation.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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During the last 25 years, antibody-mediated rejection of the cardiac allograft has evolved from a relatively obscure concept to a recognized clinical complication in the management of heart transplant patients. Herein we report the consensus findings from a series of meetings held between 2010-2012 to develop a Working Formulation for the pathologic diagnosis, grading, and reporting of cardiac antibody-mediated rejection. The diagnostic criteria for its morphologic and immunopathologic components are enumerated, illustrated, and described in detail. Numerous challenges and unresolved clinical, immunologic, and pathologic questions remain to which a Working Formulation may facilitate answers.
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Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States.
Ecol Appl
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland--urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire.
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Increasing hepatitis B screening for hmong adults: results from a randomized controlled community-based study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Hepatitis B-linked liver cancer disproportionately affects Hmong Americans. With an incidence rate of 18.9 per 100,000, Hmong Americans experience liver cancer at a rate that is 6 to 7 times more than that of non-Hispanic Whites. Serologic testing for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a principal means to prevent liver cancer-related deaths through earlier identification of those at risk.
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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): posttreatment follow-up care among Latina and non-Latina White women.
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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There is a lack of information about posttreatment care among patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). This study compares posttreatment care by ethnicity-language and physician specialty among Latina and White women with DCIS.
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Using structure locations as a basis for mapping the wildland urban interface.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The wildland urban interface (WUI) delineates the areas where wildland fire hazard most directly impacts human communities and threatens lives and property, and where houses exert the strongest influence on the natural environment. Housing data are a major problem for WUI mapping. When housing data are zonal, the concept of a WUI neighborhood can be captured easily in a density measure, but variations in zone (census block) size and shape introduce bias. Other housing data are points, so zonal issues are avoided, but the neighborhood character of the WUI is lost if houses are evaluated individually. Our goal was to develop a consistent method to map the WUI that is able to determine where neighborhoods (or clusters of houses) exist, using just housing location and wildland fuel data. We used structure and vegetation maps and a moving window analysis, with various window sizes representing neighborhood sizes, to calculate the neighborhood density of both houses and wildland vegetation. Mapping four distinct areas (in WI, MI, CA and CO) the method resulted in amounts of WUI comparable to those of zonal mapping, but with greater precision. We conclude that this hybrid method is a useful alternative to zonal mapping from the neighborhood to the landscape scale, and results in maps that are better suited to operational fire management (e.g., fuels reduction) needs, while maintaining consistency with conceptual and U.S. policy-specific WUI definitions.
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Isolated large vessel pulmonary vasculitis as a cause of chronic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries.
Pulm Circ
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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Isolated pulmonary artery involvement by large vessel vasculitis is rare. This case report describes two patients with large vessel pulmonary vasculitis initially thought to have chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who had their diagnosis revised following pulmonary endarterectomy surgery. Advances in imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have permitted complementary radiological methods of diagnosis and follow up of large vessel disease and these are discussed in conjunction with the immunosuppressive and operative management of these patients.
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The effect of system-level access factors on receipt of reconstruction among Latina and white women with DCIS.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Treatment decisions associated with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), including the decision to undergo breast reconstruction, may be more problematic for Latinas due to access and language issues. To help understand the factors that influence patients receipt of reconstruction following mastectomy for DCIS, we conducted a population-based study of English- and Spanish-speaking Latina and non-Latina white women from 35 California counties. The objectives of this study were to identify the role of ethnicity and language in the receipt of reconstruction, the relationship between system-level factors and the receipt of reconstruction, and womens reasons for not undergoing reconstruction. Women aged 18 and older, who self-identified as Latina or non-Latino white and were diagnosed with DCIS between 2002 and 2005 were selected from eight California Cancer Registry (CCR) regions encompassing 35 counties. Approximately 24 months after diagnosis, they were surveyed about their DCIS treatment decisions. Survey data were merged with CCR records to obtain tumor and treatment data. The survey was successfully completed by 745 women, 239 of whom had a mastectomy and represent the sample included in this study. Whites had a higher completion rate than Latinas (67 and 55%, respectively). Analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling. Mean age was 54 years. A greater proportion of whites had reconstruction (72%) compared to English-speaking Latinas (69%) and Spanish-speaking Latinas (40%). Multivariate analysis showed that women who were aged 65 and older, unemployed, and had a lower ratio of plastic surgeons in their county were less likely to have reconstructive surgery after mastectomy. The most frequent reasons mentioned not to receive reconstruction included lack of importance and desire to avoid additional surgery. Although ethnic/language differences in treatment selection were observed, multivariable analysis suggests that these differences could be explained by differential employment levels and geographic availability of plastic surgeons.
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Northern Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program: a process evaluation.
Can J Diet Pract Res
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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A process evaluation was conducted of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program (NFVPP), a government-funded health promotion initiative. The objectives were to determine how the program was implemented and to identify program facilitators and challenges.
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Unusual cause of hoarseness of voice: giant pulmonary artery aneurysm.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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We present an unusual case of hoarseness of the voice secondary to giant pulmonary artery aneurysm with special emphasis on imaging findings and also to illustrate preoperative and postoperative features on multi-detector computed tomography.
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Quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors: persistence of problems and sense of well-being.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Ten years after diagnosis, women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 50 or younger were assessed to determine whether quality of life (QOL) problems found at five years persisted. We predicted that QOL in the physical and social domains would be poorer, but improvements would be found in the psychological domain.
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Information giving and receiving in hematological malignancy consultations.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Little is known about communication with patients suffering from hematologic malignancies, many of whom are seen by subspecialists in consultation at tertiary-care centers. These subspecialized consultations might provide the best examples of optimal physician-patient communication behaviors, given that these consultations tend to be lengthy, to occur between individuals who have not met before and may have no intention of an ongoing relationship, and which have a goal of providing treatment recommendations. The aim of this paper is to describe and quantify the content of the subspecialty consultation in regards to exchanging information and identify patient and provider characteristics associated with discussion elements.
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Development and implementation of an Internet-based survivorship care program for cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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The Internet provides a widely accessible modality for meeting survivorship care needs of cancer survivors. In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of an Internet site designed as a base from which to conduct a randomized controlled trial to meet psycho-educational needs of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors.
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Active surveillance compared with initial treatment for men with low-risk prostate cancer: a decision analysis.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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In the United States, 192,000 men were diagnosed as having prostate cancer in 2009, the majority with low-risk, clinically localized disease. Treatment of these cancers is associated with substantial morbidity. Active surveillance is an alternative to initial treatment, but long-term outcomes and effect on quality of life have not been well characterized.
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Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA.
Ecol Appl
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2010
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Understanding the factors related to invasive exotic species distributions at broad spatial scales has important theoretical and management implications, because biological invasions are detrimental to many ecosystem functions and processes. Housing development facilitates invasions by disturbing land cover, introducing nonnative landscaping plants, and facilitating dispersal of propagules along roads. To evaluate relationships between housing and the distribution of invasive exotic plants, we asked (1) how strongly is housing associated with the spatial distribution of invasive exotic plants compared to other anthropogenic and environmental factors; (2) what type of housing pattern is related to the richness of invasive exotic plants; and (3) do invasive plants represent ecological traits associated with specific housing patterns? Using two types of regression analysis (best subset analysis and hierarchical partitioning analysis), we found that invasive exotic plant richness was equally or more strongly related to housing variables than to other human (e.g., mean income and roads) and environmental (e.g., topography and forest cover) variables at the county level across New England. Richness of invasive exotic plants was positively related to area of wildland-urban interface (WUI), low-density residential areas, change in number of housing units between 1940 and 2000, mean income, plant productivity (NDVI), and altitudinal range and rainfall; it was negatively related to forest area and connectivity. Plant life history traits were not strongly related to housing patterns. We expect the number of invasive exotic plants to increase as a result of future housing growth and suggest that housing development be considered a primary factor in plans to manage and monitor invasive exotic plant species.
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Disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma survival among Californians of Asian ancestry, 1988 to 2007.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a significant health disparity affecting Asian Americans, a population comprised of distinct ethnic groups. The purpose of this article is to analyze Californians of Asian ancestry with HCC with respect to socioeconomic status, demographic factors, stage of disease, treatment received, and survival.
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Factors associated with pap testing among Hmong women.
J Health Care Poor Underserved
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
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This paper reports the baseline data on the proportion of Hmong women (n=402), ages 18-65, in Sacramento, California who reported that they had a Pap test for the early detection of cervical cancer. We assessed the association between sociodemographic characteristics and Pap test receipt using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression analyses. Only 74% had ever had a Pap test, with 61% tested in the previous three years, compared with 91% and 86%, respectively, of California women overall. Women were more likely to have had a recent Pap test if they were age 21-30 (OR=3.0 vs. age 51-65, 95% CI 1.4-6.7) or 31-40 (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.4), and less likely if they were single (OR=0.4 vs. married/partnered, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) or born in the U.S. (OR=0.3 vs. <10 years in U.S., 95% CI 0.1-0.8).
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Cystic primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma presenting as recurrent pneumothorax: report of 4 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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Pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy that often presents like any other thoracic tumor with symptoms such as chest pain or cough. Here we describe 4 young adults who underwent surgery for apparently benign recurrent pneumothoraces and who, unexpectedly, were found upon histologic and molecular examination of the resection specimen to have cystic primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma. These cases highlight (a) the importance of cytogenetic analysis in making the diagnosis, as confusion with other spindle cell sarcomas or cystic neoplasms can occur and (b) the importance of thorough examination of all resected tissue in cases of recurrent pneumothorax.
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Hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma screening among Asian Americans: survey of safety net healthcare providers.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Physician patterns of screening for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Asian Americans are not well described.
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Effectiveness of continuing medical education in increasing colorectal cancer screening knowledge among Vietnamese American physicians.
J Health Care Poor Underserved
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are lower in Vietnamese Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Most Vietnamese Americans have ethnically concordant physicians and are willing to have CRC screening if their physicians recommend it. We conducted two continuing medical education (CME) seminars with participants recruited from the Vietnamese Physician Association of Northern California to increase their CRC screening knowledge. We used pre- and post-CME surveys to evaluate the CMEs and per-item McNemars tests to assess changes in knowledge. Correct responses increased significantly from pre- to post-CME for all five items on CRC burden and four of 11 items on screening guidelines and practices at the first CME and for five of seven items on screening guidelines and practices at the second CME. Continuing medical education seminars were effective in increasing CRC screening knowledge among Vietnamese American physicians. This increase may lead to physicians recommending and their patients completing CRC screening tests.
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Intraclass correlation estimates for cancer screening outcomes: estimates and applications in the design of group-randomized cancer screening studies.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Screening has become one of our best tools for early detection and prevention of cancer. The group-randomized trial is the most rigorous experimental design for evaluating multilevel interventions. However, identifying the proper sample size for a group-randomized trial requires reliable estimates of intraclass correlation (ICC) for screening outcomes, which are not available to researchers. We present crude and adjusted ICC estimates for cancer screening outcomes for various levels of aggregation (physician, clinic, and county) and provide an example of how these ICC estimates may be used in the design of a future trial.
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TAC3/TACR3 mutations reveal preferential activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone release by neurokinin B in neonatal life followed by reversal in adulthood.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Mutations in TAC3 and TACR3 (encoding neurokinin B and its receptor) have been identified in Turkish patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), but broader populations have not yet been tested and genotype-phenotype correlations have not been established.
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Effectiveness of a controlled trial to promote colorectal cancer screening in Vietnamese Americans.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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We conducted a controlled trial of a public education and provider intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates among Vietnamese Americans, who typically have lower rates than non-Hispanic Whites.
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Social support and survival in young women with breast carcinoma.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Although previous evidence has shown increased likelihood for survival in cancer patients who have social support, little is known about changes in social support during illness and their impact on survival. This study examines the relationship between social support and survival among women diagnosed with breast carcinoma, specifically assessing the effect of network size and changes in social contact post-diagnosis.
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Factors associated with hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated liver cancer is a major health disparity among Vietnamese Americans, who have a chronic hepatitis B prevalence rate of 7-14% and an incidence rate for liver cancer six times that of non-Latino whites.
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Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance.
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Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2009
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Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noahs Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.
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Forecasting the effects of obesity and smoking on U.S. life expectancy.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2009
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Although increases in obesity over the past 30 years have adversely affected the health of the U.S. population, there have been concomitant improvements in health because of reductions in smoking. Having a better understanding of the joint effects of these trends on longevity and quality of life will facilitate more efficient targeting of health care resources.
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Pulmonary vascular remodeling correlates with lung eggs and cytokines in murine schistosomiasis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Schistosomiasis is considered to be the most common worldwide cause of pulmonary hypertension. At present there is no well-characterized animal model to study the pathobiology of this important condition.
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Awareness and impact of the Bubblewrap advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers.
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Family stressors and child obesity.
Soc Sci Res
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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Child obesity is a public health priority with numerous and complex causes. This study focuses on factors within the family, namely stressful experiences, which may be associated with child obesity. We examine data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for children in two age groups: 5-11 and 12-17 years old. Results from an ordered probit regression model of child weight categorizations (healthy weight, overweight, obese) indicate positive associations between a range of family stressors (lack of cognitive stimulation and emotional support in the household among younger children, and mental and physical health problems and financial strain in the household among older children) and child overweight and obesity. We discuss how public policies that reduce family stressors may, in turn, help reduce child obesity.
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Behavioral constructs and mammography in five ethnic groups.
Health Educ Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74 interviewed by telephone in their preferred languages. The relationship between baseline constructs and mammography 2 years later was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Intention predicted mammography overall and among Whites (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 10), with racial/ethnic differences in association (p = .020). Self-efficacy predicted mammography overall and among Whites (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 11), with no racial/ethnic interaction. Perceived benefits and subjective norms were associated with screening overall and in some racial/ethnic groups. These results generally support cross-cultural applicability of four of the five constructs to screening with mixed predictive value of measures across racial/ethnic groups. Additional in-depth inquiry is required to refine assessment of constructs.
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Behavioral theory in a diverse society: like a compass on Mars.
Health Educ Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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The behavioral theory constructs most often used to study mammography utilization-perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, intention, and subjective norms-have neither been developed nor sufficiently tested among diverse racial/ethnic subgroups. The authors explored these constructs and their underlying assumptions relating to the social context of Filipina and Latina women. The mixed-methods study included testing construct measures in the multilingual surveys of a concurrent intervention study of 1,463 women from five ethnic groups. An intensive inductive investigation then targeted Latina and Filipina women to elucidate connections between social context and individual screening behavior. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 key informant scholars, 13 community gatekeepers, and 29 lay women, and a supplemental study videotaped and interviewed 9 mother-daughter dyads. Three social context domains emerged: relational culture, social capital, and transculturation and transmigration. The meaning and appropriateness of the five behavioral constructs were analyzed in relation to these domains. In contradistinction to tenets of behavioral theory, the authors found that social context can influence behavior directly, circumventing or attenuating the influence of individual beliefs; contextual influences, synthesized from multiple perspectives, can operate at an unconscious level not accessible to the individual; and contextual influences are dynamic, contingent on distal and proximal forces coming together in a given moment and are thus not consistent with an exclusive focus at the individual level. This article describes the study methods, summarizes main findings, and preview the detailed results presented in the other articles in this issue.
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A brief report of caregiver needs and resource utilization during pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is used to eradicate disease and restore normal hematopoietic, immunologic, and/or metabolic functioning. HSCT is a complex treatment that is physiologically and psychologically demanding on the recipient, caregiver, and family. The purpose of this study was to identify needs and resources of family caregivers of pediatric HSCT recipients during the first year after transplant. Parental caregivers (n = 161) completed an online survey. The most cited sources of information were the HSCT team (87.7%), books and other print materials (83.1%), and the Internet (81.5%). However, more than half of the respondents reported that finding resources and services was a problem. More than half identified managing the emotional and social impact of the transplant on their child, posttransplant and follow-up care, practical strategies for caregiving, maintaining the family, and taking care of themselves during this first year as important topics to address. Adequately and regularly assessing caregiver and family needs and providing resources to meet those needs, especially during transitions in care, are important components of transplant care.
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Evidence of dysfunction of endothelial progenitors in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by the formation of plexiform lesions and concentric intimal fibrosis in small pulmonary arteries. The origin of cells contributing to these vascular lesions is uncertain. Endogenous endothelial progenitor cells are potential contributors to this process.
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Impact evaluation of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Programme - a cluster-randomised controlled trial.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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The purpose of this impact evaluation was to measure the influence of a government of Ontario, Canada health promotion initiative, the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Programme (NFVPP), on elementary school-aged childrens psychosocial variables regarding fruit and vegetables, and fruit and vegetable consumption patterns.
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Conservation threats due to human-caused increases in fire frequency in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems.
Conserv. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2009
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Periodic wildfire is an important natural process in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, but increasing fire recurrence threatens the fragile ecology of these regions. Because most fires are human-caused, we investigated how human population patterns affect fire frequency. Prior research in California suggests the relationship between population density and fire frequency is not linear. There are few human ignitions in areas with low population density, so fire frequency is low. As population density increases, human ignitions and fire frequency also increase, but beyond a density threshold, the relationship becomes negative as fuels become sparser and fire suppression resources are concentrated. We tested whether this hypothesis also applies to the other Mediterranean-climate ecosystems of the world. We used global satellite databases of population, fire activity, and land cover to evaluate the spatial relationship between humans and fire in the worlds five Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Both the mean and median population densities were consistently and substantially higher in areas with than without fire, but fire again peaked at intermediate population densities, which suggests that the spatial relationship is complex and nonlinear. Some land-cover types burned more frequently than expected, but no systematic differences were observed across the five regions. The consistent association between higher population densities and fire suggests that regardless of differences between land-cover types, natural fire regimes, or overall population, the presence of people in Mediterranean-climate regions strongly affects the frequency of fires; thus, population growth in areas now sparsely settled presents a conservation concern. Considering the sensitivity of plant species to repeated burning and the global conservation significance of Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, conservation planning needs to consider the human influence on fire frequency. Fine-scale spatial analysis of relationships between people and fire may help identify areas where increases in fire frequency will threaten ecologically valuable areas.
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Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Mandated reduction of exposure to nicotine and other cigarette toxins has been proposed as a possible national regulatory strategy. However, tapering using lower yield commercial cigarettes may not be effective in reducing nicotine or tar exposure due to compensatory smoking behavior. We examined the effects of gradual reduction of nicotine yield in commercial cigarettes on smoking behavior, with an assessment of nicotine intake and exposure to tobacco smoke toxins.
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Constructing a theoretically based set of measures for liver cancer control research studies.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Measurement tools such as surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors need to be theoretically consistent with interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the first steps in the process of constructing a theoretically based set of measures that is currently used in three trials to reduce liver cancer disparities.
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Integrating theory into community interventions to reduce liver cancer disparities: The Health Behavior Framework.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Mitigating the unequal burden of cancer often involves conducting community-based trials to develop effective intervention strategies to promote cancer-related health behaviors. However, this is challenging due to the simultaneous influence of numerous factors, at multiple levels in the socio-ecological context, on health behavior. A sound conceptual framework can bring order to this complex environment and provide a roadmap for systematically addressing the multiple determinants of the behavior in question. This paper describes the application of The Health Behavior Framework, an integrative conceptual model, in an ongoing Program Project, "Liver Cancer Control Interventions for Asian-Americans." The Framework has been integral to shaping all aspects of the three component research trials from selection of the study designs to development of the interventions and data collection instruments. We advocate universal adoption of theory into community-based intervention research as a way to accelerate our ability to develop effective interventions and facilitate synthesis of study results across populations and behavioral outcomes: critical steps in advancing the field of health disparities research.
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Advances in the understanding and classification of pulmonary hypertension.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Pulmonary hypertension has a complex pathobiology and the term pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) includes a variety of pulmonary hypertensive diseases that have different aetiologies, but which may have a similar clinical presentation and, in some cases, the same response to medical treatment. More recent classifications have been based on aetiology, functional data and clinical presentation, but morphometric studies have shown differences in the distribution and prevalence of vascular changes amongst cases of PAH of different aetiologies. Recent advances in the understanding of some aspects of the genetic and molecular mechanisms, together with detailed descriptions of the histopathological findings in PAH cases of different aetiologies, should contribute to a better understanding of the relationships of the various subsets of the disease, the prognostic implications and possible treatment options.
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In the eyes of the beholder: A non-self-report measure of workplace deviance.
J Appl Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Because employees may be reluctant to admit to performing deviant acts, the authors of this study reexamined the commonly used self-report measure of workplace deviance developed by R. J. Bennett and S. L. Robinson (2000). Specifically, the self-report measure was modified into a non-self-report measure based on multiple other-reported assessments to address methodological concerns with self-reported information regarding deviant workplace behaviors. The authors assessed the psychometric properties of this new measure by first conducting an exploratory factor analysis, which indicated a 3-factor structure (production deviance, property deviance, and personal aggression). Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis on a different sample verified these findings. Taken together, the results suggest that the content and psychometric qualities of this non-self-report measure of workplace deviance closely represent S. L. Robinson and R. J. Bennetts (1995) original typology of workplace deviance. The potential usefulness of this measure in organizational studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
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Adolescent overweight and obesity: links to food insecurity and individual, maternal, and family stressors.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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A high proportion of adolescents living in low-income households in the United States are overweight or obese, food insecure, or exposed to high levels of individual, maternal, and family stressors. The aim of this paper was to identify the associations of food insecurity and the aforementioned stressors with an adolescents propensity to be overweight or obese. We hypothesized that individual, maternal, and family stressors may exacerbate the relationship between food insecurity and adolescent overweight/obesity.
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Family structure, nonresident father involvement, and adolescent eating patterns.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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To examine the relationship between family structure, nonresident father involvement, and adolescent eating patterns.
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Housing growth, forests, and public lands in Northern Wisconsin from 1940 to 2000.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Rural, forested areas throughout the United States are experiencing strong housing growth with potentially detrimental impacts on the environment. In this paper, we quantify housing growth in Northern Wisconsin over the last sixty years to determine if growth rates were higher near public lands, which may represent an important recreational amenity. We used data from the U.S. Census to produce decadal housing density estimates, "backcasts," from 1940 to 2000 for northern Wisconsin to examine "rural sprawl" in northern Wisconsin and its relationship to forested areas and public lands. We integrated housing density estimates with the 1992/1993 National Land Cover Dataset to examine the relationship between rural sprawl and land cover, especially forests. Between 1940 and 2000, private land with <2 housing units/km(2) decreased from 47% to 21% of the total landscape. Most importantly, housing growth was concentrated along the boundaries of public lands. In 14 of the 19 counties that we studied, housing growth rates within 1 km of a public land boundary exceeded growth rates in the remainder of the county, and three of the five counties that did not exhibit this pattern, were the ones with the least amount of public land. Future growth can be expected in areas with abundant natural amenities, highlighting the critical need for additional research and effective natural resource management and regional planning to address these challenges.
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Electronic messages increase hepatitis B screening in at-risk Asian American patients: a randomized, controlled trial.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
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Hepatitis B (HBV) induced hepatocellular carcinoma is the greatest cancer health disparity affecting Asian Americans, but the prevalence of screening to detect HBV is suboptimal.
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Theoretically informed correlates of hepatitis B knowledge among four Asian groups: the health behavior framework.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
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Few studies have examined theoretically informed constructs related to hepatitis B (HBV) testing, and comparisons across studies are challenging due to lack of uniformity in constructs assessed. The present analysis examined relationships among Health Behavior Framework factors across four Asian American groups to advance the development of theory-based interventions for HBV testing in at-risk populations.
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Quality of life of Latina and Euro-American women with ductal carcinoma in situ.
Psychooncology
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Risk factors for psychosocial distress following a breast cancer diagnosis include younger age, history of depression, inadequate social support, and serious comorbid conditions. Although these quality of life (QOL) concerns have been studied in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), Latina women have been understudied.
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The Minority Training Program in Cancer Control Research: impact and outcome over 12 years.
J Cancer Educ
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The Minority Training Program in Cancer Control Research (MTPCCR) encourages underrepresented masters level students and professionals in the social, behavioral, and public health sciences to pursue doctoral training and careers in cancer disparities research. This paper reports new data on the program outcome after 12 years. A web-based survey was sent to all 462 program alumni. The questions addressed current academic status and plans, job status and plans, research focus, and influence of the MTPCCR. The survey response rate was 79 %. Overall, 30 % of alumni are enrolled in or have completed doctoral programs; 88 % of whom report involvement in research related to cancer. Scaled and open-ended responses indicate a strong influence of the program on doctoral program enrollment and cancer focus. The MTPCCR model is successful because it targets underrepresented minorities who are capable of doctoral studies but have not yet chosen that path.
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Smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants during 6 months of smoking progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Recent federal legislation gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate the nicotine content of cigarettes. A nationwide strategy for progressive reduction of the nicotine content of cigarettes is a potential way to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted, and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. We conducted a trial of progressive nicotine content tapering over 6 months to determine the effects on smoking behaviors and biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular effects.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.