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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Stroke Findings in the Women's Health Initiative.
Semin. Reprod. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials of estrogen with or without progestin versus placebo in 27,341 postmenopausal women are the largest randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials to look at the effect of hormone therapy on the outcomes of stroke, dementia, and cognition. Data from a parallel prospective observational study of 93,676 women examine biomarkers and risk factors associated with stroke. We summarize the results of 29 published articles in the WHI with stroke or cognition as outcomes of interest. Estrogen alone or in combination with progestin resulted in approximately 50% excess risk of ischemic stroke and in a 76% excess risk of dementia in women 65 years or older. Other risk factors for stroke identified in the WHI were panic attacks, depression, use of antidepressants (particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for hemorrhagic but not ischemic stroke), high triglycerides, low walking speed, long sleep duration, certain inflammatory factors, and systolic blood pressure variability. Hormone therapy has adverse effects on the brain as manifested by higher risks of stroke and dementia. Additional risk factors for stroke identified in WHI should be followed up to determine if reversing them would result in lower stroke rates.
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Potassium intake and risk of stroke in women with hypertension and nonhypertension in the Women's Health Initiative.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Dietary potassium has been associated with lower risk of stroke, but there are little data on dietary potassium effects on different stroke subtypes or in older women with hypertension and nonhypertension.
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Mammography interval and breast cancer mortality in women over the age of 75.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between mammography interval and breast cancer mortality among older women with breast cancer. The study population included 1,914 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at age 75 or later during their participation in the Women's health initiative, with an average follow-up of 4.4 years (3.1 SD). Cause of death was based on medical record review. Mammography interval was defined as the time between the last self-reported mammogram 7 or more months prior to diagnosis, and the date of diagnosis. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were computed from Cox proportional hazards analyses. Prior mammograms were reported by 73.0 % of women from 7 months to ?2 year of diagnosis (referent group), 19.4 % (>2 to <5 years), and 7.5 % (?5 years or no prior mammogram). Women with the longest versus shortest intervals had more poorly differentiated (28.5 % vs. 22.7 %), advanced stage (25.7 % vs. 22.9 %), and estrogen receptor negative tumors (20.9 % vs. 13.1 %). Compared to the referent group, women with intervals of >2 to <5 years or ?5 years had an increased risk of breast cancer mortality (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.03-2.54) and (HR 2.80, 95 % CI 1.57-5.00), respectively, p trend = 0.0002. There was no significant relationship between mammography interval and other causes of death. These results suggest a continued role for screening mammography among women 75 years of age and older.
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The effect of hormone therapy on mean blood pressure and visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trials.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Mean and visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP) are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the effect of hormone therapy on mean and VVV of BP in postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials.
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Associations of chronic stress burden, perceived stress, and traumatic stress with cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The current study examined multiple stress indicators (chronic, perceived, traumatic) in relation to prevalent coronary heart disease, stroke, and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and current smoking) in the multisite Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010-2011).
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Folate, Vitamin B-6, and Vitamin B-12 Intake and Mild Cognitive Impairment and Probable Dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Whether higher B vitamin intake (ie, B-6, B-12, and folate) is protective against cognitive decline in later life remains uncertain. Several prospective, observational studies find higher B vitamin intake to be associated with lower risk of dementia; other studies, including most trials of B vitamin supplementation, have observed no effect on cognition. We examined this question in a large population of older women carefully monitored for development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable dementia.
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Glycated hemoglobin measurement and prediction of cardiovascular disease.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain.
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Prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control in the Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The prevention and control of hypertension is an essential component for reducing the burden of cardiovascular diseases. Here we describe the prevalence of hypertension in diverse Hispanic/Latino background groups and describe the proportion who are aware of their diagnosis, receiving treatment, and having their hypertension under control.
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Prevalence and incident prehypertension and hypertension in postmenopausal Hispanic women: results from the Women's Health Initiative.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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There is a paucity of research on prehypertension and incident hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. The overall objective is to determine the multiple risk factors associated with the prevalence of hypertension status at baseline and incident hypertension at year 3 in postmenopausal Hispanic women.
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Cardiovascular Disease and Cognitive Decline in Postmenopausal Women: Results From the Womens Health Initiative Memory Study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Data on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cognitive decline are conflicting. Our objective was to investigate if CVD is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline and to examine whether hypertension, diabetes, or adiposity modify the effect of CVD on cognitive functioning.
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Circulating Soluble Cytokine Receptors and Colorectal Cancer Risk.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Soluble cytokine receptors and receptor antagonist of proinflammatory cytokines can modify cytokine signaling and may affect cancer risk.
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Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.
Ching-Ti Liu, Keri L Monda, Kira C Taylor, Leslie Lange, Ellen W Demerath, Walter Palmas, Mary K Wojczynski, Jaclyn C Ellis, Mara Z Vitolins, Simin Liu, George J Papanicolaou, Marguerite R Irvin, Luting Xue, Paula J Griffin, Michael A Nalls, Adebowale Adeyemo, Jiankang Liu, Guo Li, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Wei-Min Chen, Fang Chen, Brian E Henderson, Robert C Millikan, Christine B Ambrosone, Sara S Strom, Xiuqing Guo, Jeanette S Andrews, Yan V Sun, Thomas H Mosley, Lisa R Yanek, Daniel Shriner, Talin Haritunians, Jerome I Rotter, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Megan Smith, Lynn Rosenberg, Josyf Mychaleckyj, Uma Nayak, Ida Spruill, W Timothy Garvey, Curtis Pettaway, Sarah Nyante, Elisa V Bandera, Angela F Britton, Alan B Zonderman, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jingzhong Ding, Kurt Lohman, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Wei Zhao, Patricia A Peyser, Sharon L R Kardia, Edmond Kabagambe, Ulrich Broeckel, Guanjie Chen, Jie Zhou, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Marian L Neuhouser, Evadnie Rampersaud, Bruce Psaty, Charles Kooperberg, JoAnn E Manson, Lewis H Kuller, Heather M Ochs-Balcom, Karen C Johnson, Lara Sucheston, José M Ordovás, Julie R Palmer, Christopher A Haiman, Barbara McKnight, Barbara V Howard, Diane M Becker, Lawrence F Bielak, Yongmei Liu, Matthew A Allison, Struan F A Grant, Gregory L Burke, Sanjay R Patel, Pamela J Schreiner, Ingrid B Borecki, Michele K Evans, Herman Taylor, Michèle M Sale, Virginia Howard, Christopher S Carlson, Charles N Rotimi, Mary Cushman, Tamara B Harris, Alexander P Reiner, L Adrienne Cupples, Kari E North, Caroline S Fox.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept that there are fat distribution loci that are independent of generalized adiposity.
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Prestroke factors associated with poststroke mortality and recovery in older women in the Womens Health Initiative.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To examine prestroke lifestyle factors associated with poststroke mortality and recovery in older women.
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Risk factors for atrial fibrillation and their population burden in postmenopausal women: the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in women. Large studies evaluating key AF risk factors in older women are lacking. We aimed to identify risk factors for AF in postmenopausal women and measure population burden of modifiable risk factors.
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Laxative use and incident falls, fractures and change in bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the Womens Health Initiative.
BMC Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Laxatives are among the most widely used over-the-counter medications in the United States but studies examining their potential hazardous side effects are sparse. Associations between laxative use and risk for fractures and change in bone mineral density [BMD] have not previously been investigated.
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Testing the proportional hazards assumption in case-cohort analysis.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Case-cohort studies have become common in epidemiological studies of rare disease, with Cox regression models the principal method used in their analysis. However, no appropriate procedures to assess the assumption of proportional hazards of case-cohort Cox models have been proposed.
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A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry.
Keri L Monda, Gary K Chen, Kira C Taylor, Cameron Palmer, Todd L Edwards, Leslie A Lange, Maggie C Y Ng, Adebowale A Adeyemo, Matthew A Allison, Lawrence F Bielak, Guanjie Chen, Mariaelisa Graff, Marguerite R Irvin, Suhn K Rhie, Guo Li, Yongmei Liu, Youfang Liu, Yingchang Lu, Michael A Nalls, Yan V Sun, Mary K Wojczynski, Lisa R Yanek, Melinda C Aldrich, Adeyinka Ademola, Christopher I Amos, Elisa V Bandera, Cathryn H Bock, Angela Britton, Ulrich Broeckel, Quiyin Cai, Neil E Caporaso, Chris S Carlson, John Carpten, Graham Casey, Wei-Min Chen, Fang Chen, Yii-Der I Chen, Charleston W K Chiang, Gerhard A Coetzee, Ellen Demerath, Sandra L Deming-Halverson, Ryan W Driver, Patricia Dubbert, Mary F Feitosa, Ye Feng, Barry I Freedman, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Omri Gottesman, Xiuqing Guo, Talin Haritunians, Tamara Harris, Curtis C Harris, Anselm J M Hennis, Dena G Hernandez, Lorna H McNeill, Timothy D Howard, Barbara V Howard, Virginia J Howard, Karen C Johnson, Sun J Kang, Brendan J Keating, Suzanne Kolb, Lewis H Kuller, Abdullah Kutlar, Carl D Langefeld, Guillaume Lettre, Kurt Lohman, Vaneet Lotay, Helen Lyon, JoAnn E Manson, William Maixner, Yan A Meng, Kristine R Monroe, Imran Morhason-Bello, Adam B Murphy, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Rajiv Nadukuru, Katherine L Nathanson, Uma Nayak, Amidou N'Diaye, Barbara Nemesure, Suh-Yuh Wu, M Cristina Leske, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Marian Neuhouser, Sarah Nyante, Heather Ochs-Balcom, Adesola Ogunniyi, Temidayo O Ogundiran, Oladosu Ojengbede, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Julie R Palmer, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Nicholette D Palmer, Michael F Press, Evandine Rampersaud, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Jorge L Rodriguez-Gil, Babatunde Salako, Eric E Schadt, Ann G Schwartz, Daniel A Shriner, David Siscovick, Shad B Smith, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Margaret R Spitz, Lara Sucheston, Herman Taylor, Bamidele O Tayo, Margaret A Tucker, David J Van Den Berg, Digna R Velez Edwards, Zhaoming Wang, John K Wiencke, Thomas W Winkler, John S Witte, Margaret Wrensch, Xifeng Wu, James J Yang, Albert M Levin, Taylor R Young, Neil A Zakai, Mary Cushman, Krista A Zanetti, Jing Hua Zhao, Wei Zhao, Yonglan Zheng, Jie Zhou, Regina G Ziegler, Joseph M Zmuda, Jyotika K Fernandes, Gary S Gilkeson, Diane L Kamen, Kelly J Hunt, Ida J Spruill, Christine B Ambrosone, Stefan Ambs, Donna K Arnett, Larry Atwood, Diane M Becker, Sonja I Berndt, Leslie Bernstein, William J Blot, Ingrid B Borecki, Erwin P Bottinger, Donald W Bowden, Gregory Burke, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Jingzhong Ding, David Duggan, Michele K Evans, Caroline Fox, W Timothy Garvey, Jonathan P Bradfield, Hakon Hakonarson, Struan F A Grant, Ann Hsing, Lisa Chu, Jennifer J Hu, Dezheng Huo, Sue A Ingles, Esther M John, Joanne M Jordan, Edmond K Kabagambe, Sharon L R Kardia, Rick A Kittles, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric A Klein, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Simin Liu, Barbara McKnight, Robert C Millikan, Thomas H Mosley, Badri Padhukasahasram, L Keoki Williams, Sanjay R Patel, Ulrike Peters, Curtis A Pettaway, Patricia A Peyser, Bruce M Psaty, Susan Redline, Charles N Rotimi, Benjamin A Rybicki, Michèle M Sale, Pamela J Schreiner, Lisa B Signorello, Andrew B Singleton, Janet L Stanford, Sara S Strom, Michael J Thun, Mara Vitolins, Wei Zheng, Jason H Moore, Scott M Williams, Shamika Ketkar, Xiaofeng Zhu, Alan B Zonderman, , Charles Kooperberg, George J Papanicolaou, Brian E Henderson, Alex P Reiner, Joel N Hirschhorn, Ruth J F Loos, Kari E North, Christopher A Haiman.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one new locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, P = 3.4 × 10(-11)) and another at 7p15 when we included data from the GIANT consortium (MIR148A-NFE2L3, rs10261878, P = 1.2 × 10(-10)). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African-ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, P = 6.9 × 10(-8)). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants showed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial P = 9.7 × 10(-7)), five of which reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations, as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations.
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Body fat and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study.
J Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Womens Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14-2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50-2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45-2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46-2.65), and waist?:?hip ratio (1.91, 1.41-2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.
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Does CHA2DS2-VASc Improve Stroke Risk Stratification in Postmenopausal Women with Atrial Fibrillation?
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Risk stratification of atrial fibrillation patients with a congestive heart failure (C), hypertension (H), age ? 75 (A), diabetes (D), stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (S2) (CHADS2) score of <2 remains imprecise, particularly in women. Our objectives were to validate the CHADS2 and congestive heart failure (C), hypertension (H), age ? 75 (A2), diabetes (D), stroke, TIA or prior thromboembolic disease (S2)- vascular disease (V), age 65-74 (A), female gender (S) (CHA2DS2-VASc) stroke risk scores in a healthy cohort of American women with atrial fibrillation and to determine whether CHA2DS2-VASc further risk-stratifies individuals with a CHADS2 score of <2.
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Body fat and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Studies of the relationship between anthropometric indices of obesity and colorectal cancer risk in women have shown only weak and inconsistent associations. Given the limitations of such indices, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived measures of body fat obtained in the Womens Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and risk of incident colorectal cancer. We compared these risk estimates with those obtained using conventional anthropometric measurements (body mass index and waist circumference). After exclusions, the study population consisted of 11,124 postmenopausal women with DXA measurements at baseline and no history of colorectal cancer. After a median follow-up period of 12.9 years, 169 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. Coxs proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for the exposures of interest. Neither DXA-derived body fat measures nor anthropometric measures showed significant associations with risk. In view of the limited number of cases, we cannot rule out the existence of weak associations of these measures with risk of colorectal cancer.
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A prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, blood pressure, and incident hypertension in postmenopausal women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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In randomized trials, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure has been equivocal, while most prospective cohort studies have shown that the risk of incident hypertension is lower in people with higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The authors examined the association between levels of 25(OH)D and changes in blood pressure and incident hypertension in 4,863 postmenopausal women recruited into the Womens Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Over 7 years, there were no significant differences in the adjusted mean change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure by quartile of 25(OH)D. The covariate-adjusted risk of incident hypertension was slightly lower in the upper 3 quartiles of 25(OH)D compared with the lowest quartile, but this was statistically significant only in the third quartile (hazard ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.96). There was no significant linear or nonlinear trend in the risk of incident hypertension by untransformed or log-transformed continuous values of 25(OH)D. In postmenopausal women in this study, serum levels of 25(OH)D were not related to changes in blood pressure, and evidence for an association with lower risk of incident hypertension was weak.
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Vitamin D intake from foods and supplements and depressive symptoms in a diverse population of older women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Vitamin D may plausibly reduce the occurrence of depression in postmenopausal women; however, epidemiologic evidence is limited, and few prospective studies have been conducted.
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Increased incident hip fractures in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe pelvic organ prolapse.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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The aim of this study was to examine the association between fracture and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Womens Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin trial.
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Resistin, but not adiponectin and leptin, is associated with the risk of ischemic stroke among postmenopausal women: results from the Womens Health Initiative.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Adipose tissue is considered an endocrine organ that secretes adipokines, which possibly mediate the effects of obesity on the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there are yet limited prospective data on the association between circulating adipokine levels and the risk of ischemic stroke. We aimed to examine the associations of 3 adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, and resistin) with the risk of ischemic stroke.
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Reproductive and menstrual factors and risk of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in a cohort of postmenopausal women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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The contribution of menstrual and reproductive factors to risk of ductal carcinoma (DCIS) of the breast is poorly understood.
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A prospective study of inflammation markers and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal hormone nonusers.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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It is hypothesized that inflammation may mediate the relationship between obesity and endometrial cancer risk. We examined the associations of three inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, with risk of endometrial cancer.
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Weight change and cognitive function: findings from the Womens Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2,283 older, postmenopausal women (aged 65-79) prospectively followed through the Womens Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and WC collected up to 5 years before WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (P ? 0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in WC. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existing literature.
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Smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to risk of triple-negative breast cancer in a cohort of postmenopausal women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Little is known about the risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has a worse prognosis compared to hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We examined the association of smoking and alcohol intake with TNBC and estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer.
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Depressive symptoms, brain volumes and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in postmenopausal women: the Womens Health Initiative MRI Study.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Late-life depressive symptoms (DS) increase the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in the elderly. Our objectives were to examine the relationship between elevated DS and regional brain volumes including frontal lobe subregions, hippocampus and amygdala, and to determine whether elevated DS were associated with increased subclinical cerebrovascular disease in postmenopausal women.
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Interaction between body mass index and central adiposity and risk of incident cognitive impairment and dementia: results from the Womens Health Initiative Memory Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) and the clinical end points of cognitive impairment and probable dementia in a cohort of older women enrolled in the Womens Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS).
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Depressive symptoms and incidence of mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in elderly women: the Womens Health Initiative Memory Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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To examine whether significant depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women increases the risk of subsequent mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia.
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Body size phenotypes and inflammation in the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Individuals with "metabolically benign" obesity (obesity unaccompanied by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes) are not at elevated 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to normal weight individuals. It remains unclear whether these obese individuals or normal weight individuals with clustering of cardiometabolic factors display heightened immune activity. Therefore, we characterized levels of acute-phase reactants (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), white blood cell (WBC) count), adhesion molecules (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), and coagulation products (fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) among four body size phenotypes (normal weight with 0/1 vs. ?2 metabolic syndrome components/diabetes and overweight/obesity with 0/1 vs. ?2 metabolic syndrome components/diabetes) in cross-sectional analyses of 1,889 postmenopausal women from the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) nested case-control stroke study. Higher levels of all three inflammatory marker categories were found among women with overweight/obesity or ?2 metabolic syndrome components or diabetes. Compared to normal weight women with 0 or 1 metabolic syndrome components, normal weight women with ?2 metabolic syndrome components or diabetes were more likely to have ?3 inflammatory markers in the top quartile (multivariate odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-3.0), as were overweight/obese women with 0 or 1 metabolic syndrome components (OR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5-3.5). Overweight/obese women with ?2 metabolic syndrome components or diabetes had the highest OR (OR 4.2; 95% CI: 2.9-5.9). Despite findings that metabolically benign obese individuals are not at increased 10-year risk of CVD compared to normal weight individuals, the current results suggest that overweight/obese women without clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors still possess abnormal levels of inflammatory markers.
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Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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The aim of this updated statement is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of ischemic stroke among survivors of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Evidence-based recommendations are included for the control of risk factors, interventional approaches for atherosclerotic disease, antithrombotic treatments for cardioembolism, and the use of antiplatelet agents for noncardioembolic stroke. Further recommendations are provided for the prevention of recurrent stroke in a variety of other specific circumstances, including arterial dissections; patent foramen ovale; hyperhomocysteinemia; hypercoagulable states; sickle cell disease; cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; stroke among women, particularly with regard to pregnancy and the use of postmenopausal hormones; the use of anticoagulation after cerebral hemorrhage; and special approaches to the implementation of guidelines and their use in high-risk populations.
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Elevated risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome among Asians and south Asians: results from the 2004 New York City HANES.
Ethn Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2010
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Although numerous studies have identified an elevated risk of diabetes or impaired fasting glucose among Asians, there are limited data examining variability in risk among Asian subpopulations. We estimated prevalence of diabetes (DM), metabolic syndrome (MS) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), by race/ethnicity and by Asian subgroup.
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Statistical analysis of clinical trials.
Semin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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The randomized clinical trial is widely viewed to be the gold standard for evaluation of treatments, diagnostic procedures, or disease screening. The proper design and analysis of a clinical trial requires careful consideration of the study objectives (eg, whether to demonstrate treatment superiority or noninferiority) and the nature of the primary end point. Different statistical methods apply when the end point variable is discrete (counts), continuous (measurements), or time to event (survival analysis). Other complicating factors include patient noncompliance, loss to follow-up, missing data, and multiple comparisons when more than 2 treatments are evaluated in the same study. This article provides an overview of the basic statistical approaches for analyzing clinical trials with binary, continuous or time-to-event outcomes as well as methods for handling protocol deviations due to noncompliance and early drop-out. Issues surrounding the determination of sample size and power of clinical trials are also discussed.
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Cigarette smoking in relation to risk of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in a cohort of postmenopausal women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2010
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In numerous studies, investigators have examined the association of active smoking with risk of invasive breast cancer, but to the authors knowledge, no cohort study has assessed smoking in relation to the risk of in situ breast cancer, the postulated penultimate stage preceding invasive breast cancer. The authors examined the latter association using data collected at baseline from 63,393 women in the Womens Health Initiative Clinical Trial. A total of 486 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast were identified during 8 years of follow-up between 1993 and 2005. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. For the primary analysis, invasive breast cancer was treated as a competing risk. After adjustment for covariates, associations with smoking status, smoking intensity, duration, pack-years, and age at quitting were all close to the null value and showed few meaningful trends. Sensitivity analyses performed to address different possibilities with respect to the natural history of breast cancer also did not provide consistent evidence of an association of smoking with DCIS. The results of this large cohort study provide little support for an association of cigarette smoking with risk of DCIS in postmenopausal women.
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Alcohol consumption and risk of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in a cohort of postmenopausal women.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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Observational studies have commonly linked higher alcohol consumption with a modest increase in invasive breast cancer risk, but cohort studies have not examined alcohol intake in relation to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
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Recreational physical activity, anthropometric factors, and risk of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in a cohort of postmenopausal women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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To assess the association of recreational physical activity and anthropometric factors in relation to risk of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast.
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Hepatocyte growth factor and clinical diabetes in postmenopausal women.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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To investigate the association between circulating levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a mesenchymal-derived pleiotrophic factor that is elevated in obesity, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.
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High-molecular-weight adiponectin and incident ischemic stroke in postmenopausal women: a Womens Health Initiative Study.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Although low levels of adiponectin are associated with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors, it is unclear whether adiponectin levels are related to the risk of developing ischemic stroke.
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Relationship of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood pressure control with white matter abnormalities in the Womens Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI trial.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Womens Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for hypertension but who had BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg had the greatest amount of WML volumes. Women with untreated BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg had intermediate WML volumes. Abnormal WML volumes were related to hypertension in most areas of the brain and were greater in the frontal lobe than in the occipital, parietal, or temporal lobes. Level of BP at baseline was strongly related to amount of WML volumes. The results of the study reinforce the relationship of hypertension and BP control and white matter abnormalities in the brain. The evidence to date supports tight control of BP levels, especially beginning at younger and middle age as a possible and perhaps only way to prevent dementia.
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The relationship between religion and cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
Psychol Health
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Some studies suggest that religiosity may be related to health outcomes. The current investigation, involving 92,395 Womens Health Initiative Observational Study participants, examined the prospective association of religious affiliation, religious service attendance, and strength and comfort from religion with subsequent cardiovascular outcomes and death. Baseline characteristics and responses to religiosity questions were collected at enrollment. Women were followed for an average of 7.7 years and outcomes were judged by physician adjudicators. Cox proportional regression models were run to obtain hazard ratios (HR) of religiosity variables and coronary heart disease (CHD) and death. After controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and prior health variables, self-report of religious affiliation, frequent religious service attendance, and religious strength and comfort were associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality [HR for religious affiliation = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.93] [HR for service attendance = 0.80; CI: 0.73-0.87] [HR for strength and comfort = 0.89; CI: 0.82-0.98]. However, these religion-related variables were not associated with reduced risk of CHD morbidity and mortality. In fact, self-report of religiosity was associated with increased risk of this outcome in some models. In conclusion, although self-report measures of religiosity were not associated with reduced risk of CHD morbidity and mortality, these measures were associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality.
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Hepatocyte growth factor and the risk of ischemic stroke developing among postmenopausal women: results from the Womens Health Initiative.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent angiogenic factor and may play a role in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions, the underlying mechanism of cardiovascular disease. However, there have been no prospective studies examining the relationship between HGF levels and risk of stroke.
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Effect of 5 y of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on change in circulating lipids: results from the Womens Health Initiative.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes may be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, possibly because of their potential beneficial effects on circulating lipids. Clinical trials that have evaluated the effect of calcium supplementation on lipids are limited by a short follow-up, and data on vitamin D are scarce.
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Stroke in women.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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The aim of this article is to provide an overview of stroke in women and describe modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for stroke.
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Design and implementation of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a comprehensive multicenter community based cohort study of Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.
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Antidepressant use and risk of incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among postmenopausal women in the Womens Health Initiative study.
Arch. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Antidepressants are commonly prescribed medications, but their effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains unclear.
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A randomized controlled trial of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of benign proliferative breast disease.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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Experimental evidence provides strong support for anti-carcinogenic effects of calcium and vitamin D with respect to breast cancer. Observational epidemiologic data also provide some support for inverse associations with risk. We tested the effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on risk of benign proliferative breast disease, a condition which is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We used the Womens Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. The 36,282 participants were randomized either to 500 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate plus 200 IU of vitamin D(3) (GlaxoSmithKline) twice daily (n = 18,176) or to placebo (n = 18,106). Regular mammograms and clinical breast exams were performed. We identified women who had had a biopsy for benign breast disease and subjected histologic sections from the biopsies to standardized review. After an average follow-up period of 6.8 years, 915 incident cases of benign proliferative breast disease had been ascertained, with 450 in the intervention group and 465 in the placebo group. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation was not associated with altered risk of benign proliferative breast disease overall (hazard ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.13), or by histologic subtype. Risk varied significantly by levels of age at baseline, but not by levels of other variables. Daily use of 1,000 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate plus 400 IU of vitamin D(3) for almost 7 years by postmenopausal women did not alter the overall risk of benign proliferative breast disease.
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Alcohol consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women with diabetes: Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2009
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Although several observational studies have consistently reported an inverse association between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), it is yet not well established if this association also exists among people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the frequency and quantity of alcohol intake and the risk of developing CHD among postmenopausal women with diabetes.
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Aspirin use, dose, and clinical outcomes in postmenopausal women with stable cardiovascular disease: the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Despite compelling evidence that aspirin reduces fatal and nonfatal vascular events among the overall population in various settings, women have frequently been underrepresented and their data underreported. We sought to evaluate the relationship between aspirin use, dose (81 or 325 mg), and clinical outcomes among postmenopausal women with stable cardiovascular disease (CVD).
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Multivitamin use and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease in the Womens Health Initiative cohorts.
Arch. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Millions of postmenopausal women use multivitamins, often believing that supplements prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we decided to examine associations between multivitamin use and risk of cancer, CVD, and mortality in postmenopausal women.
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Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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The positive association between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer has been attributed, in part, to the fact that estrogen, a risk factor for breast cancer, is synthesized in adipose tissue. Obesity is also associated with high levels of insulin, a known mitogen. However, no prospective studies have directly assessed associations between circulating levels of insulin and/or insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, a related hormone, and the risk of breast cancer independent of estrogen level.
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The adipokine profile of metabolically benign obese and at-risk normal weight postmenopausal women: The Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
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Nearly, a third of obese individuals, termed metabolically benign obese, have a low burden of adiposity-related cardiometabolic abnormalities, whereas a substantial proportion of normal-weight individuals possess risk factors.
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Risk factors for sudden cardiac death in post-menopausal women.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
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The aim of this study was to estimate the annual incidence rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and to identify risk factors for SCD in post-menopausal women.
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Effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on incident atrial fibrillation: the Womens Health Initiative randomized controlled trials.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is less prevalent in women versus men, but associated with higher risks of stroke and death in women. The role hormone therapy plays in AF is not well understood.
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Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic/Latino individuals of diverse backgrounds in the United States.
JAMA
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Major cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading causes of mortality among US Hispanic and Latino individuals. Comprehensive data are limited regarding the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population and relations of these traits to socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation.
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Menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use, and risk of thyroid carcinoma in postmenopausal women.
Cancer Causes Control
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To investigate the association of reproductive factors and hormone therapy, including type of hormone therapy, with risk of thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women.
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Improvement in stroke risk prediction: role of C-reactive protein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in the womens health initiative.
Int J Stroke
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Classification of risk of ischemic stroke is important for medical care and public health reasons. Whether addition of biomarkers adds to predictive power of the Framingham Stroke Risk or other traditional risk factors has not been studied in older women.
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C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiovascular disease prediction.
N. Engl. J. Med.
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There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events.
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Weight change, psychological well-being, and vitality in adults participating in a cognitive-behavioral weight loss program.
Health Psychol
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Excess weight has been associated with numerous psychological problems, including depression and anxiety. This study examined the impact of intentional weight loss on the psychological well-being of adults participating in three clinical weight loss interventions.
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Clinical utility of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A? for cardiovascular disease prediction in a multiethnic cohort of women.
Clin. Chem.
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Findings regarding the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A? (Lp-PLA2) activity and mass with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been inconsistent, and their role in risk prediction is uncertain.
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Association between annual visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and stroke in postmenopausal women: data from the Womens Health Initiative.
Hypertension
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Accumulating evidence suggests that increased visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure is associated with stroke. No study has examined the association between VVV of blood pressure and stroke in postmenopausal women, and scarce data exist as to whether this relation is independent of the temporal trend of blood pressure. We examined the association of VVV of blood pressure with stroke in 58,228 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Womens Health Initiative. Duplicate blood pressure readings, which were averaged, were taken at baseline and at each annual visit. VVV was defined as the SD for the participants mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) across visits (SD) and about the participants regression line with SBP regressed across visits (SDreg). Over a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 997 strokes occurred. In an adjusted model including mean SBP over time, the hazard ratios (95% CI) of stroke for higher quartiles of SD of SBP compared with the lowest quartile (referent) were 1.39 (1.03-1.89) for quartile 2, 1.52 (1.13-2.03) for quartile 3, and 1.72 (1.28-2.32) for quartile 4 (P trend <0.001). The relation was similar for SDreg of SBP quartiles in a model that additionally adjusted for the temporal trend in SBP (P trend <0.001). The associations did not differ by stroke type (ischemic versus hemorrhagic). There was a significant interaction between mean SBP and SDreg on stroke with the strongest association seen below 120 mmHg. In postmenopausal women, greater VVV of SBP was associated with increased risk of stroke, particularly in the lowest range of mean SBP.
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Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the womens health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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While observational studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of depression, few clinical trials have tested whether vitamin D supplementation affects the occurrence of depression symptoms. The authors evaluated the impact of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) combined with 1,000 mg of elemental calcium on measures of depression in a randomized, double-blinded US trial comprising 36,282 postmenopausal women. The Burnam scale and current use of antidepressant medication were used to assess depressive symptoms at randomization (1995-2000). Two years later, women again reported on their antidepressant use, and 2,263 completed a second Burnam scale. After 2 years, women randomized to receive vitamin D and calcium had an odds ratio for experiencing depressive symptoms (Burnam score ?0.06) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.56) compared with women in the placebo group. Supplementation was not associated with antidepressant use (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.12) or continuous depressive symptom score. Results stratified by baseline vitamin D and calcium intake, solar irradiance, and other factors were similar. The findings do not support a relation between supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin D(3) along with calcium and depression in older women. Additional trials testing higher doses of vitamin D are needed to determine whether this nutrient may help prevent or treat depression.
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Adipokines linking obesity with colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
Cancer Res.
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Mechanistic associations between obesity and colorectal cancer remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether adipokines are risk factors for colorectal cancer and whether they may mediate its association with obesity. In a case-cohort study nested within the Womens Health Initiative cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 457 colorectal cancer cases and 841 subcohort subjects were assayed for seven adipokines-adiponectin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and TNF-?. Serum insulin and estradiol values measured previously were also available for data analysis. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, colonoscopy history, and estrogen level, a low level of anti-inflammatory adiponectin and high levels of proinflammatory leptin, PAI-1, and IL-6 were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, though only leptin remained significant after further adjustment for insulin [HRs comparing extreme quartiles (HR(Q4-Q1)), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.17-2.90]. Mediation analyses showed that leptin and insulin partially explained the association between waist circumference and colorectal cancer and attenuated it by 25% and 37%, respectively, with insulin being a significant mediator (P = 0.041). Our findings support the conclusion that adipokines involved in inflammation are associated with colorectal cancer risk, but that their effects may be mediated mostly by insulin, with leptin exerting an independent effect. Hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia may therefore partially explain the adiposity association with colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.
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Interleukin-6 receptor pathways in coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 82 studies.
, Nadeem Sarwar, Adam S Butterworth, Daniel F Freitag, John Gregson, Peter Willeit, Donal N Gorman, Pei Gao, Danish Saleheen, Augusto Rendon, Christopher P Nelson, Peter S Braund, Alistair S Hall, Daniel I Chasman, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, John C Chambers, Emelia J Benjamin, Paul W Franks, Robert Clarke, Arthur A M Wilde, Mieke D Trip, Maristella Steri, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Lu Qi, C Ellen van der Schoot, Ulf de Faire, Jeanette Erdmann, Heather M Stringham, Wolfgang Koenig, Daniel J Rader, David Melzer, David Reich, Bruce M Psaty, Marcus E Kleber, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Johann Willeit, Patrik Wennberg, Mark Woodward, Svetlana Adamovic, Eric B Rimm, Tom W Meade, Richard F Gillum, Jonathan A Shaffer, Albert Hofman, Altan Onat, Johan Sundström, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Dan Mellström, John Gallacher, Mary Cushman, Russell P Tracy, Jussi Kauhanen, Magnus Karlsson, Jukka T Salonen, Lars Wilhelmsen, Philippe Amouyel, Bernard Cantin, Lyle G Best, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, JoAnn E Manson, George Davey-Smith, Paul I W de Bakker, Christopher J O'Donnell, James F Wilson, Anthony G Wilson, Themistocles L Assimes, John-Olov Jansson, Claes Ohlsson, Asa Tivesten, Osten Ljunggren, Muredach P Reilly, Anders Hamsten, Erik Ingelsson, Francois Cambien, Joseph Hung, G Neil Thomas, Michael Boehnke, Heribert Schunkert, Folkert W Asselbergs, John J P Kastelein, Vilmundur Gudnason, Veikko Salomaa, Tamara B Harris, Jaspal S Kooner, Kristine H Allin, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jemma C Hopewell, Alison H Goodall, Paul M Ridker, Hilma Holm, Hugh Watkins, Willem H Ouwehand, Nilesh J Samani, Stephen Kaptoge, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Olivier Harari, John Danesh.
Lancet
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Persistent inflammation has been proposed to contribute to various stages in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) signalling propagates downstream inflammation cascades. To assess whether this pathway is causally relevant to coronary heart disease, we studied a functional genetic variant known to affect IL6R signalling.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.