Optimum conditions of temperature, salinity and glucose concentration were investigated for squalene production of the strain of Aurantiochytrium sp. 18 W-13a, with a high content of squalene. Squalene production by this strain was optimum at 25 °C, 25-50% seawater concentration and 2-6% glucose concentration. When this strain was grown in the optimum condition, the squalene content and production of approximately 171 mg/g dry weight and 0.9 g/L were much higher than that previously reported in thraustochytrids, plants and yeasts, respectively. Therefore, 18 W-13a could be used as an alternative source of commercial squalene.
The phylogenetic positions of the primary photosynthetic eukaryotes, or Archaeplastida (green plants, red algae, and glaucophytes) and the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates, Haptophyta, vary depending on the data matrices used in the previous nuclear multigene phylogenetic studies. Here, we deduced the phylogeny of three groups of Archaeplastida and Haptophyta on the basis of sequences of the multiple slowly evolving nuclear genes and reduced the gaps or missing data, especially in glaucophyte operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The present multigene phylogenetic analyses resolved that Haptophyta and two other groups of Chromalveolata, stramenopiles and Alveolata, form a monophyletic group that is sister to the green plants and that the glaucophytes and red algae are basal to the clade composed of green plants and Chromalveolata. The bootstrap values supporting these phylogenetic relationships increased with the exclusion of long-branched OTUs. The close relationship between green plants and Chromalveolata is further supported by the common replacement in two plastid-targeted genes.
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