JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Application of Modeling and Simulation to a Long-Term Clinical Trial: A Direct Comparison of Simulated Data and Data Actually Observed in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients Following 3-Year Ibandronate Treatment.
Clin Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is a bone resorption inhibitor widely used to prevent and treat osteoporosis. To optimize the design for a long-term clinical study of ibandronate, modeling and simulation (M&S) was performed based on the result of population pharmacodynamic analysis using the data of a short-term clinical study. A population pharmacodynamic model was constructed by the urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (uCTx) and the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) data obtained in clinical studies, including a phase II study of Japanese osteoporosis patients treated with ibandronate for 6 months. Changes in BMD over a period of 3 years were simulated from the population pharmacodynamic parameters of the patients in this phase II study. The relationship between uCTx and BMD was well described by this modeling. The functions of disease progression and supplemental treatment were incorporated into the model to simulate a long-term clinical study with high accuracy. A long-term clinical study with a 3-year treatment was conducted after this M&S. The percentage change from baseline in observed BMD values were found to be similar to the prospectively simulated values. This study showed that M&S could be a useful and powerful tool for designing and conducting long-term clinical studies when carried out in the following sequence: (1) conduct a short-term clinical study; (2) perform M&S; and (3) conduct the long-term clinical study. Application of this procedure to various other treatment agents will establish the usefulness of M&S for long-term clinical studies and bring further efficiencies to drug development.
Related JoVE Video
Lithium niobate ridged waveguides with smooth vertical sidewalls fabricated by an ultra-precision cutting method.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper demonstrates the application of ultra-precision cutting to the fabrication of ridged LiNbO3 waveguides for use in low-loss photonic integrated circuits. Ridged waveguides with sidewall verticality of 88° and ultra-smooth sidewalls were obtained in LiNbO3 crystals using this technique. In addition, the possibility of fabricating bent ridged waveguides via this mechanical micromachining method was examined. The root mean square surface roughness of the machined sidewall was 4.5 nm over an area of 2.5 × 10 µm, which is sufficiently low so as to minimize scattering losses of guided light. The propagation loss of the ridged waveguide produced during this work was well below 1 dB/cm at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The present technique should have significant applicability to the micromachining of ferroelectric materials and the fabrication of highly confined optical waveguides such as ridged waveguides and photonic wires.
Related JoVE Video
Time trends in method-specific suicide rates in Japan, 1990-2011.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background. Little is known about whether particular suicide methods have contributed differently to the recent unfavourable suicide mortality trends in Japan. Analysing such trends may shed light on the effect of potentially preventable factors, such as the impact of restricting access to certain popular suicide methods, on overall rates. Therefore, we assessed recent trends in method-specific suicide by gender and age in Japan. Method. Suicide mortality and population data between 1990 and 2011 were obtained from the Vital Statistics of Japan and used to calculate method-specific mortality rates. Suicide methods were divided into seven groups: overdose, gases, hanging, drowning, cutting, jumping and other means. Age was divided into four groups: 15-24, 25-44, 45-64 and 65+ years. We applied joinpoint regression to the data and quantified the observed changes. Results. The results of the joinpoint regression analyses showed a sharp increase in overall suicide rates for males and females of all ages until the late 1990s. Suicide from hanging and jumping, in particular, contributed to this increase. After 2000, an increasing trend in overall suicide rates in both males and females aged 15-24 and 25-44 years was observed, with overdose, gases and hanging contributing to this increasing trend. Conclusions. Our findings revealed that different suicide methods varied in their contribution to the recent overall suicide transition in Japan. Regarding factors associated with the recent increase in suicides by overdose, gases, hanging and jumping, further research is needed in order to promote and implement effective means restriction strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of dopa-positive cells in mouse ovaries in response to ocular exposure to ultraviolet B rays.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is known that the levels of hormones secreted from the pituitary gland are increased by ultraviolet B (UVB) eye irradiation. The ovaries are affected by the hormones secreted from the pituitary gland. Therefore, we observed the influence of UVB eye irradiation on the ovaries.
Related JoVE Video
High-capacity self-homodyne PDM-WDM-SDM transmission in a 19-core fiber.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigate a high-capacity, space-division-multiplexed (SDM) transmission system using self-homodyne detection (SHD) in multi-core fiber (MCF). We first investigate SHD phase noise cancellation with both kHz and MHz range linewidths for both quadrature-phase shift-keyed (QPSK) and 16 quadrature-amplitude modulation (16QAM) signals, finding that phase noise cancellation in SHD enabled transmission with MHz linewidth lasers that resulted in error floors when using intradyne detection. We then demonstrate a high throughput SHD transmission system using low-cost, MHz linewidth distributed feedback lasers. We transmit a CW pilot-tone on a single core of a 10.1 km MCF span with the remaining 18 cores used to transmit 125 wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) QPSK and polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM)-QPSK signals with 50 GHz channel spacing at 25 GBd. For PDM transmission and assuming a 7% forward-error correction overhead this is equivalent 210 Tb/s transmission with a SE of 33.4 b/s/Hz. High-capacity transmission is achieved despite high inter-core crosstalk, broad transmitter linewidth and narrow channel spacing, showing that combining SHD with MCF enables high throughput, low-cost transmission in next-generation optical networks.
Related JoVE Video
[Intrapituitary adenoma metastasis from lung cancer with progressive cranial nerve palsies: a case report and literature review].
No Shinkei Geka
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a rare case of metastasis to a preexisting pituitary adenoma. An 80-year-old man with a history of pituitary adenoma and lung cancer presented with recent onset of bilateral visual impairment, oculomotor nerve palsies, and severe headache. A CT scan revealed a pituitary tumor expanding into the suprasellar region and infiltrating the bilateral cavernous sinuses. We performed transsphenoidal surgery and diagnosed the tumor as lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary adenoma. After the surgery, visual impairment and severe headache were resolved, and the patient underwent radiation therapy for the residual tumor. To the best of our knowledge, 20 cases of metastases to pituitary adenomas have been reported in the literature. Clinical features of metastasis to a pituitary adenoma are different from those of metastasis to normal pituitary gland. In the case of a pituitary lesion with acute aggravation, one should be aware of the possibility of metastasis to preexisting pituitary adenomas.
Related JoVE Video
[A case of gastric cancer that responded to a preoperative combination therapy of S-1/CDDP plus trastuzumab].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 79-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer (cT3, N1, M0, cStage II B) showing regional bulky lymph node metastasis. Invasion of the pancreas and common hepatic artery was suspected. He was treated with S-1/CDDP plus trastuzumab therapy as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) regimen. After two courses, significant tumor reduction was observed, and the patient underwent distal gastrectomy with D2 dissection. S-1/CDDP plus trastuzumab therapy as NAC for HER2-positive, advanced gastric cancer appears to be an effective treatment.
Related JoVE Video
[Suicide prevention activities of psychiatry-related professional societies: the promotion of suicide prevention in psychiatric care].
Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suicide prevention is promoted nationally in Japan. In the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy determined in 2007, the areas in which, psychiatry contributed were shown to be important, for example, psychiatric care, suicide, aftercare program for suicide attempters, mental health promotion, and actual elucidation of the cause of suicide. At a part of these national measures, guidelines on suicide attempters' care are devised by the Japanese Society for Emergency Medicine and the Japanese Association for Emergency Psychiatry, and a training workshop on caring for suicide attempters was held by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The Japanese society for Emergency Medicine devised an educational program of care for patients with mental health problems in emergency care in cooperation with the Japanese Association for Emergency Psychiatry and Japanese Society of General Hospital Psychiatry. On the other hand, suicide prevention and staff care at hospitals are important problems, and the Japan Council for Quality Health Care devised a program and conducted a training workshop. Also, the Japanese Association for Suicide Prevention conducted workshops for both the educational program of cognitive-behavioral therapy and facilitator training program for gatekeeper. The Japanese Society of Mood Disorders conducted a training workshop involving clinical high-risk case discussion. Also, the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology devised clinical guidelines for suicide prevention and distributed them to all society members. In this society, on-site discussion of the guidelines and the holding of workshops are expected in the future. It is hoped that these guidelines will be utilized and training workshops will be held in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Multicenter Study of Pegylated Interferon ?-2a Monotherapy for Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Patients on Hemodialysis: REACH Study.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many studies have reported poor vital prognosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected dialysis patients. The rate of HCV-infected dialysis patients in Japan is as high as 9.8%, and antiviral therapy is believed to be important for improving vital prognosis. We conducted a multicenter study to examine the administration method for pegylated interferon ?-2a (PEG-IFN?-2a) monotherapy in HCV-infected dialysis. We studied 56 patients: 14 with low viral loads (HCV RNA < 5.0 log IU/mL) were treated with 90??g PEG-IFN?-2a weekly, 42 with high viral loads (HCV RNA ? 5.0 log IU/mL) were treated with 135??g PEG-IFN?-2a weekly. We examined the sustained virological response (SVR), factors affecting the SVR, and treatment safety. The overall SVR rate was 39% (22/56); that for genotype 1, genotype 2, low viral loads, and high viral loads was 29%, 67%, 93%, and 21%, respectively. From receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the HCV RNA cutoff values likely to achieve SVR for genotypes 1 and 2 were <5.7 log IU/mL (SVR rate: 64% 9/14) and <6.5 log IU/mL (SVR rate: 88% 7/8), respectively. If there was HCV RNA negativation at 4 weeks (rapid virological response), the SVR rate was 94% (16/17), whereas it was 6% (1/16) if there was HCV RNA positivity at 24 weeks. The rate of treatment discontinuation from adverse events or aggravated complications was 25% (14/56). High SVR rates can potentially be achieved with PEG-IFN monotherapy by identifying the target patients, based on virus type and viral load before initiating treatment and by modifying therapy during treatment according to responsiveness.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic Applications of Mesothelial Cell Sheets.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mesothelial cells are an integral part of the peritoneum and play an important role in maintaining its structural and functional properties. In recent years a number of studies on mesothelial cells have been performed to evaluate the localization, secretional properties and the ability of regeneration and transdifferentiation of these cells. They are also involved in the repair of the peritoneum damage following surgery or peritonitis. Mesothelial cells produce several cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix components, possessing anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Based on previous research, cell sheet engineering has made it possible to transplant cells that retain the cells' function, and stacking different cells in layers has also become possible. Arranging blood vessels between the cell layers is a problem when stacking cells in layers. Whether adequate blood flow can be obtained for the cell layers to survive long-term is the difference between success and failure. Mesothelial cell transplantation for peritoneal regeneration needs to be performed under conditions in which the surface area of the visceral peritoneum is large and the mesothelial cell damage area is small. In this article we explain cell sheet engineering as one of the technologies for transplanting cells with a variety of intercellular adhesion and cell membrane molecules maintained intact, and its application to peritoneal regeneration.
Related JoVE Video
Low-volume walking program improves cardiovascular-related health in older adults.
J Sports Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although numerous sources of evidence show that regular physical activity is beneficial to health, most individuals do not engage in a sufficient amount of physical activity to meet the guidelines set out by expert panels. In addition, the minimum amount of physical activity associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk markers is not clear in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week walking program involving an exercise volume below the current minimum physical activity recommendation on cardiovascular disease risk markers in older adults. The participants were recruited from the following two groups separately: a walking group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 14). In the walking group, participants walked 30 to 60 minutes per session on 2 days per week for 12 weeks (average walking time, 49.4 ± 8.8 min/session). Plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein concentrations tended to be lower than baseline values in the walking group after 12 weeks (paired t-test, p = 0.127). The ratio of oxidised low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower than the baseline ratio in the walking group after 12 weeks (paired t-test, p = 0.035). Resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower than baseline values in the walking group after 12 weeks (paired t-tests, p = 0.002, p < 0.0005, respectively). Our findings demonstrate that a 12-week walking program comprising a low volume of physical activity confers a benefit to cardiovascular-related health in older adults. Key PointsIt is important to consider baseline physical activity levels when evaluating physical activity program.Being physically active is important to reduce the potential risk marker of cardiovascular disease in older adults.These data imply that a small volume of 12-week walking program confers a benefit to cardiovascular-related health in older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of a training workshop on suicide prevention among emergency room nurses.
Crisis
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Suicide attempts are frequently encountered by emergency department nurses. Such encounters can potentially provide a foundation for secondary suicide prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Microbial metabolites of omeprazole activate murine aryl hydrocarbon receptor in vitro and in vivo.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Omeprazole (OME), a proton pump inhibitor used to treat gastritis, is also an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activator. OME activates AhR in human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells, but not in mice in vivo or in vitro. We recently discovered that this species-specific difference results from a difference in a few amino acids in the ligand-binding domain of AhR. However, OME activates both mouse and human AhRs in the yeast reporter assay system. Nevertheless, the cause of this discrepancy in OME responses remains unknown. Here, we report that CYP1A1 mRNA expression in mouse cecum was elevated after OME administration, although the mouse is regarded as an OME-unresponsive animal. Using the yeast reporter assay system with human and murine AhRs, we found AhR agonist-like activity in the cecal extracts of OME-treated mice. We speculated that OME metabolites produced by cecal bacteria might activate murine AhRs in vivo. In high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, AhR agonist-like activity of cecal bacterial culture and cecal extracts were detected at the same retention time. AhR agonist-like activity was also detected in the HPLC fractions of yeast culture media containing OME. This unknown substance could induce reporter gene expression via mouse and human AhRs. The agonist-like activity of the OME metabolite was reduced by concomitant ?-naphthoflavone exposure. These results indicate that a yeast-generated OME metabolite elicited the response of mouse AhR to OME in the yeast system, and that bacterial OME metabolites may act as AhR ligands in human and mouse intestines.
Related JoVE Video
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for central venous disease in dialysis patients: influence on cardiac function.
J Vasc Access
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased vascular access flow after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for central venous stenosis and occlusion (central venous disease, CVD) can affect cardiac function in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We evaluated the cardiac function, etiology, and treatment in HD patients with CVD.
Related JoVE Video
[Sternomyelitis Caused by Delayed Tracheal Necrosis after Thyroidectomy;Treatment using Muscle Flap of Petoralis Major].
Kyobu Geka
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We experienced a rare case of delayed tracheal rupture after thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer, and the infection causing sternomyelitis. A 69-year-old man presented subcutaneous emphysema after 6 days of total thyroidectomy with bilateral cervical and mediastinal dissection for lymph node metastases by adverse T sternotomy. He underwent tracheostomy on 10th postoperative day (POD), debridement of sternum on 14th POD, and implantation of skin-muscle flap using pectolaris major on 43th POD. The flap showed good adaptation and no infectious complications recurred, so that he could consequently receive closing procedure of tracheostomy on 94th POD.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative change in sagittal balance after Kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The influence of vertebral cement augmentation on spinal sagittal balance is unknown. The present study aimed to analyze the changes in total spinal alignment after Kyphoplasty in VCF patients.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive analysis of PEGylated liposome-asscociated proteins relating to the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon by combination with shotgun analysis and conventional methods.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PEGylated liposome, sterically stabilized by PEG, results in reduced recognition of the liposome by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Recently, we reported on the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon, whereby PEGylated liposome is cleared very rapidly from blood circulation upon repeated injection. Anti-PEG IgM production and subsequent complement activation were crucial in causing the ABC phenomenon. However, there still remains the possibility that unknown plasma factors might affect the fate of PEGylated liposome that is subjected to the ABC phenomenon. A label-free approach to shotgun analysis is a great tool for characterizing proteins in a biological system. In this study, therefore, a shotgun analysis was employed to identify plasma protein bound on PEGylated liposome after the ABC phenomenon was induced in the mouse model. The analysis revealed that immunoglobulin and complement components (C1 and C3) are the major proteins. Subsequent analysis with ELISA and Western blotting showed that the immunoglobulin was IgM and that the complement system was mainly activated via anti-PEG IgM-mediated classical pathway. These results support our earlier assumptions-anti-PEG IgM and complement activation were the major causes of the ABC phenomenon. Our proposed analytical strategy would be expected to provide useful information for the development and design of nanocarrier drug delivery system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of acute cerebral artery occlusion using the penumbra system: our early experience.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy is highly recommended to patients who are diagnosed with ischemic stroke within 4.5 hours after the onset while mechanical clot retrieval can be attempted in patients who are not indicated for or cannot effectively receive intravenous rt-PA therapy. In this article, we report early treatment outcomes and discuss the usefulness of mechanical clot retrieval using the Penumbra system (Penumbra Inc., Alameda, California, USA), especially in terms of technical cautions during the procedure and adaptability to elderly and high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) patients. We included 7 patients with thromboembolic occlusion. Pretreatment NIHSS score ranged from 11 to 36 (mean: 24.9). All patients achieved good recanalization [thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grade 2a or greater] without complications. The NIHSS score at 30 days after the treatment ranged between 0 and 28 (mean: 12.4), and improved more than 10 points in 4 of the 7 patients (57.1%). To obtain good recanalization without complications, selection of suitable reperfusion catheter and careful manipulation of separator prefiguring the occluded distal vessels are essential. The improved NIHSS score at 30 days after the treatment may have led to favorable results, such as an increased participation in available rehabilitation programs and the alleviation of the burden of care. Our findings suggest that the Penumbra system might be effective for treatment in elderly patients or patients with high NIHSS score wherein rt-PA therapy is inadvisable or ineffective in ischemic stroke secondary to large vessel occlusion. Recanalization can improve their quality of life on condition that the procedure is performed successfully without serious complications.
Related JoVE Video
Impacts of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment during predialysis periods on the progression of chronic kidney disease in a large-scale cohort study (Co-JET study).
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been fully evaluated in Japan. We therefore retrospectively evaluated this in a sub-cohort of a prospective multicenter study to investigate optimal hemoglobin (Hb) level of CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD) treated with rHuEPO; Japan Erythropoietin Treatment Study for Target Hb and Survival (JET study). Effect of rHuEPO treatment during predialysis period to delay initiation of HD was retrospectively assessed in 2434 patients from the JET study comparing groups with and without rHuEPO treatment. The assessment was done by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and inverse probability-weighted (IPW) analysis to adjust for time-dependent confounders. The weights used in the IPW analysis were calculated using a logistic model that included baseline confounders and time-dependent variables. During the predialysis period, 71.7% (1746 patients) were treated with rHuEPO (mean Hb level of 8.7?g/dL at initiation of rHuEPO treatment). Covariates significantly associated with initiation of rHuEPO treatment were Hb level, serum creatinine level, age, diabetes, cardiac insufficiency, and hypertension. The adjusted hazard ratio for time until HD initiation under rHuEPO treatment was 0.272 (95% CI, 0.223-0.331; P?
Related JoVE Video
Pump-linewidth-tolerant optical wavelength conversion for high-order QAM signals using coherent pumps.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Optical wavelength conversion (OWC) is expected to be a desirable function in future optical transparent networks. Since high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is more sensitive to the phase noise, in the OWC of high-order QAM signals, it is crucial to suppress the extra noise introduced in the OWC subsystem, especially for the scenario with multiple cascaded OWCs. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a pump-linewidth-tolerant OWC scheme suitable for high-order QAM signals using coherent two-tone pumps. Using 3.5-MHz-linewidth distributed feedback (DFB) lasers as pump sources, our scheme enables wavelength conversion of both 16QAM and 64QAM signals with negligible power penalty, in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) waveguide based OWC. We also demonstrate the performance of pump phase noise cancellation, showing that such coherent two-tone pump schemes can eliminate the need for ultra-narrow linewidth pump lasers and enable practical implementation of low-cost OWC in future dynamic optical networks.
Related JoVE Video
Frequencies of mutagenic translesion DNA synthesis over cisplatin-guanine intra-strand crosslinks in lacZ plasmids propagated in human cells.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)), a widely used anticancer drug, forms inter- and intra-strand DNA crosslinks. The major intra-strand crosslinks are Pt adducts at 1,2-d(GpG) and 1,3-d(GpNpG) (Pt-GG and Pt-GNG, respectively). Although most of the intra-strand crosslinks are removed by the nucleotide excision repair (NER), the remaining crosslinks can cause mutations through the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) during chromosome replication. To understand the precise mechanism of cisplatin mutagenesis in human cells, the plasmid carrying a single Pt-GG or 1,3-d(GpTpG) crosslink (Pt-GTG) site-specifically in lacZ gene was constructed and propagated in NER-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cells. The plasmids retrieved from the cells were introduced into indicator bacterial cells to access frequencies of TLS and mutations. The experiments revealed that Pt-GTG blocked DNA replication more strongly and caused more mutations (29.1%) than Pt-GG (1.7%). Most mutations were G to A or T base changes at 5' G residue in the Pt-GTG crosslinks. These results indicate that the Pt-GTG crosslinks become effective obstacles for cancer cell division, and have an important role for cisplatin cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Nile blue can photosensitize DNA damage through electron transfer.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanism of DNA damage photosensitized by Nile blue (NB) was studied using (32)P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments. NB bound to the DNA strand was possibly intercalated through an electrostatic interaction. Photoirradiated NB caused DNA cleavage at guanine residues when the DNA fragments were treated with piperidine. Consecutive guanines, the underlined G in 5'-GG and 5'-GGG, were selectively damaged through photoinduced electron transfer. The fluorescence lifetime of NB was decreased by guanine-containing DNA sequence, supporting this mechanism. Single guanines were also slightly damaged by photoexcited NB, and DNA photodamage by NB was slightly enhanced in D2O. These results suggest that the singlet oxygen mechanism also partly contributes to DNA photodamage by NB. DNA damage photosensitized by NB via electron transfer may be an important mechanism in medicinal applications of photosensitizers, such as photodynamic therapy in low oxygen.
Related JoVE Video
Formation of the Nitrative DNA Lesion 8-Nitroguanine is Associated with Asbestos Contents in Human Lung Tissues: A Pilot Study.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asbestos causes lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma, and chronic inflammation is considered to participate in carcinogenesis. However, biomarkers to evaluate its carcinogenic risk have not been established. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are generated in biological systems under inflammatory conditions and may contribute to carcinogenesis by causing DNA damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between the formation of 8-nitroguanine (8-nitroG), a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation, and asbestos contents in human lung tissues.
Related JoVE Video
Metal-mediated oxidative DNA damage induced by methylene blue.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methylene blue (MB) is used for various clinical purposes, including chromoendoscopy and methemoglobinemia treatment. However, MB induces tumors of pancreatic islets and small intestine in experimental animals. This finding raises a possibility that MB induces carcinogenicity in these organs via light-independent mechanisms, although MB is known to cause light-dependent DNA damage.
Related JoVE Video
Relationships of alpha-SMA-positive fibroblasts and SDF-1-positive tumor cells with neoangiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors with poor prognosis in Southern China and Southeast Asia. Angiogenesis-related molecules can be promising therapeutic targets in NPC. To investigate the relationships of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and chemokine-related molecules with neoangiogenesis, we compared immunohistochemical analyses of alpha-smooth-muscle actin (?-SMA), stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and its receptor CXCR4 in primary NPC specimens and chronic nasopharyngitis tissues. In addition, we examined the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), and CD133- and VEGF- receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) double positive cells, as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We also assessed CD34-positive microvessels. Significantly higher expression of ? -SMA was observed in fibroblasts in NPC stroma. The immunoreactive intensities of SDF-1 and CXCR4 were significantly higher in NPC cells. CXCR4-positive cells and CD133/VEGFR-2- double positive cells were observed in the stroma surrounding cancer nests, and VEGF was detected in both cancer and stromal cells. Microvessel density was significantly higher in the stroma of NPC tissues compared to chronic nasopharyngitis tissues. Our data suggest that CAFs and NPC tumor cells may enhance neoangiogenesis in a VEGF- and SDF-1-dependent manner by recruiting EPCs from the bone marrow into tumor stroma.
Related JoVE Video
Low hemoglobin levels and hypo-responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent associated with poor survival in incident Japanese hemodialysis patients.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are effective at treating anemia, the association between hemoglobin (Hb) levels and survival is still unclear, especially for the incident Japanese hemodialysis (HD) population. The Japan Erythropoietin Treatment (JET) Study is an open multi-center, prospective, observational study designed to evaluate the relationship between the maintenance of Hb levels and new HD patient prognosis after the first administration of epoetin beta. Landmark analyses were performed to examine the relationship between Hb levels at 6 months and survival. Among a total of 10?310 patients, 6631 completed the initial 6 months of epoetin beta treatment (induction phase) and were followed up for a further 2.5 years (maintenance phase). Three-year survival rate of patients with <9?g/dL Hb levels after 6 months was 74.1%, which was significantly lower than 89.3% for patients with Hb levels 10 to 11?g/dL; the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 2.08 (95% CI, 1.57-2.77; P?
Related JoVE Video
Population pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
J Clin Pharm Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate the relationship between erlotinib exposure and the occurrence of interstitial lung disease (ILD)-like events.
Related JoVE Video
Wavelength conversion of optical 64QAM through FWM in HNLF and its performance optimization by constellation monitoring.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
All-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) plays an important role in the future transparent optical networks, in order to enhance the re-configurability and non-blocking capacity. On the other hand, high-order quadrature amplitude modulations (QAMs) have been extensively studied for achieving the high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical transmission. Since high-order QAMs are more sensitive to phase and amplitude noise, to implement an AOWC sub-system suitable for high-order QAM signals with minimized power penalty, it is important to optimize the operation conditions in order to avoid extra nonlinear distortions co-existed in the AOWC process. Our experimental results show that, constellation monitoring provides a more intuitive and accurate approach to monitor the converted high-order QAM signals, especially in presence of nonlinear phase noise such as self-phase modulation (SPM). We experimentally demonstrate an AOWC of 64QAM signal through four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly-nonlinear (HNLF). The performance of the AOWC is optimized through the constellation monitoring of the converted signal, achieving a negligible power penalty (<0.3 dB at BER of 10(-3)) for 60-Gbps 64QAM after conversion.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of intra-arterial treatment for massive gastrointestinal bleeding in hemodialysis patients.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of acute nonvariceal massive gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is higher in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in healthy individuals, and this is often a life-threatening event. We evaluated the efficacy of intra-arterial treatment for GIB in HD patients. Between January 2006 and June 2012, eight HD patients with GIB were treated with superselective transarterial embolization. Of the eight cases, one was duodenal bleeding, two were jejunal bleeding, one was ileocecum bleeding, two were ascending colonic bleeding, and two were sigmoid colonic bleeding. After examining the site of bleeding by endoscopy or contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), embolizations with microcoils, gelatin sponges, or N-butyl cyanoacrylate were performed through interventional radiology (IVR). In all cases, blood transfusions were frequently administered. Six of the eight patients with GIB were successfully salvaged by transarterial embolization. In one case, duodenal bleeding was refractory to endoscopic treatment. Embolization was performed twice in this case; however, the patient died of an aneurysm rupture at the embolization site 24 days after the embolizations. In another case, massive jejunal bleeding and disseminated intravascular coagulation were identified at the time of the first examination, and the patient died of multiorgan failure 26 days after the embolization. On the basis of our experience, we established an effective treatment strategy for HD patients with acute nonvariceal massive GIB, by immediately identifying the exact site and degree of bleeding using contrast-enhanced computed tomography and performing early treatment with transarterial embolization.
Related JoVE Video
ENCAPSULATING PERITONEAL SCLEROSIS IN THE ERA OF A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACH BASED ON BIOCOMPATIBLE SOLUTIONS: THE NEXT-PD STUDY.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Introduction: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Over the past decade in Japan, a multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to minimize the incidence and improve outcomes of EPS. This strategy includes planned PD discontinuation for high-risk patients and the introduction of biocompatible solutions. This study examined the current clinical status of EPS in representative PD centers in Japan. Design, setting, participants and measurements: Patients (n = 1,338) from 55 PD centers in Japan who were using neutral-pH solutions from the initiation of therapy (mean age, 62 years; median PD duration, 32 months; concomitant use of icodextrin, 35.2%; PD and hemodialysis combination therapy, 12.2%) were assessed every 6 months to ascertain the reasons for PD discontinuation and the development of EPS development. Outcomes were also recorded. The study period was from November 2008 to March 2012.
Related JoVE Video
Modeling and simulation of orlistat to predict weight loss and weight maintenance in obesity patients.
Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Orlistat is used clinically worldwide as anti-obesity drug. It is a chemically synthesized hydrogenated derivative of lipstatin and is an inhibitor of gastric and pancreatic lipases. It has been found to reduce the absorption of dietary fat in the gastrointestinal tract. Modeling and simulation based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis is becoming increasingly used in the design of clinical trials to assure that the trials are of high quality and are conducted efficiently. We developed a clinical trial simulation model for orlistat based on Phase III clinical study data. This innovative weight loss model includes the relationships between orlistat dose, changes in fecal fat excretion, and weight loss, and also incorporates a dropout function. The model guided the dose-finding strategy and allowed simulation of long-term clinical outcomes of orlistat.
Related JoVE Video
Catheter-related infection and septicemia: impact of seasonality and modifiable practices from the DOPPS.
Semin Dial
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemodialysis (HD) catheter-related infection (CRI) and septicemia contribute to adverse outcomes. The impact of seasonality and prophylactic dialysis practices during high-risk periods remain unexplored. This multicenter study analyzed DOPPS data from 12,122 HD patients (from 442 facilities) to determine the association between seasonally related climatic variables and CRI and septicemia. Climatic variables were determined by linkage to National Climatic Data Center of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data. Catheter care protocols were examined to determine if they could mitigate infection risk during high-risk seasons. Survival models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of septicemia by season and by facility catheter dressing protocol. The overall catheter-related septicemia rate was 0.47 per 1000 catheter days. It varied by season, with an AHR for summer of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19-1.80) compared with winter. Septicemia was associated with temperature (AHR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02-1.13; p < 0.001). Dressing protocols using chlorhexidine (AHR of septicemia = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39-0.78) were associated with fewest episodes of CRI or septicemia. Higher catheter-related septicemia in summer may be due to seasonal conditions (e.g., heat, perspiration) that facilitate bacterial growth and compromise protective measures. Extra vigilance and use of chlorhexidine-based dressing protocols may provide prophylaxis against CRI and septicemia.
Related JoVE Video
Exhaustive exercise increases the TNF-? production in response to flagellin via the upregulation of toll-like receptor 5 in the large intestine in mice.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although intense exercise may induce temporary immune depression, it is unclear whether exercise stimulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) production in response to flagella protein flagellin (FG), which binds to toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Male C3H/HeN mice were administered FG (1mg/kg, i.v.) after exhaustive exercise (EX), and the plasma TNF-? concentrations were examined. The production of TNF-? and the TLR5 expression in both RAW264 and Caco2 cells were measured under FG conditions in vitro. Although the plasma TNF-? concentrations were observed to significantly increase in both the EX and non-EX (N-EX) mice (p<0.01, respectively) following FG injection, the TNF-? levels in the EX mice were significantly higher than those observed in the N-EX mice (p<0.01). Epinephrine (Ep) treatment accelerated the FG-induced TNF-? production and TLR5 expression on the Caco2, but not RAW264 cells. Interestingly, a high Ep-induced TLR5 expression was observed on the Caco2 cell surface, which was inhibited by an inhibitor of phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K), Ly294002, as well as a ?-adrenergic blocker, propranolol. In addition, the EX-induced TNF-? production observed in response to FG was also attenuated by pretreatment with propranolol. Our findings suggest that exhaustive exercise upregulates the production of TNF-? in response to FG via a high expression of TLR5 on the intestinal cell surface following the stimulation of ?-adrenergic receptors with exercise.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of xenobiotic ligands for retinoid X receptors and thyroid hormone receptors in the aquatic environment of Taiwan.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various synthetic compounds are frequently discharged into the environment via human activities. Among them, certain contaminants may disrupt normal physiological functions of wildlife and humans via interactions with nuclear receptors. To protect human health and the environment, it is important to detect environmental ligands for human nuclear receptors. In this study, yeast-based reporter gene assays were used to investigate the occurrence of xenobiotic ligands for retinoid X receptors (RXR) and thyroid hormone receptors (TR) in the aquatic environment of Taiwan. Experimental results revealed that RXR agonist/antagonist activity was detected in river water and sediment samples. In particular, high RXR agonist/antagonist activity was found in the samples collected near river mouths. Additionally, few samples also elicited significant TR antagonist activity. Our findings show that the aquatic environment of Taiwan was contaminated with RXR and TR ligands. Further study is necessary to identify these xenobiotic RXR and TR agonists and antagonists.
Related JoVE Video
Development of yeast reporter assay for screening specific ligands of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptor subtypes.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retinoic acids are essential for embryonic development, tissue organization, and homeostasis and act via retinoic acid receptors (RARs) that form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Human RARs and RXRs include the three subtypes ?, ?, and ?, which have varying distributions and physiological functions among human tissues. Recent reports show that subtype-specific binding of several chemicals to RARs or RXRs may lead to endocrine disruption. To evaluate these ligand-like chemicals, convenient assay systems for each receptor subtype are required.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of the kampo medicine yokukansan on preoperative anxiety and sedation levels.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background. Preoperative anxiety can lead to unfavorable physiological response such as tachycardia and hypertension. Prevention of preoperative anxiety improves surgical outcome and decreases inpatient stay. Yokukansan is one of prescriptions in Kampo, traditional Japanese herbal medicine, and is known to exert anxiolytic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of diazepam and Yokukansan on preoperative anxiety, salivary amylase activity, and sedation levels. Methods. Seventy American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II patients presenting for hemicolectomy under general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia were enrolled. The Diazepam group received diazepam 5?mg orally and the Yokukansan group received Yokukansan 2.5?g orally. Results. Although levels of anxiety and salivary amylase activity were not different between the two groups, the modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale of the Yokukansan group was significantly higher compared to that of the Diazepam group. Conclusion. Yokukansan alleviated preoperative anxiety without undesirable sedation, when compared with diazepam.
Related JoVE Video
Dialysis and quality of dialysate in southeast asian developing countries.
Nephron Extra
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia.
Related JoVE Video
A comparison of 3-D computed tomography versus 2-D radiography measurements of ulnar variance and ulnolunate distance during forearm rotation.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Positive ulnar variance is associated with ulnar impaction syndrome and ulnar variance is reported to increase with pronation. However, radiographic measurement can be affected markedly by the incident angle of the X-ray beam. We performed three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography measurements of ulnar variance and ulnolunate distance during forearm rotation and compared these with plain radiographic measurements in 15 healthy wrists. From supination to pronation, ulnar variance increased in all cases on the radiographs; mean ulnar variance increased significantly and mean ulnolunate distance decreased significantly. However on 3-D imaging, ulna variance decreased in 12 cases on moving into pronation and increased in three cases; neither the mean ulnar variance nor mean ulnolunate distance changed significantly. Our results suggest that the forearm position in which ulnar variance increased varies among individuals. This may explain why some patients with ulnar impaction syndrome complain of wrist pain exacerbated by forearm supination. It also suggests that standard radiographic assessments of ulnar variance are unreliable.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of amino Acid residues in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor causing the species-specific response to omeprazole: possible determinants for binding putative endogenous ligands.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Omeprazole (OME) induces the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as CYP1A1, via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) both in vivo and in vitro. However, the precise mechanism of OME-mediated AhR activation is still under investigation. While elucidating species-specific susceptibility to dioxin, we found that OME-mediated AhR activation was mammalian species specific. Moreover, we previously reported that OME has inhibitory activity toward CYP1A1 enzymes. From these observations, we speculated that OME-mediated AhR target gene transcription is due to AhR activation by increasing amounts of putative AhR ligands in serum by inhibition of CYP1A1 activity. We compared the amino acid sequences of OME-sensitive rabbit AhR and nonsensitive mouse AhR to identify the residues responsible for the species-specific response. Chimeric AhRs were constructed by exchanging domains between mouse and rabbit AhRs to define the region required for the response to OME. OME-mediated transactivation was observed only with the chimeric AhR that included the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the rabbit AhR. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed three amino acids (M328, T353, and F367) in the rabbit AhR that were responsible for OME-mediated transactivation. Replacing these residues with those of the mouse AhR abolished the response of the rabbit AhR. In contrast, substitutions of these amino acids with those of the rabbit AhR altered nonsensitive mouse AhR to become sensitive to OME. These results suggest that OME-mediated AhR activation requires a specific structure within LBD that is probably essential for binding with enigmatic endogenous ligands.
Related JoVE Video
Curcumin attenuates oxidative stress following downhill running-induced muscle damage.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Downhill running causes muscle damage, and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. Recently, it is shown that curcumin possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials. Interestingly, curcumin reduces inflammatory cytokine concentrations in skeletal muscle after downhill running of mice. However, it is not known whether curcumin affects oxidative stress after downhill running-induced muscle damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress following downhill running induced-muscle damage. We also investigated whether curcumin affects macrophage infiltration via chemokines such as MCP-1 and CXCL14. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups; rest, rest plus curcumin, downhill running, or downhill running plus curcumin. Downhill running mice ran at 22m/min, -15% grade on the treadmill for 150min. Curcumin (3mg) was administered in oral administration immediately after downhill running. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and NADPH-oxidase mRNA expression in the downhill running mice were significantly higher than those in the rest mice, but these variables were significantly attenuated by curcumin administration in downhill running mice. In addition, mRNA expression levels of MCP-1, CXCL14 and F4/80 reflecting presence of macrophages in the downhill running mice were significantly higher than those in the rest mice. However, MCP-1 and F4/80 mRNA expression levels were significantly attenuated by curcumin administration in downhill running mice. Curcumin may attenuate oxidative stress following downhill running-induced muscle damage.
Related JoVE Video
Distal ulnar-basilic fistula as the first hemodialysis access.
J Vasc Access
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose: A distal forearm ulnar-basilic (UB) arteriovenous fistula (AVF) can be chosen if a radial-cephalic (RC)-AVF is not suitable for a primary AVF. However, limited data are available on the feasibility of using a distal forearm UB-AVF as an option for primary AVF. Methods: This retrospective analysis included 446 patients for whom AVFs (417 RC and 29 UB) had been newly created from January 2003 to December 2009, at our hospital. Patients in whom the arterial or venous anatomy precluded RC-AVF creation, UB-AVF was established as distally as possible on the forearm. Patency, defined as access survival after creation, was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The difference in patency between the two groups was examined using log-rank test. Results: The primary patency of UB-AVFs was significantly lower than that of RC-AVFs (p=0.037, log-rank test). The primary patency rate at 1 year was 25.0% versus 44.7%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in secondary patency between the two groups. The secondary patency rate at 1 year was 85.5% for UB-AVFs versus 82.9% for RC-AVFs. The incidence rate of percutaneous angioplasty until access abandonment per patient-years was 1.100 for UB-AVFs versus 0.671 for RC-AVFs. There was no difference in the time to maturation between the two groups. Conclusions: The secondary patency rate of UB-AVF is similar to that of RC-AVF. We recommend the creation of an UB-AVF when an RC-AVF is not a suitable option for the primary AVF.
Related JoVE Video
Exercise training attenuates adipose tissue fibrosis in diet-induced obese mice.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tissue fibrosis, such as that which occurs in obesity, is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Although regular exercise reduces adipose tissue inflammation, the mechanisms regulating the effects of exercise on adipose tissue fibrosis are unclear. This study aimed to clarify whether exercise training attenuates adipose tissue fibrosis with consequent reduction of extracellular matrix including collagens. Male C57BL/6J (4-week old) mice were randomly assigned to four groups that received a normal diet (ND) plus sedentary (n=8), an ND plus exercise training (n=8), a high-fat diet (HFD) plus sedentary (n=12), and an HFD plus exercise training (n=12). Mice were fed the ND or HFD from 4 to 20 weeks of age. The exercise groups were trained on a motorized treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 times/week over the same period. Histological hepatic fibrosis detected by Sirius red and ?-smooth muscle actin staining were attenuated in HFD exercise mice compared with HFD sedentary mice. mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-? and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1, major regulators of tissue fibrosis, were increased in HFD sedentary mice but were attenuated in HFD exercise mice. Similarly, adipose tissue from the HFD sedentary mice contained higher macrophages than adipose tissue from the ND mice, and this was also lowered by exercise training. These findings suggest that exercise training may be effective for attenuating adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Hemodialysis patient preference for type of vascular access: variation and predictors across countries in the DOPPS.
J Vasc Access
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Catheters are associated with worse clinical outcomes than fistulas and grafts in hemodialysis (HD) patients. One potential modifier of patient vascular access (VA) use is patient preference for a particular VA type. The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of patient VA preference that could be used to improve patient care.
Related JoVE Video
Intra-Arterial Treatment for Massive Subcutaneous Hemorrhage in Hemodialysis Patients.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of acute massive hemorrhage in hemodialysis (HD) patients is thought to be higher than in healthy individuals, and a large, expanding subcutaneous hematoma can result in necrosis of the overlying skin. We evaluated the efficacy of intra-arterial treatment for acute massive subcutaneous hemorrhage in HD patients. Seven HD patients with subcutaneous hemorrhage following minor blunt trauma were treated using superselective transarterial embolization, between July 2005 and October 2012. After examining the site of the hemorrhage using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), embolizations were performed using microcoils, gelatin sponges, or N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Hematoma evacuation or skin grafting was performed as needed. Four men and three women with a mean age of 70 years (range, 63-82 years) comprised the study population. Sites of bleeding were as follows: lower leg (N?=?3), upper leg (N?=?1), buttock (N?=?1), precordia (N?=?1), and forearm (N?=?1). Blood transfusions were administered to five cases. All patients were successfully salvaged using transarterial embolization. Six patients underwent hematoma evacuation after transarterial embolization, and two patients underwent split-thickness skin grafting for skin necrosis. We established a treatment strategy for HD patients with acute subcutaneous hemorrhage. Immediate confirmation of the site and the degree of bleeding with contrast-enhanced CT and early treatment using the transarterial embolization and as needed, hematoma evacuation are effective for preventing skin necrosis in HD patients with acute subcutaneous hemorrhage.
Related JoVE Video
Oxidative DNA damage and mammary cell proliferation by alcohol-derived salsolinol.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Drinking alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer. Salsolinol (SAL) is endogenously formed by a condensation reaction of dopamine with acetaldehyde, a major ethanol metabolite, and SAL is detected in blood and urine after alcohol intake. We investigated the possibility that SAL can participate in tumor initiation and promotion by causing DNA damage and cell proliferation, leading to alcohol-associated mammary carcinogenesis. SAL caused oxidative DNA damage including 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), in the presence of transition metal ions, such as Cu(II) and Fe(III)EDTA. Inhibitory effects of scavengers on SAL-induced DNA damage and the electron spin resonance study indicated the involvement of H?O?, which is generated via the SAL radical. Experiments on scavengers and site specificity of DNA damage suggested ·OH generation via a Fenton reaction and copper-peroxide complexes in the presence of Fe(III)EDTA and Cu(II), respectively. SAL significantly increased 8-oxodG formation in normal mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells. In addition, SAL induced cell proliferation in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative MCF-10A cells, and the proliferation was inhibited by an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor AG1478, suggesting that reactive oxygen species may participate in the proliferation of MCF-10A cells via EGFR activation. Furthermore, SAL induced proliferation in estrogen-sensitive breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and a surface plasmon resonance sensor revealed that SAL significantly increased the binding activity of ER? to the estrogen response element but not ER?. In conclusion, SAL-induced DNA damage and cell proliferation may play a role in tumor initiation and promotion of multistage mammary carcinogenesis in relation to drinking alcohol.
Related JoVE Video
Peritoneal cell sheets composed of mesothelial cells and fibroblasts prevent intra-abdominal adhesion formation in a rat model.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions remain an unsolved problem despite significant progress in the surgical procedures themselves. They often lead to small-bowel obstruction, chronic abdominal and pelvic pain, as well as female infertility. The loss of mesothelial cells and several components of the inflammatory system following injury to the peritoneum results in fibrin formation and angiogenesis. The remaining fibrin matrix and angiogenesis lead to replacement by fibroblasts and fibrous band formation. The aim of this study was to develop a new therapeutic method of preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. We fabricated transplantable peritoneal cell sheets from the rat peritoneum by cell sheet engineering using a temperature-responsive culture system. The peritoneal cell sheets developed were composed of an upper monolayer of mesothelial cells and underlying multilayered fibroblasts, similar to the peritoneum in vivo. Transplantation of peritoneal cell sheets prevented tissue adhesion, fibrin deposition and angiogenesis, and, moreover, lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in a rat caecum cauterization adhesion model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Exercise attenuates M1 macrophages and CD8+ T cells in the adipose tissue of obese mice.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, which has been attributed to changes in the number and types of leukocytes in adipose tissue. Exercise training is thought to be important for the reduction of adipose tissue inflammation, but the mechanisms by which this may occur are incompletely understood. Here, we evaluated the effect of exercise training on several inflammation-associated changes in adipose tissue, including infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and T cells.
Related JoVE Video
Multi-tone parallel coherent matched detection for demultiplexing of superchannels.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper presents multi-tone parallel coherent matched detection that orthogonally detects superchannels without crosstalk between neighboring channels. The receiver consists of multiple sets of multi-tone coherent matched detector employed in parallel. In each detector, the received superchannels signal is homodyne mixed in multi frequency with locally generated multi-tone optical frequency comb; detected is a signal set that has the amplitude and phase exactly matched with the local comb. By launching orthogonal sets of local comb to the multiple parallel coherent matched detectors, the received superchannels are orthogonally downconverted to the baseband frequencies keeping the amplitude and phase information of all channels included. With an aid of n × n transform matrix, all channels are separately recovered from the downconverted signal sets. The system does not rely on any optical filters for channel demultiplexing and separation, with increased flexibility in wavelength arrangement. In addition, the parallel configuration equivalently enhance the bandwidth of the coherent matched detector keeping the speed in each tributary channel as high as possible. In this paper, it is experimentally demonstrated that even-odd interleaved 23 × 20-Gb/s QPSK superchannels are orthogonally demultiplexed and detected by two-tone coherent matched detection.
Related JoVE Video
DNA Damage in Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis and Cancer Stem Cells.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infection and chronic inflammation have been recognized as important factors for carcinogenesis. Under inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from inflammatory and epithelial cells and result in oxidative and nitrative DNA damage, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-nitroguanine. The DNA damage can cause mutations and has been implicated in the initiation and/or promotion of inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis. It has been estimated that various infectious agents are carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1), including parasites (Schistosoma haematobium (SH) and Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)), viruses (hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)), and bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP). SH, OV, HCV, HPV, EBV, and HP are important risk factors for bladder cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cervical cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric cancer, respectively. We demonstrated that 8-nitroguanine was strongly formed via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression at these cancer sites of patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in SH-associated bladder cancer tissues and in Oct3/4- and CD133-positive stem cells in OV-associated cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Therefore, it is considered that oxidative and nitrative DNA damage in stem cells may play a key role in inflammation-related carcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Physicochemical properties and in vitro intestinal permeability properties and intestinal cell toxicity of silica particles, performed in simulated gastrointestinal fluids.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amorphous silica particles with the primary dimensions of a few tens of nm, have been widely applied as additives in various fields including medicine and food. Especially, they have been widely applied in powders for making tablets and to coat tablets. However, their behavior and biological effects in the gastrointestinal tracts associated with oral administration remains unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Inflammation-related DNA damage and expression of CD133 and Oct3/4 in cholangiocarcinoma patients with poor prognosis.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage plays an important role in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation such as parasite infection and primary sclerosing cholangitis can be an etiological factor of cholangiocarcinoma. Using a proteomic approach and double-fluorescent staining, we identified high expression and colocalization of albumin and cytokeratin-19 in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma tissues, compared with normal livers from cholangiocarcinoma patients and cadaveric donors, respectively. Albumin was detected not only in cells of hyperplastic bile ducts and cholangiocarcinoma, but also in liver stem/progenitor cell origin, such as canal of Hering, ductules, and ductular reactions, suggesting the involvement of stem/progenitor cells in cholangiocarcinoma development. To clarify the involvement of liver stem/progenitor cells in cholangiocarcinoma, we examined several stem/progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD44, OV6, and Oct3/4) in cholangiocarcinoma tissues analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and measured 8-oxodG levels by using HPLC-ECD as an inflammation-related DNA lesion. In addition, a stem/progenitor cell factor Bmi1, 8-nitroguanine (formed during nitrative DNA damage), DNA damage response (DDR) proteins (phosphorylated ATM and ?-H2AX), and manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Stem/progenitor cell markers (CD133, OV6, CD44, and Oct3/4) were positively stained in 56, 38, 47, and 56% of 34 cholangiocarcinoma cases, respectively. Quantitative analysis of 8-oxodG revealed significantly increased levels in CD133- and/or Oct3/4-positive tumor tissues compared to negative tumor tissues, as well as 8-nitroguanine formation detected by immunohistochemistry. In the cases of CD44- and/or OV6-positive tissue, no significant difference was observed. Cholangiocarcinoma patients with CD133- and/or Oct3/4-positive tumor tissues showed significantly lower expression of Mn-SOD and higher DDR protein, ?-H2AX. Moreover, CD133- and/or Oct3/4-positive cholangiocarcinoma patients had significant associations with tumor histology types, tumor stage, and poor prognoses. Our results suggest that CD133 and Oct3/4 in cholangiocarcinoma are associated with increased formation of DNA lesions and the DDR protein, which may be involved in genetic instability and lead to cholangiocarcinoma development with aggressive clinical features.
Related JoVE Video
Genotoxicity and reactive oxygen species production induced by magnetite nanoparticles in mammalian cells.
J Toxicol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the genotoxicity of magnetite nanoparticles (primary particle size: 10 nm) on human A549 and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) AA8 cells. Six hours treatment with the particles dose-dependently increased the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in the A549 and CHO AA8 cells up to 5.2% and 5.0% at a dose of 200 µg/ml (34 µg/cm²), respectively. In A549 cells, treatment with the nano-particles (2 µg/ml) for 1 hr induced H2AX phosphorylation, which is suggestive of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). Treating CHO AA8 cells with 2 µg/ml (0.34 µg/cm²) magnetite for 1 hour resulted in a five times higher frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) than the control level. We detected reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CHO cells treated with the particles. These findings indicate that magnetite nano-particles induce ROS in mammalian cells, leading to the direct or indirect induction of DSB, followed by clastogenic events including MN and SCE.
Related JoVE Video
Cerebral Blood Flow and Oxygen Metabolism Measurements Using Positron Emission Tomography on the First Day after Carotid Artery Stenting.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study is the characterization of hemodynamics to predict hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) after carotid artery stenting (CAS) with positron emission tomography (PET) obtained before and on the first day after the treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Significance of Postoperative Changes in Redundant Nerve Roots Following Decompressive Laminectomy for Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The postoperative time course of redundant nerve roots (RNRs) in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is currently unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between postoperative morphological changes in detected RNRs and clinical outcome of patients with LSCS.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of brain amyloid ? deposition in patients with neuropsychological impairment after traumatic brain injury: PET evaluation using Pittsburgh Compound-B.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an epigenetic risk factor for Alzheimers disease (AD) and amyloid ? (A?) deposition is observed histopathologically in the traumatized brain. This study was conducted to detect cerebral A? deposition using amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with neuropsychological impairment after TBI.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of low-volume walking programme and vitamin E supplementation on oxidative damage and health-related variables in healthy older adults.
Nutr Metab (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both exercise and vitamin E supplementation have been shown to reduce oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk in older adults, and when combined there is evidence suggesting that they act synergistically. The currently recommended amount of exercise for older adults is 150 min/week of moderate-intensity exercise; however, the minimum amount of exercise necessary to achieve health benefits is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of participation in a low-volume walking exercise programme (i.e. 90 min/week) combined with daily vitamin E supplementation on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations in older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Flexible high-order QAM transmitter using tandem IQ modulators for generating 16/32/36/64-QAM with balanced complexity in electronics and optics.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to adapt to the dynamics in the future optical networks, we propose a flexible high-order QAM transmitter using a tandem in-phase/quadrature (IQ) modulators to synthesize different high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) formats, such as 16QAM, 32 or 36QAM and 64QAM. To generate high-order QAMs, an offset-QAM is firstly generated using an IQ modulator driven by electronics with reduced modulation-level, and then mapped to other quadrants through another following IQ modulator configured as a standard quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulator. All of the embedded sub-Mach-Zehnder modulators are operated in push-pull configurations to avoid introducing excess phase chirp. In contrast with the schemes based on a single IQ modulator driven by multilevel electronics or a highly-integrated parallel modulator, by deploying commercially-available optical modulators and driving electronics with reduced modulation-level, the transmitter complexity in optics and electronics is well-balanced. In the case of generating optical 64QAM, different from another tandem scheme deploying dual-drive IQ modulator driven by independent four binary streams, less phase chirp is observed in our proposed scheme, and comparable implementation penalty is obtained even without applying additional specific compensation algorithm in the coherent receiver. Moreover, thanks to the tandem structure and the deployment of QPSK modulator, the obtained high-order QAM is naturally differentially coded, which is helpful to solve the phase ambiguity at coherent receiver. We experimentally demonstrate the generations of these high-order QAMs including 16QAM, 32/36QAM and 64QAM, and confirm the error-free operations with comparable BER performance to the "electrical" approach based on a single IQ modulator.
Related JoVE Video
Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling and simulation of neutropenia induced by TP300, a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TP300 is a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor with neutropenia as a significant toxicity. We developed and evaluated a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model, using data from Phase I and II trials to predict neutrophil decrease in patients treated with TP300.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective assessment of pain and functional status after percutaneous vertebral body-perforation procedure for treatment of vertebral compression fractures.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Percutaneous vertebral body perforation is a new technique for treating painful vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We prospectively evaluated this treatment in 45 consecutive patients with 63 VCFs treated at our hospital between September and December 2009. In all patients, long-term conservative treatment had failed to achieve pain relief, resulting in reduced changes in activities of daily living (ADL). We evaluated visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain before and after vertebral body perforation as well as in the chronic phase, changes in ADL, whether recipients would recommend this treatment, and complications. The mean VAS score improved from 6.9 ± 1.9 before surgery to 3.6 ± 2.9 immediately after surgery, and to 2.5 ± 2.1 at 3 months. ADL was improved in 27 patients, and walking became possible in 16 of 24 patients who had been unable to walk. Nearly two-thirds of patients would strongly recommend this treatment to others. The analgesic effect of vertebral body perforation was significantly lower in patients with than in those without vertebral pseudarthrosis before surgery. Only 1 patient suffered a new fracture during the 3-month period after surgery, but there were no perioperative complications. Vertebral body perforation for painful VCFs can achieve early improvement of ADL due to the analgesic effect in carefully selected patients and is a safe treatment with a low frequency of complications.
Related JoVE Video
Adduct formation and repair, and translesion DNA synthesis across the adducts in human cells exposed to 3-nitrobenzanthrone.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-nitro-7H-benz[d,e]anthracen-7-one, 3-NBA) is a potent environmental mutagen that is found in diesel exhaust fumes and airborne particulates. It is known to produce several DNA adducts, including three major adducts N-(2-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-N-ABA), 2-(2-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dA-N(6)-C2-ABA), and 2-(2-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-N(2)-C2-ABA) in mammalian cells. In the present study, we measured the quantity of the formation and subsequent reduction of these adducts in human hepatoma HepG2 cells that had been treated with 3-NBA using LC-MS/MS analysis. As a result, dG-C8-N-ABA and dG-N(2)-C2-ABA were identified as major adducts in the HepG2 cells, and dA-N(6)-C2-ABA was found to be a minor adduct. Treatment with 1?g/mL 3-NBA for 24h induced the formation of 2835±1509 dG-C8-N-ABA and 3373±1173 dG-N(2)-C2-ABA per 10(7) dG and 877±330 dA-N(6)-C2-ABA per 10(7) dA in the cells. The cellular DNA repair system removed the dG-C8-N-ABA and dA-N(6)-C2-ABA adducts more efficiently than the dG-N(2)-C2-ABA adducts. After a 24-h repair period, 86.4±11.1% of the dG-N(2)-C2-ABA adducts remained, whereas only 51.7±2.7% of the dG-C8-N-ABA adducts and 37.8±1.7% of the dA-N(6)-C2-ABA adducts were present in the cells. We also evaluated the efficiency of bypasses across these three adducts and their mutagenic potency by introducing site-specific mono-modified plasmids into human cells. This translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) assay showed that dG-C8-N-ABA blocked DNA replication markedly (its replication frequency was 16.9±2.7%), while the replication arrests induced by dG-N(2)-C2-ABA and dA-N(6)-C2-ABA were more moderate (their replication frequencies were 33.3±6.2% and 43.1±7.5%, respectively). Mutagenic TLS was observed more frequently in replication across dG-C8-N-ABA (30.6%) than in replication across dG-N(2)-C2-ABA (12.1%) or dA-N(6)-C2-ABA (12.1%). These findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanism of 3-NBA-mutagenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Cost-effectiveness analysis of on-line hemodiafiltration in Japan.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evaluation of the socioeconomic value of medical intervention and establishment of the resources necessary for clinical practice are important for new developments in medical technology. The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic value of on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF).
Related JoVE Video
What can we expect from on-line hemodiafiltration?
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On-line hemodiafiltration (ol-HDF) may improve clinical outcome in ESRD. The supposed mechanism is the improved clearance of uremic toxins by convective transport which is added to the diffusion transport. However, recent marked improvement in the performance of dialyzers has allowed higher removal rate of middle to large solutes by diffusion. It is inaccurate to define substances with a higher molecular weight such as uremic toxins. In addition, new methods should be developed for the removal of protein-bound substances. A technical fee for on-line HDF was newly established on the revision of the reimbursement for medical services Japan in 2012 and clearly separated from off-line HDF. As a facility requirement, the calculation of addition for maintaining dialysis fluid water quality was added. Evidence for the clinical effects of ol-HDF have been reported mainly in Europe but is still inaccurate. To confirm the effectiveness of ol-HDF, randomized comparative trials on hemodialysis using super high-flux dialyzers and ol-HDF with same performance hemodiafilter are necessary.
Related JoVE Video
One-year follow up after admission to an emergency department for drug overdose in Japan.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for repetition of suicidal behavior within a year after admission for drug overdose in Japan.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and therapeutic efficacy of the second treatment for new fractures developed after initial vertebroplasty performed for painful vertebral compression fractures.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is no report on the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the second treatment for new vertebral fractures developed after vertebroplasty. This study aims to examine the therapeutic effects and clinical characteristics in patients undergoing a second vertebroplasty for these new fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Protection by taurine against INOS-dependent DNA damage in heavily exercised skeletal muscle by inhibition of the NF-?B signaling pathway.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Taurine protects against tissue damage in a variety of models involving inflammation, especially the muscle. We set up a heavy exercise bout protocol for rats consisting of climbing ran on a treadmill to examine the effect of an intraabdominal dose of taurine (300 mg/kg/day) administered 1 h before heavy exercise for ten consecutive days. Each group ran on the treadmill at 20 m/min, 25% grade, for 20 min or until exhaustion within 20 min once each 10 days. Exhaustion was the point when an animal was unable to right itself when placed on its side. The muscle damage was associated with an increased accumulation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-OHdG in the nuclei of skeletal muscle cells. The immunoreactivities for NF-?B and iNOS were also increased in the exercise group. Taurine ameliorated heavy exercise-induced muscle DNA damage to a significant extent since it reduced the accumulation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-OHdG, possibly by down-regulating the expression of iNOS through a modulatory action on NF-?B signaling pathway. This study demonstrates for the first time that taurine can protect against intense exercise-induced nitrosative inflammation and ensuing DNA damage in the skeletal muscle of rats by preventing iNOS expression and the nitrosative stress generated by heavy exercise.
Related JoVE Video
Investigating self-homodyne coherent detection in a 19 channel space-division-multiplexed transmission link.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigate the performance of a self-homodyne coherent detection (SHCD) system using a 19 core multi-core fiber (MCF) and 16 wavelength-division-multiplexed channels. We show that SHCD, with the pilot-tone transmitted on a single MCF core and information carrying signals on the remaining cores, is compatible with space-division-multiplexed transmission, potentially relaxing laser linewidth and digital signal processing requirements due to phase noise cancellation. However, inter-core crosstalk can have an impact on performance and core selection.
Related JoVE Video
Translesion DNA synthesis across various DNA adducts produced by 3-nitrobenzanthrone in Escherichia coli.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) across lesions derived from the air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in Escherichia coli, we constructed site-specifically modified plasmids containing single molecule adducts derived from 3-nitrobenzanthrone. For this experiment, we adopted a modified version of the method developed by Fuchs et al. [29]. Each plasmid contained one of the following lesions in its LacZ gene: N-(2-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-N-ABA); 2-(2-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-N(2)-C2-ABA); 2-(2-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-C2-ABA); 2-(2-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dA-N(6)-C2-ABA); N-(2-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-acetylaminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-N-AcABA); or 2-(2-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-acetylaminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-C2-AcABA). All of the adducts inhibited DNA synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases in E. coli; however, the extent of the inhibition varied among the adducts. All five dG-adducts strongly blocked replication by replicative DNA polymerases; however, the dA-adduct only weakly blocked DNA replication. The induction of the SOS response increased the frequency of TLS, which was higher for the dG-C8-C2-ABA, dG-C8-N-AcABA and dG-C8-C2-AcABA adducts than for the other adducts. In our previous study, dG-C8-N-ABA blocked DNA replication more strongly and induced mutations more frequently than dG-N(2)-C2-ABA in human cells. In contrast, in E. coli the frequency of TLS over dG-N(2)-C2-ABA was markedly reduced, even under the SOS(+) conditions, and dG-N(2)-C2-ABA induced G to T mutations. All of the other adducts were bypassed in a less mutagenic manner. In addition, using E. coli strains that lacked particular DNA polymerases we found that DNA polymerase V was responsible for TLS over dG-C8-N-AcABA and dG-C8-C2-AcABA adducts.
Related JoVE Video
Auricular acupuncture at the "shenmen" and "point zero" points induced parasympathetic activation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose. Since auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the bodys dysfunction, auricular acupuncture has been applied for pain relief, relaxation, and so on. These techniques would modulate the autonomic nerve system, thereby inducing the above-mentioned effects. The aim was to see the effect of auricular acupuncture applied to the "Shenmen" and "Point Zero" points on the postoperative heart rate variability (HRV). Methods. Twenty-six patients who underwent hemicolectomy under general anesthesia were randomized into the control or the acupuncture group. After the operation and before emergence, the acupuncture group received auricular acupuncture. An electrocardiographic unit was placed for recording the autonomic nervous activities. Results. The low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio of HRV increased (P = 0.0007) in the control, but the ratio in the acupuncture did not change. There were significant differences between the ratios of the two groups at 3?:?00, 4?:?00, and 5?:?00. HF of the acupuncture group tended to be higher. HFs of the acupuncture group were significantly higher than those of the control group at 3?:?00, 4?:?00, and 5?:?00. Conclusion. Auricular acupuncture kept the LF/HF ratio at lower levels and HF at higher levels during postoperative period in the patients who had undergone hemicolectomy.
Related JoVE Video
[A case of intrahepatic recurrence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated with repeated hepatectomy].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 60-year-old man with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) underwent a left hepatectomy. Following the procedure, S-1 was administered during the period of five months. About two years after the hepatectomy, the patient underwent a hepatic resection again for remunant hepatic recurrences of ICC. Aggressive surgical resection may be the only method to assure a good outcome. An indication of resection for the hepatic recurrence of ICC will be examined in the future.
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.