Inflammation-related DNA damage and expression of CD133 and Oct3/4 in cholangiocarcinoma patients with poor prognosis.
Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage plays an important role in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation such as parasite infection and primary sclerosing cholangitis can be an etiological factor of cholangiocarcinoma. Using a proteomic approach and double-fluorescent staining, we identified high expression and colocalization of albumin and cytokeratin-19 in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma tissues, compared with normal livers from cholangiocarcinoma patients and cadaveric donors, respectively. Albumin was detected not only in cells of hyperplastic bile ducts and cholangiocarcinoma, but also in liver stem/progenitor cell origin, such as canal of Hering, ductules, and ductular reactions, suggesting the involvement of stem/progenitor cells in cholangiocarcinoma development. To clarify the involvement of liver stem/progenitor cells in cholangiocarcinoma, we examined several stem/progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD44, OV6, and Oct3/4) in cholangiocarcinoma tissues analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and measured 8-oxodG levels by using HPLC-ECD as an inflammation-related DNA lesion. In addition, a stem/progenitor cell factor Bmi1, 8-nitroguanine (formed during nitrative DNA damage), DNA damage response (DDR) proteins (phosphorylated ATM and ?-H2AX), and manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Stem/progenitor cell markers (CD133, OV6, CD44, and Oct3/4) were positively stained in 56, 38, 47, and 56% of 34 cholangiocarcinoma cases, respectively. Quantitative analysis of 8-oxodG revealed significantly increased levels in CD133- and/or Oct3/4-positive tumor tissues compared to negative tumor tissues, as well as 8-nitroguanine formation detected by immunohistochemistry. In the cases of CD44- and/or OV6-positive tissue, no significant difference was observed. Cholangiocarcinoma patients with CD133- and/or Oct3/4-positive tumor tissues showed significantly lower expression of Mn-SOD and higher DDR protein, ?-H2AX. Moreover, CD133- and/or Oct3/4-positive cholangiocarcinoma patients had significant associations with tumor histology types, tumor stage, and poor prognoses. Our results suggest that CD133 and Oct3/4 in cholangiocarcinoma are associated with increased formation of DNA lesions and the DDR protein, which may be involved in genetic instability and lead to cholangiocarcinoma development with aggressive clinical features.