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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Epigenetic regulation of CD271, a potential cancer stem cell marker associated with chemoresistance and metastatic capacity.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the cause of tumor initiation, metastasis and recurrence. Additionally, CSCs are responsible for the failure of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The isolation and identification of CSCs is crucial for facilitating the monitoring, therapy or prevention of cancer. We aimed to identify esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) stem-like cells, the epigenetic mechanism and identify novel biomarkers for targeting ESCC CSCs. Sixty-three paired ESCC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were included in this study. CD271, which was identified as the CSC marker for melanoma, was assessed using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using flow cytometry, we isolated CD271+ cells comprising 7.5% of cancer cells from the KYSE70 cell line. Sphere formation and anchorage-independent growth were analyzed in CD271+ and CD271- cancer cells, respectively. qPCR was used to detect stem-related genes and CCK-8 was performed to analyze the sensitivity to chemotherapy in the two groups. Bisul?te genomic sequencing was used to analyze the methylation status. CD271 expression was significantly higher in ESCC tissues than in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Compared with CD271- cancer cells, CD271+ cancer cells showed a higher ability of sphere and colony formation, a high level expression of stem-related gene, and resistance to chemotherapy. The expression of CD271 was induced by a demethylation agent. In conclusion, CD271+ ESCC cells possess stem-like properties. CD271 can potentially act as a prognostic marker for ESCC, whose expression is regulated epigenetically.
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Assessment of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor as an oncogene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its potential implication in chemotherapy.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a tyrosine kinase receptor implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. After ligand binding, IGF-1R can initiate the activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathways to modulate cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, motility, invasion and angiogenesis. IGF-1R is a prerequisite for tumor progression and is one of the most attractive targets for therapeutic interventions in several types of cancer. In the present study, we determined the expression of IGF-1R in an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cohort, investigated the detailed function of IGF-1R and screened the potential application of IGF-1R in the clinic. We verified the higher expression of IGF-1R in ESCC tumor tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. We also found that high expression of IGF-1R was associated with advanced tumor progression. We used ESCC cell lines and a mouse xenograft model to detect the function of IGF-1R in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest the oncogenic function of IGF-1R in regulating cell proliferation, clonogenesis, the cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, we found that IGF-1R was associated with the response to standard chemotherapy drugs 5-FU and cisplatin in an ESCC cell line. More importantly, we confirmed that the serum concentration of IGF-1/IGFBP3 can be used for predicting response to chemotherapy, and increased serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 are associated with significantly higher rates of tumor response. In the present study, we demonstrated that IGF-1R is an important oncogene in ESCC and can be used to detect the chemotherapeutic response.
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A flexible and high-voltage internal tandem supercapacitor based on graphene-based porous materials with ultrahigh energy density.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Pursuing higher working voltage and packaged energy density, an internal tandem supercapacitor has been successfully designed and fabricated based on graphene-based porous carbon hybrid material. Compared with the packaged energy density of 27.2 Wh kgcell (-1) and working voltage of 3.5 V using EMIMBF4 electrolyte for the conventional single-cell supercapacitor, the internal tandem device with the same material achieves a much higher working voltage of 7 V as well as a significantly improved energy density of 36.3 Wh kgcell (-1) (increased by 33%), which is also about 7 times of that of the state-of-art commercial supercapacitors. A flexible internal tandem device is also designed and fabricated and demonstrated similar excellent performance.
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CD26/DPP4 Cell-Surface Expression in Bat Cells Correlates with Bat Cell Susceptibility to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Infection and Evolution of Persistent Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently isolated betacoronavirus identified as the etiologic agent of a frequently fatal disease in Western Asia, Middle East respiratory syndrome. Attempts to identify the natural reservoirs of MERS-CoV have focused in part on dromedaries. Bats are also suspected to be reservoirs based on frequent detection of other betacoronaviruses in these mammals. For this study, ten distinct cell lines derived from bats of divergent species were exposed to MERS-CoV. Plaque assays, immunofluorescence assays, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that six bat cell lines can be productively infected. We found that the susceptibility or resistance of these bat cell lines directly correlates with the presence or absence of cell surface-expressed CD26/DPP4, the functional human receptor for MERS-CoV. Human anti-CD26/DPP4 antibodies inhibited infection of susceptible bat cells in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of human CD26/DPP4 receptor conferred MERS-CoV susceptibility to resistant bat cell lines. Finally, sequential passage of MERS-CoV in permissive bat cells established persistent infection with concomitant downregulation of CD26/DPP4 surface expression. Together, these results imply that bats indeed could be among the MERS-CoV host spectrum, and that cellular restriction of MERS-CoV is determined by CD26/DPP4 expression rather than by downstream restriction factors.
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Nonhuman transferrin receptor 1 is an efficient cell entry receptor for ocozocoautla de espinosa virus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus (OCEV) is a novel, uncultured arenavirus. We found that the OCEV glycoprotein mediates entry into grivet and bat cells through transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) binding but that OCEV glycoprotein precursor (GPC)-pseudotyped retroviruses poorly entered 53 human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, OCEV and Tacaribe virus could use bat, but not human, TfR1. Replacing three human TfR1 amino acids with their bat ortholog counterparts transformed human TfR1 into an efficient OCEV and Tacaribe virus receptor.
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Efficient and large scale synthesis of graphene from coal and its film electrical properties studies.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Coal, which is abundant and has an incompact structure, is a good candidate to replace graphite as the raw material for the production of graphene. Here, a new solution phase technique for the preparation of graphene from coal has been developed. The precursor: graphene oxide got from coal was examined by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction, the results showed the GO was a small and single layer sheet. The graphene was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, graphene films have been prepared using direct solution process and the electrical conductivity and Hall effect have been studied. The results showed the conductivity of the films could reach as high as 2.5 x 10(5) Sm(-1) and exhibited an n-type behavior.
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Controlling the effective surface area and pore size distribution of sp2 carbon materials and their impact on the capacitance performance of these materials.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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A series of sp(2) carbon materials with different specific surface area (SSA) and controlled pore size distribution (PSD) were synthesized at large scale through a facile and low-cost method. The SSA and PSD of these carbon materials were controlled by using different carbon sources and preparation methods. With different total and effective SSA (E-SSA) and PSD, the impacts on their capacitance performance were investigated thoroughly, which demonstrated that both E-SSA and PSD played the most important roles in their capacitance performance. Furthermore, theoretical modeling was performed, and the results are in agreement with the experimental results for the influence of E-SSA and PSD on their capacitance performance. Based on these, a general model using the slit/cylindrical NL-DFT approach is proposed for the estimation of the specific capacitance of sp(2) carbon materials, which offers a simple but reliable method to predict the capacitance performance of these materials, thus speeding up the design and screening of the materials for high-performance supercapacitor and other surface area related devices.
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Porous 3D graphene-based bulk materials with exceptional high surface area and excellent conductivity for supercapacitors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Until now, few sp(2) carbon materials simultaneously exhibit superior performance for specific surface area (SSA) and electrical conductivity at bulk state. Thus, it is extremely important to make such materials at bulk scale with those two outstanding properties combined together. Here, we present a simple and green but very efficient approach using two standard and simple industry steps to make such three-dimensional graphene-based porous materials at the bulk scale, with ultrahigh SSA (3523 m(2)/g) and excellent bulk conductivity. We conclude that these materials consist of mainly defected/wrinkled single layer graphene sheets in the dimensional size of a few nanometers, with at least some covalent bond between each other. The outstanding properties of these materials are demonstrated by their superior supercapacitor performance in ionic liquid with specific capacitance and energy density of 231 F/g and 98 Wh/kg, respectively, so far the best reported capacitance performance for all bulk carbon materials.
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The genetic analysis of the flp locus of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, one of the most important porcine respiratory pathogens, exhibits tight adherence to cell surfaces. The Flp pilus, which is assembled by the proteins encoded by the flp (fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein) operon, may play an important role in the bacterial adherence. In this study, the flp operons of twelve A. pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains were sequenced and analyzed. The phenotypic diversity of fimbriae was observed using transmission electron microscopy, and the adherence ability was tested against a porcine lung epithelial cell line. The complete flp operon was identified in the reference strains of serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7, 12, and 13, consisting of 14 genes (flp1-flp2-tadV-rcpCAB-tadZABCDEFG). Fimbriae were observed protruding from the bacterial cell surfaces of these strains. In contrast, the flp promoter was absent in serotypes 2, 3, 6, 9, and 11, and the flp1 gene was truncated in serotypes 10 and 15. No pilus was observed on the surfaces of these strains. The piliated strains have higher efficiency of adhesion than the pilus-negative strains. Our data demonstrated that the Flp pili are involved in A. pleuropneumoniae adherence. The genetic diversity of the flp operons among different strains may contribute, at least in part, to the variation in virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
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Anti-tumor activity and toxicokinetics analysis of MGAH22, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody with enhanced Fc? receptor binding properties.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Response to trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer correlates with expression of the high binding variant (158V) of the activating Fc? receptor IIIA (CD16A). We engineered MGAH22, a chimeric anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody with specificity and affinity similar to trastuzumab, with an Fc domain engineered for increased binding to both alleles of human CD16A.
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The oncogenetic role of microRNA-31 as a potential biomarker in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2011
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miR-31 (microRNA-31) is frequently altered in numerous cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-31 in ESCC (oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma). We measured miR-31 in 45 paired ESCC tissues and 523 serum samples using real-time RT (reverse transcription)-PCR. The serum samples were divided into a discovery group (120 ESCCs and 121 normal controls), a validation group (81 ESCCs and 81 controls), and a final group comprising six other common tumours (colorectal, liver, cervical, breast, gastric and lung cancers; total n=120). A Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs test were used for the statistics. miR-31 was up-regulated in 77.8% of the ESCC tissues. Serum miR-31 levels in ESCC patients were significantly higher than in normal controls (P<0.001). It yielded an ROC (receiver operating characteristic) AUC (area under the curve) of 0.902 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.857-0.936] in the discovery group and a similar result in the validation group [ROC AUC, 0.888 (95% CI, 0.819-0.939)]. Patients with high-levels of serum miR-31 also had a poorer prognosis in relapse-free survival (P=0.001) and tumour-specific survival (P=0.005). In vitro studies showed that miR-31 promoted ESCC colony formation, migration and invasion. Luciferase reporter and Western blot assays confirmed that three tumour suppressor genes, namely EMP1 (epithelial membrane protein 1), KSR2 (kinase suppressor of ras 2) and RGS4 (regulator of G-protein signalling 4), were targeted by miR-31. We conclude that miR-31 plays oncogenetic functions and can serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for ESCC.
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Application of dual affinity retargeting molecules to achieve optimal redirected T-cell killing of B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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We describe the application of a novel, bispecific antibody platform termed dual affinity retargeting (DART) to eradicate B-cell lymphoma through coengagement of the B cell-specific antigen CD19 and the TCR/CD3 complex on effector T cells. Comparison with a single-chain, bispecific antibody bearing identical CD19 and CD3 antibody Fv sequences revealed DART molecules to be more potent in directing B-cell lysis. The enhanced activity with the CD19xCD3 DART molecules was observed on all CD19-expressing target B cells evaluated using resting and prestimulated human PBMCs or purified effector T-cell populations. Characterization of a CD19xTCR bispecific DART molecule revealed equivalent potency with the CD19xCD3 DART molecule, demonstrating flexibility of the DART structure to support T-cell/B-cell associations for redirected T cell-killing applications. The enhanced level of killing mediated by DART molecules was not accompanied by any increase in nonspecific T-cell activation or lysis of CD19(-) cells. Cell-association studies indicated that the DART architecture is well suited for maintaining cell-to-cell contact, apparently contributing to the high level of target cell killing. Finally, the ability of the CD19xTCR DART to inhibit B-cell lymphoma in NOD/SCID mice when coadministered with human PBMCs supports further evaluation of DART molecules for the treatment of B-cell malignancies.
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Therapeutic control of B cell activation via recruitment of Fcgamma receptor IIb (CD32B) inhibitory function with a novel bispecific antibody scaffold.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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To exploit the physiologic Fcgamma receptor IIb (CD32B) inhibitory coupling mechanism to control B cell activation by constructing a novel bispecific diabody scaffold, termed a dual-affinity retargeting (DART) molecule, for therapeutic applications.
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The traditional Chinese herbal formula ASHMI inhibits allergic lung inflammation in antigen-sensitized and antigen-challenged aged mice.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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Although asthma is typically characterized as a childhood disease, it can develop later in life. Older asthmatic patients may be at increased risk for corticosteroid adverse effects. We developed a novel traditional Chinese medicine to treat asthma called antiasthma simplified herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI). Herbal products may offer safer adjunctive treatment for older asthmatic patients.
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Regulation of cellular metabolism by protein lysine acetylation.
Science
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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Protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a key posttranslational modification in cellular regulation, in particular through the modification of histones and nuclear transcription regulators. We show that lysine acetylation is a prevalent modification in enzymes that catalyze intermediate metabolism. Virtually every enzyme in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the urea cycle, fatty acid metabolism, and glycogen metabolism was found to be acetylated in human liver tissue. The concentration of metabolic fuels, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, influenced the acetylation status of metabolic enzymes. Acetylation activated enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase in fatty acid oxidation and malate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle, inhibited argininosuccinate lyase in the urea cycle, and destabilized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in gluconeogenesis. Our study reveals that acetylation plays a major role in metabolic regulation.
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A simplified approach to describe complex diffusers in displacement ventilation for CFD simulations.
Indoor Air
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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With the capability to improve indoor air quality while simultaneously reducing energy demand, displacement ventilation is becoming popular. However, the numerical simulation of air distribution in an indoor space with displacement ventilation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is challenging because of the complexity of air diffuser geometry and the complicated airflow pattern generated. Typical air diffusers used for displacement ventilation systems include, but are not limited to, quarter-circular-perforated, grille, floor-perforated, and swirl diffusers. None of them can be treated as a simple opening in CFD simulations because their effective area ratios are small. We have developed a new, simple method to describe those diffusers by directly specifying the correct jet momentum from the diffusers while adjusting the airflow rate by changing the effective areas. This is done by setting some CFD cells for a diffuser with a certain momentum, while other cells are randomly blocked. By implementing this method into a commercial CFD program, this study used the method to simulate air distributions in an office and a workshop with those diffusers under cooling or heating conditions. The distributions of air velocity, temperature, and airborne contaminant concentration are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data obtained from an environmental chamber.
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Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 silences peanut-induced anaphylaxis for a prolonged posttreatment period via IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Food allergy is a serious and sometimes fatal condition for which there is no cure. We previously reported that Food Allergy Herbal Formula (FAHF)-2) protected peanut-allergic mice against anaphylactic reactions as long as 4 weeks posttherapy. This formula is now in clinical trials in the United States.
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A Fur-like protein PerR regulates two oxidative stress response related operons dpr and metQIN in Streptococcus suis.
BMC Microbiol.
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Metal ions are important micronutrients in cellular metabolism, but excess ions that cause toxic reactive oxygen species are harmful to cells. In bacteria, Fur family proteins such as Fur, Zur and PerR manage the iron and zinc uptake and oxidative stress responses, respectively. The single Fur-like protein (annotated as PerR) in Streptococcus suis has been demonstrated to be involved in zinc and iron uptake in previous studies, but the reports on oxidative stress response and gene regulation are limited.
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MicroRNA-1322 regulates ECRG2 allele specifically and acts as a potential biomarker in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol. Carcinog.
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A short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism in the 3UTR region of esophageal cancer-related gene 2 (ECRG2, also known as SPINK7) has been widely reported to be associated with the incidence and the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study explores how the microRNA binding to the STR region affects ECRG2 expression in ESCC. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to verify the effects of the four microRNAs (miR-580, miR-1182, miR-1272, and miR-1322) predicted to bind the STR region of the ECRG2 3 untranslated region (UTR). The expression of identified effective microRNA was then analyzed in 44 paired ESCC and adjacent normal tissues and 402 case-controlled serum samples (divided into a discovery group and an independent validation group) by real-time RT-PCR assay. We found that only miR-1322 could significantly down-regulate the ECRG2 with TCA3 allele (P??0.05). MiR-1322 was also expressed significantly higher in ESCC tissue and serum samples than in controls (both P?
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Acetylation negatively regulates glycogen phosphorylase by recruiting protein phosphatase 1.
Cell Metab.
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Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogen catabolism and plays a key role in maintaining cellular and organismal glucose homeostasis. GP is the first protein whose function was discovered to be regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation, which is controlled by phosphorylase kinase (PhK) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Here we report that lysine acetylation negatively regulates GP activity by both inhibiting enzyme activity directly and promoting dephosphorylation. Acetylation of GP Lys(470) enhances its interaction with the PP1 substrate-targeting subunit, G(L), and PP1, thereby promoting GP dephosphorylation and inactivation. We show that GP acetylation is stimulated by glucose and insulin and inhibited by glucagon. Our results provide molecular insights into the intricate regulation of the classical GP and a functional crosstalk between protein acetylation and phosphorylation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.