JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Small GTPase Rab37 targets tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 for exocytosis and thus suppresses tumour metastasis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rab small GTPases are master regulators of membrane trafficking and guide vesicle targeting. Recent publications show that Rab-controlled trafficking pathways are altered during tumorigenesis. However, whether any of the Rabs plays a metastasis suppressor role is least explored. Here we address the metastasis suppressive function of human Rab37 (hRAB37) using secretomics, cell, animal and clinical analyses. We show that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), a secreted glycoprotein that inhibits extracellular matrix turnover, is a novel cargo of hRAB37. hRAB37 regulates the exocytosis of TIMP1 in a nucleotide-dependent manner to inactivate matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) migration axis in vitro and in vivo. Dysfunction of hRAB37 or TIMP1 abrogates metastasis suppression. Lung cancer patients with metastasis and poor survival show low hRAB37 protein expression coinciding with low TIMP1 in tumours. Our findings identify hRAB37 as a novel metastasis suppressor Rab that functions through the TIMP1-MMP9 pathway and has significant prognostic power.
Related JoVE Video
Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The enhancement of output intensity, the generation of polarized output, and the reduction of the efficiency droop effect in a surface plasmon (SP) coupled vertical light-emitting diode (LED) with an Ag nano-grating structure located between the p-GaN layer and the wafer bonding metal for inducing SP coupling with the InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) are demonstrated. In fabricating the vertical LED, the patterned sapphire substrate is removed with a photoelectrochemical liftoff technique. Based on the reflection measurement from the metal grating structure and the numerical simulation result, it is found that the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance induced around the metal grating crest plays the major role in the SP-QW coupling process although a hybrid mode of LSP and surface plasmon polariton can be generated in the coupling process. By adding a surface grating structure to the SP-coupled vertical LED on the n-GaN side, the output intensity is further enhanced, the output polarization ratio is further increased, and the efficiency droop effect is further suppressed.
Related JoVE Video
Zoledronic acid infusion for lumbar interbody fusion in osteoporosis.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical outcomes of intravenous (IV) infusion of zoledronic acid (ZOL) for lumbar interbody fusion surgery (LIFS) remain unknown. We investigated the efficacy of IV ZOL on clinical outcome and bone fusion after LIFS.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on gastric cancer survival.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of death, particularly in the developing world. The literature reports individual socioeconomic status (SES) or neighborhood SES as related to survival, but the effect of both has not been studied. This study investigated the effect of individual and neighborhood SES simultaneously on mortality in gastric cancer patients in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
An H2A histone isotype regulates estrogen receptor target genes by mediating enhancer-promoter-3-UTR interactions in breast cancer cells.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A replication-dependent histone H2A isotype, H2ac, is upregulated in MCF-7 cells and in estrogen receptor-positive clinical breast cancer tissues. Cellular depletion of this H2A isotype leads to defective estrogen signaling, loss of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. H2ac mediates regulation of estrogen receptor target genes, particularly BCL2 and c-MYC, by recruiting estrogen receptor alpha through its HAR domain and facilitating the formation of a chromatin loop between the promoter, enhancer and 3-untranslated region of the respective genes. These findings reveal a new role for histone isotypes in the regulation of gene expression in cancer cells, and suggest that these molecules may be targeted for anti-cancer drug discovery.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis of acylguanidine zanamivir derivatives as neuraminidase inhibitors and the evaluation of their bio-activities.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of acylguanidine-modified zanamivir analogs were synthesized and their inhibitory activities against the NAs of avian influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2) were evaluated. In particular, zanamivir derivative , with a hydrophobic naphthalene substituent, exhibits the best inhibitory activity against group-1 NA with an IC50 of 20 nM.
Related JoVE Video
Japanese encephalitis virus non-coding RNA inhibits activation of interferon by blocking nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 3.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Noncoding RNA (ncRNA) plays a critical role in modulating a broad range of diseases. All arthropod-borne flaviviruses produce short fragment ncRNA (sfRNA) collinear with highly conserved regions of the 3-untranslated region (UTR) in the viral genome. We show that the molar ratio of sfRNA to genomic RNA in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) persistently infected cells is greater than that in acutely infected cells, indicating an sfRNA role in establishing persistent infection. Transfecting excess quantities of sfRNA into JEV-infected cells reduced interferon-? (IFN-?) promoter activity by 57% and IFN-? mRNA levels by 52%, compared to mock-transfected cells. Transfection of sfRNA into JEV-infected cells also reduced phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), the IFN-? upstream regulator, and blocked roughly 30% of IRF-3 nuclear localization. Furthermore, JEV-infected sfRNA transfected cells produced 23% less IFN-?-stimulated apoptosis than mock-transfected groups did. Taken together, these results suggest that sfRNA plays a role against host-cell antiviral responses, prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis, and thus contributes to viral persistence.
Related JoVE Video
Abnormal renal resistive index in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arterial rigidity and endothelial dysfunction are systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The decrease in renal vascular resistance in order to adapt the increase in glomerular filtration rate after oral protein loading is known as normal renal functional reserve. We tested the hypothesis that COPD patients, even in those with mild-to-moderate airflow obstruction, are affected by systemic inflammation associated with abnormal renal functional reserve.
Related JoVE Video
The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on nasopharyngeal cancer survival.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality rates in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unknown. This population-based study aimed to examine the association between SES and survival of patients with NPC in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Progression of kidney disease in non-diabetic patients with coronary artery disease: predictive role of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-2, -3, and -9.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 are well recognized in predicting cardiovascular outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD), but their risks for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are lacking. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether circulating MMP levels could independently predict future kidney disease progression in non-diabetic CAD patients.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical and pathologic factors affecting lymph node yields in colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lymph node yield is recommended as a benchmark of quality care in colorectal cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of various factors upon lymph node yield and to identify independent factors associated with lymph node harvest.
Related JoVE Video
Resistance analysis and characterization of a thiazole analogue, BP008, as a potent hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem, affecting approximately 3% of the worlds population. The standard treatment for HCV infection is often poorly tolerated and ineffective. Therefore, the development of novel or more effective treatment strategies to treat chronic HCV infection is urgently needed. In this report, BP008, a potent small-molecule inhibitor of HCV replication, was developed from a class of compounds with thiazol core structures by means of utilizing a cell-based HCV replicon system. The compound reduced the reporter expression of the HCV1b replicon with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) and selective index value of 4.1 ± 0.7 nM and >12,195, respectively. Sequencing analyses of several individual clones derived from BP008-resistant RNAs purified from cells harboring HCV1b replicon revealed that amino acid substitutions mainly within the N-terminal region (domain I) of NS5A were associated with decreased inhibitor susceptibility. Q24L, P58S, and Y93H are the key substitutions for resistance selection; F149L and V153M play the compensatory role in the replication and drug resistance processes. Moreover, BP008 displayed synergistic effects with alpha interferon (IFN-?), NS3 protease inhibitor, and NS5B polymerase inhibitor, as well as good oral bioavailability in SD rats and favorable exposure in rat liver. In summary, our results pointed to an effective small-molecule inhibitor, BP008, that potentially targets HCV NS5A. BP008 can be considered a part of a more effective therapeutic strategy for HCV in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Transcription of muscle actin genes by a nuclear form of mitochondrial RNA polymerase.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Actins are the major constituent of the cytoskeleton. In this report we present several lines of evidence that muscle actin genes are transcribed by nuclear isoform of mitochondrial RNA polymerase (spRNAP-IV) whereas the non-muscle actin genes are transcribed by the conventional RNA polymerase II (PolII). We show that mRNA level of muscle actin genes are resistant to PolII inhibitors ?-amanitin and triptolide as well as insensitive to knockdown of PolII but not to knockdown of spRNAP-IV, in contrast to non-muscle actin genes in several cell lines. Similar results are obtained from nuclear run-on experiments. Reporter assay using muscle actin or PolII gene promoters also demonstrate the differential sensitivity to PolII inhibitors. Finally, chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiment was used to demonstrate that spRNAP-IV is associated with promoter of muscle actin genes but not with that of non-muscle gene and knockdown of spRNAP-IV depleted this polymerase from muscle actin genes. In summary, these experiments indicate that the two types of actin genes are transcribed by different transcription machinery. We also found that POLRMT gene is transcribed by spRNAP-IV, and actin genes are sensitive to oligomycin, suggesting a transcription coupling between mitochondria and nucleus.
Related JoVE Video
Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I) and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2). The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92%) and 1607 (86%) of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS) and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.
Related JoVE Video
Laparoendoscopic single-site retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy: initial report.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retroperitoneoscopic lumbar sympathectomy is a safe and effective treatment for plantar hyperhidrosis.
Related JoVE Video
Pelvic exenteration for men with locally advanced rectal cancer: a morbidity analysis of complicated cases.
Asian J Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of pelvic exenteration in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has not been clearly defined. This procedure carries a mortality rate of approximately 10%. The challenges during pelvic surgery are different between men and women. The morbidity in men with LARC who received pelvic exenteration was analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical experience in 89 consecutive cases of chronic radiation enterocolitis.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pelvic irradiation has been a popular therapy modality for cervical cancer for many years, and its usage in rectal cancer and prostate cancer cases is on the rise. However, it is associated with significant side effects. In this study, we compared the different characteristics of surgical and nonsurgical patients who were treated for radiation enterocolitis, the treatment results, posttreatment quality of life (QOL), nutrition status, and predisposing factors for surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Common altered epigenomic domains in cancer cells: characterization and subtle variations.
Cancers (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously identified large megabase-sized hypomethylated zones in the genome of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using the TspRI-ExoIII technique. In this report, we used a more convenient high throughput method for mapping the hypomethylated zones in a number of human tumor genomes simultaneously. The method was validated by the bisulfite sequencing of 39 randomly chosen sites in a demethylated domain and by bisulfite genome-wide sequencing of the MCF-7 genome. This showed that the genomes of the various tumor cell lines, as well as some primary tumors, exhibit common hypomethylated domains. Interestingly, these hypomethylated domains are correlated with low CpG density distribution genome-wide, together with the histone H3K27Me3 landscape. Furthermore, they are inversely correlated with the H3K9Ac landscape and gene expression as measured in MCF-7 cells. Treatment with drugs resulted in en-bloc changes to the methylation domains. A close examination of the methylation domains found differences between non-invasive and invasive tumors with respect to tumorigenesis related genes. Taken together these results suggest that the human genome is organized in epigenomic domains that contain various different types of genes and imply that there are cis- and trans-regulators that control these domain-wide epigenetic changes and hence gene expression in the human genome. The hypomethylated domains are located in gene deserts that contain mainly tissue-specific genes and therefore we hypothesize that tumor cells keep these regions demethylated and silenced in order to save energy and resources and allow higher levels of cell proliferation and better survival (a thrifty tumor genome hypothesis).
Related JoVE Video
The Hippo pathway controls polar cell fate through Notch signaling during Drosophila oogenesis.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During Drosophila oogenesis, the somatic follicle cells form an epithelial layer surrounding the germline cells to form egg chambers. In this process, follicle cell precursors are specified into polar cells, stalk cells, and main-body follicle cells. Proper specification of these three cell types ensures correct egg chamber formation and polarization of the anterior-posterior axis of the germline cells. Multiple signaling cascades coordinate to control the follicle cell fate determination, including Notch, JAK/STAT, and Hedgehog signaling pathways. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway also participates in polar cell specification. Over-activation of yorkie (yki) leads to egg chamber fusion, possibly through attenuation of polar cell specification. Loss-of-function experiments using RNAi knockdown or generation of mutant clones by mitotic recombination demonstrates that reduction of yki expression promotes polar cell formation in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, polar cells mutant for hippo (hpo) or warts (wts) are not properly specified, leading to egg chamber fusion. Furthermore, Notch activity is increased in yki mutant cells and reduction of Notch activity suppresses polar cell formation in yki mutant clones. These results demonstrate that yki represses polar cell fate through Notch signaling. Collectively, our data reveal that the Hippo pathway controls polar cell specification. Through repressing Notch activity, Yki serves as a key repressor in specifying polar cells during Drosophila oogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Reinfusion of ascites during hemodialysis as a treatment of massive refractory ascites and acute renal failure.
Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Refractory ascites can occur in patients with various conditions. Although several procedures based on the reinfusion of ascitic fluid have been reported after the failure of bed rest, salt and water restriction, diuretics, intravenous administration of albumin, and repeated paracentesis, these procedures are performed for ascitic fluid removal without dialytic effect. In this study, a flow control reinfusion of ascites during hemodialysis (HD) was performed to demonstrate the efficacy of this method in a lupus patient with massive refractory ascites and respiratory and acute renal failure (ARF). The alleviation of ascites and ARF attests to the success of the flow control reinfusion of ascites during HD. This procedure can control the rate of ascites and body fluid removal simultaneously during HD using the roller pump. In conclusion, with a normal coagulation profile, the procedure of flow control reinfusion of ascites during HD is an effective alternative treatment for the alleviation of refractory ascites with renal failure.
Related JoVE Video
Isatin-?-thiosemicarbazones as potent herpes simplex virus inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of isatin-?-thiosemicarbazones have been designed and evaluated for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) in a plaque reduction assay. Their cytotoxicity was examined using human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cells). Several derivatives of isatin-?-thiosemicarbazone exhibited significant and selective antiviral activity with low cytotoxicity. It was found that the thiourea group at thiosemicarbazone and the NH functionality at isatin were essential for their antiherpetic activity. The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies are presented.
Related JoVE Video
Overlapping high-resolution copy number alterations in cancer genomes identified putative cancer genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recurrent cancer genome aberrations are indicators of residing crucial cancer genes. Although recent advances in genomic technologies have led to a global view of cancer genome aberrations, the identification of target genes and biomarkers from the aberrant loci remains difficult. To facilitate searches of cancer genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we established a comprehensive protocol to analyze copy number alterations (CNAs) in cancer genomes using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays with unpaired reference genomes. We identified common HCC genes by overlapping the shared aberrant loci in multiple cell lines with functional validation and clinical implications. A total of 653 amplicons and 57 homozygous deletions (HDs) were revealed in 23 cell lines. To search for novel HCC genes, we overlapped aberrant loci to uncover 6 HDs and 126 amplicons shared by at least two cell lines. We selected two novel genes, fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B) at the 3q26.3 overlapped amplicon and solute carrier family 29 member 2 (SLC29A2) at the 11q13.2 overlapped amplicon, to investigate their aberrations in HCC tumorigenesis. Aberrant up-regulation of FNDC3B and SLC29A2 occurred in multiple HCC data sets. Knockdown of these genes in amplified cells decreased cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor formation in xenograft models. Importantly, up-regulation of SLC29A2 in HCC tissues was significantly associated with advanced stages (P = 0.0031), vascular invasion (P = 0.0353), and poor patient survival (P = 0.0325). Overexpression of FNDC3B or SLC29A2 in unamplified HCC cells promoted cell proliferation through activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-amino-1-thiazolyl imidazoles as orally active anticancer agents.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Designed from a high throughput screened hit compound, novel 2-amino-1-thiazolyl imidazoles were synthesized and demonstrated cytotoxicity against human cancer cells. 1-(4-Phenylthiazol-2-yl)-4-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-amine (compound 2), a 2-amino-1-thiazolyl imidazole, inhibited tubulin polymerization, interacted with the colchicine-binding sites of tubulins, and caused cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase in human gastric cancer cells. Disruption of the microtubule structure in cancer cells by compound 2 was also observed. Compound 2 concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in histocultured human gastric and colorectal tumors. Given orally, compound 2 prolonged the lifespans of leukemia mice intraperitoneally inoculated with the murine P388 leukemic cells. We report 2-amino-1-thiazolyl imidazoles as a novel class of orally active microtubule-destabilizing anticancer agents.
Related JoVE Video
Pediatric primary central nervous system germ cell tumors of different prognosis groups show characteristic miRNome traits and chromosome copy number variations.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intracranial pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms and vary in histological differentiation, prognosis and clinical behavior. Germinoma and mature teratoma are GCTs that have a good prognosis, while other types of GCTs, termed nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs), are tumors with an intermediate or poor prognosis. The second group of tumors requires more extensive drug and irradiation treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying the differences in incidence and prognosis of the various GCT subgroups are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Pyrazole compound BPR1P0034 with potent and selective anti-influenza virus activity.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. More recently, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus that is spreading via human-to-human transmission has become a serious public concern. Although vaccination is the primary strategy for preventing infections, influenza antiviral drugs play an important role in a comprehensive approach to controlling illness and transmission. In addition, a search for influenza-inhibiting drugs is particularly important in the face of high rate of emergence of influenza strains resistant to several existing influenza antivirals.
Related JoVE Video
Open colectomy versus laparoscopic-assisted colectomy supported by hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy for resectable colorectal cancer: a comparative study with minimum follow-up of three years.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery is not widely used for several reasons especially for concerning inadequate resection, recent data showed equivalent oncologic outcomes between open colectomy (OC) and laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC). However, there is no clinical trial for the LAC supported by hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy (HALC), named as LAC/HALC.
Related JoVE Video
Design and efficient synthesis of novel arylthiourea derivatives as potent hepatitis C virus inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel class of arylthiourea HCV inhibitors bearing various functionalities, such as cyclic urea, cyclic thiourea, urea, and thiourea, on the alkyl linker were designed and synthesized. Herein we report the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SARs) of this novel class of arylthiourea derivatives that showed potent inhibitory activities against HCV in the cell-based subgenomic HCV replicon assay. Among compounds tested, the new carbazole derivative 64, which has an eight-carbon linkage between the phenyl and carbazole rings and a tolyl group at the N-9 position of carbazole, was found to possess strong anti-HCV activity (EC50=0.031 microM), lower cytotoxicity (CC50 >50 microM), and higher selectivity index (SI >1612) compared to its derivatives.
Related JoVE Video
Cisd2 deficiency drives premature aging and causes mitochondria-mediated defects in mice.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CISD2, the causative gene for Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2), is a previously uncharacterized novel gene. Significantly, the CISD2 gene is located on human chromosome 4q, where a genetic component for longevity maps. Here we show for the first time that CISD2 is involved in mammalian life-span control. Cisd2 deficiency in mice causes mitochondrial breakdown and dysfunction accompanied by autophagic cell death, and these events precede the two earliest manifestations of nerve and muscle degeneration; together, they lead to a panel of phenotypic features suggestive of premature aging. Our study also reveals that Cisd2 is primarily localized in the mitochondria and that mitochondrial degeneration appears to have a direct phenotypic consequence that triggers the accelerated aging process in Cisd2 knockout mice; furthermore, mitochondrial degeneration exacerbates with age, and the autophagy increases in parallel to the development of the premature aging phenotype. Additionally, our Cisd2 knockout mouse work provides strong evidence supporting an earlier clinical hypothesis that WFS is in part a mitochondria-mediated disorder; specifically, we propose that mutation of CISD2 causes the mitochondria-mediated disorder WFS2 in humans. Thus, this mutant mouse provides an animal model for mechanistic investigation of Cisd2 protein function and help with a pathophysiological understanding of WFS2.
Related JoVE Video
Frequent down-regulation of hRAB37 in metastatic tumor by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We looked for the involvement tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in lung cancer in 17q25 region by loss of heterozygosity analysis and 5/3 RACE and identified a candidate gene named human RAB37 (hRAB37), which encodes a small GTPase. The Ras-GTPase superfamily functions as important regulators including membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal organization. Therefore, we further examined the mRNA expression and promoter/exon1 hypermethylation of hRAB37 gene in paired normal and tumor lung tissue from 71 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Low hRAB37 mRNA expression occurred in 47.9% (34/71) of patient and promoter/exon1 hypermethylation of hRAB37 was found in 57.7% (41/71) of patients. Low mRNA expression of hRAB37 was significantly associated with their promoter/exon1 hypermethylation. Importantly, a reduction in hRAB37 mRNA expression and promoter/exon1 hypermethylation was found to be significantly associated with lung metastatic patients as compared to non-metastatic patients. 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment of a highly metastatic cell line showed demethylation and re-expression of the hRAB37 gene and coincided with reduced migration. Knockdown of hRAB37 in low metastasis cell line led to a significant increase in cell migration. Our findings demonstrated that hRAB37 small GTPase and acts as a metastasis-related TSG in lung cancer. Promoter/exon1 methylation is the predominant mechanism in down-regulation of the hRAB37, and can serve as a potential prediction biomarker of NSCLC progression.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-122, a tumor suppressor microRNA that regulates intrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are inhibitors of gene expression, participate in diverse biological functions and in carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) is significantly down-regulated in liver cancers with intrahepatic metastasis and negatively regulates tumorigenesis. Restoration of miR-122 in metastatic Mahlavu and SK-HEP-1 cells significantly reduced in vitro migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth as well as in vivo tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and intrahepatic metastasis in an orthotopic liver cancer model. Because an inverse expression pattern is often present between an miRNA and its target genes, we used a computational approach and identified multiple miR-122 candidate target genes from two independent expression microarray datasets. Thirty-two target genes were empirically verified, and this group of genes was enriched with genes regulating cell movement, cell morphology, cell-cell signaling, and transcription. We further showed that one of the miR-122 targets, ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) is involved in metastasis. Silencing of ADAM17 resulted in a dramatic reduction of in vitro migration, invasion, in vivo tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and local invasion in the livers of nude mice, which is similar to that which occurs with the restoration of miR-122. Conclusion: Our study suggests that miR-122, a tumor suppressor microRNA affecting hepatocellular carcinoma intrahepatic metastasis by angiogenesis suppression, exerts some of its action via regulation of ADAM17. Restoration of miR-122 has a far-reaching effect on the cell. Using the concomitant down-regulation of its targets, including ADAM17, a rational therapeutic strategy based on miR-122 may prove to be beneficial for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Design and synthesis of indole, 2,3-dihydro-indole, and 3,4-dihydro-2H-quinoline-1-carbothioic acid amide derivatives as novel HCV inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An efficient synthetic methodology to provide indole, 2,3-dihydro-indole, and 3,4-dihydro-2H-quinoline-1-carbothioic acid amide derivatives is described. These conformationally restricted heterobicyclic scaffolds were evaluated as a novel class of HCV inhibitors. Introduction of an acyl group at the NH(2) of the thiourea moiety has been found to enhance inhibitory activity. The chain length and the position of the alkyl group on the indoline aromatic ring markedly influenced anti-HCV activity. The indoline scaffold was more potent than the corresponding indole and tetrahydroquinoline scaffolds and analogue 31 displayed excellent activity (EC(50)=510nM) against HCV without significant cytotoxicity (CC(50) >50microM).
Related JoVE Video
Design, synthesis, and anti-HCV activity of thiourea compounds.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of thiourea derivatives were synthesized and their antiviral activity was evaluated in a cell-based HCV subgenomic replicon assay. SAR studies revealed that the chain length and the position of the alkyl linker largely influenced the in vitro anti-HCV activity of this class of potent antiviral agents. Among this series of compounds synthesized, the thiourea derivative with a six-carbon alkyl linker at the meta-position of the central phenyl ring (10) was identified as the most potent anti-HCV inhibitor (EC(50) = 0.047 microM) with a selectivity index of 596.
Related JoVE Video
A novel regulatory event-based gene set analysis method for exploring global functional changes in heterogeneous genomic data sets.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Analyzing gene expression data by assessing the significance of pre-defined gene sets, rather than individual genes, has become a main approach in microarray data analysis and this has promisingly derive new biological interpretations of microarray data. However, the detection power of conventional gene list or gene set-based approaches is limited on highly heterogeneous samples, such as tumors.
Related JoVE Video
p53 chromatin epigenetic domain organization and p53 transcription.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epigenetic organization represents an important regulation mechanism of gene expression. In this work, we show that the mouse p53 gene is organized into two epigenetic domains. The first domain is fully unmethylated, associated with histone modifications in active genes, and organized in a nucleosome-free conformation that is deficient in H2a/H2b, whereas the second domain is fully methylated, associated with deacetylated histones, and organized in a nucleosomal structure. In mitotic cells, RNA polymerase is depleted in domain II, which is folded into a higher-order structure and is associated with H1 histone, whereas domain I conformation is preserved. Similar results were obtained for cells treated with inhibitors of associated regulatory factors. These results suggest that depletion of RNA polymerase II is the result of a physical barrier due to the folding of chromatin in domain II. The novel chromatin structure in the first domain during mitosis also suggests a mechanism for marking active genes in successive cell cycles.
Related JoVE Video
Resistance studies of a dithiazol analogue, DBPR110, as a potential hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor in replicon systems.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, affects approximately 3% of the worlds population and is becoming the leading cause of liver disease in the world. Therefore, the development of novel or more effective treatment strategies to treat chronic HCV infection is urgently needed. In our previous study, we identified a potential HCV NS5A inhibitor, BP008. After further systemic optimization, we discovered a more potent HCV inhibitor, DBPR110. DBPR110 reduced the reporter expression of the HCV1b replicon with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) and a selective index value of 3.9 ± 0.9 pM and >12,800,000, respectively. DBPR110 reduced HCV2a replicon activity with an EC(50) and a selective index value of 228.8 ± 98.4 pM and >173,130, respectively. Sequencing analyses of several individual clones derived from the DBPR110-resistant RNAs purified from cells harboring genotype 1b and 2a HCV replicons revealed that amino acid substitutions mainly within the N-terminal region (domain I) of NS5A were associated with decreased inhibitor susceptibility. P58L/T and Y93H/N in genotype 1b and T24A, P58L, and Y93H in the genotype 2a replicon were the key substitutions for resistance selection. In the 1b replicon, V153M, M202L, and M265V play a compensatory role in replication and drug resistance. Moreover, DBPR110 displayed synergistic effects with alpha interferon (IFN-?), an NS3 protease inhibitor, and an NS5B polymerase inhibitor. In summary, our results present an effective small-molecule inhibitor, DBPR110, that potentially targets HCV NS5A. DBPR110 could be part of a more effective therapeutic strategy for HCV in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Learning curve of full-endoscopic lumbar discectomy.
Eur Spine J
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the learning curve of full-endoscopic lumbar discectomy for a surgeon naive to endoscopic surgery but trained in open microdiscectomy.
Related JoVE Video
Are social network correlates of heavy drinking similar among black homeless youth and white homeless youth?
J Stud Alcohol Drugs
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding factors associated with heavy drinking among homeless youth is important for prevention efforts. Social networks are associated with drinking among homeless youth, and studies have called for attention to racial differences in networks that may affect drinking behavior. This study investigates differences in network characteristics by the racial background of homeless youth, and associations of network characteristics with heavy drinking. (Heavy drinking was defined as having five or more drinks of alcohol in a row within a couple of hours on at least one day within the past 30 days.)
Related JoVE Video
The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Protein domain repetition is enriched in Streptococcal cell-surface proteins.
Genomics
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tandem repetition of domain in protein sequence occurs in all three domains of life. It creates protein diversity and adds functional complexity in organisms. In this work, we analyzed 52 streptococcal genomes and found 3748 proteins contained domain repeats. Proteins not harboring domain repeats are significantly enriched in cytoplasm, whereas proteins with domain repeats are significantly enriched in cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall and extracellular locations. Domain repetition occurs most frequently in S. pneumoniae and least in S. thermophilus and S. pyogenes. DUF1542 is the highest repeated domain in a single protein, followed by Rib, CW_binding_1, G5 and HemolysinCabind. 3D structures of 24 repeat-containing proteins were predicted to investigate the structural and functional effect of domain repetition. Several repeat-containing streptococcal cell surface proteins are known to be virulence-associated. Surface-associated tandem domain-containing proteins without experimental functional characterization may be potentially involved in the pathogenesis of streptococci and deserve further investigation.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-122 plays a critical role in liver homeostasis and hepatocarcinogenesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), which accounts for 70% of the livers total miRNAs, plays a pivotal role in the liver. However, its intrinsic physiological roles remain largely undetermined. We demonstrated that mice lacking the gene encoding miR-122a (Mir122a) are viable but develop temporally controlled steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These mice exhibited a striking disparity in HCC incidence based on sex, with a male-to-female ratio of 3.9:1, which recapitulates the disease incidence in humans. Impaired expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) contributed to steatosis, which was reversed by in vivo restoration of Mttp expression. We found that hepatic fibrosis onset can be partially attributed to the action of a miR-122a target, the Klf6 transcript. In addition, Mir122a(-/-) livers exhibited disruptions in a range of pathways, many of which closely resemble the disruptions found in human HCC. Importantly, the reexpression of miR-122a reduced disease manifestation and tumor incidence in Mir122a(-/-) mice. This study demonstrates that mice with a targeted deletion of the Mir122a gene possess several key phenotypes of human liver diseases, which provides a rationale for the development of a unique therapy for the treatment of chronic liver disease and HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Multivariate analyses to assess the effects of surgeon and hospital volume on cancer survival rates: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Positive results between caseloads and outcomes have been validated in several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is limited information available on the combined effects of surgeon and hospital caseloads. We used nationwide population-based data to explore the association between surgeon and hospital caseloads and survival rates for major cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Decoy receptor 3, a novel inflammatory marker, and mortality in hemodialysis patients.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation is closely associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in patients with CKD. Serum decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. CKD patients have higher levels of DcR3 than the general population, but whether DcR3 predicts mortality in CKD patients on hemodialysis has not been explored.
Related JoVE Video
Renoprotective Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade in Patients With Predialysis Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease, Hypertension, and Anemia.
JAMA Intern Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IMPORTANCE The benefit of using a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blocker such as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains undetermined. OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness and safety of ACEI/ARB use for advanced predialysis CKD in patients with hypertension and anemia. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS From January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2009, we selected 28 497 hypertensive adult patients with CKD. Serum creatinine levels were greater than 6 mg/dL, hematocrit levels were less than 28%, and patients were treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. INTERVENTIONS Users (n?=?14 117) and nonusers (n?=?14 380) of ACEIs/ARBs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for commencement of long-term dialysis and all-cause mortality for ACRI/ARB users vs nonusers. RESULTS In a median follow-up of 7 months, 20 152 patients (70.7%) required long-term dialysis and 5696 (20.0%) died before progression to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Use of ACEIs/ARBs was associated with a lower risk for long-term dialysis (HR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.91-0.97]) and the composite outcome of long-term dialysis or death (0.94 [0.92-0.97]). The renal benefit of ACEI/ARB use was consistent across most patient subgroups, as was that of ACEI or ARB monotherapy. Compared with nonusers, the ACEI/ARB users had a higher hyperkalemia-associated hospitalization rate, but the risk of predialysis mortality caused by hyperkalemia was not significantly increased (HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.92-1.16]; P?=?.30). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients with stable hypertension and advanced CKD who receive therapy with ACEIs/ARBs exhibit an association with lower risk for long-term dialysis or death by 6%. This benefit does not increase the risk of all-cause mortality.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.