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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biodiversity associates with the rates of micropollutant biotransformations among full-scale wastewater treatment plant communities.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Biodiversity can differ substantially among different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) communities. Whether differences in biodiversity translate into differences in the provision of particular ecosystem services, however, is under active debate. Theoretical considerations predict that WWTP communities with more biodiversity are more likely to contain strains that have positive effects on the rates of particular ecosystem functions, thus resulting in positive associations between those two variables. However, if WWTP communities were sufficiently biodiverse to nearly saturate the set of possible positive effects, then positive associations would not occur between biodiversity and the rates of particular ecosystem functions. To test these expectations, we measured the taxonomic biodiversity, functional biodiversity, and rates of ten different micropollutant biotransformations for ten full-scale WWTP communities. We demonstrate that biodiversity is positively associated with the rates of specific - but not all - micropollutant biotransformations. Thus, one cannot assume whether or how biodiversity will associate with the rate of any particular micropollutant biotransformation. We further demonstrate that the strongest positive association is between biodiversity and the collective rate of multiple micropollutant biotransformations. Thus, more biodiversity is likely required to maximize the collective rates of multiple micropollutant biotransformations than is required to maximize the rate of any individual micropollutant biotransformation. We finally provide evidence that the positive associations are stronger for rare micropollutant biotransformations than for common micropollutant biotransformations. Together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in biodiversity can indeed translate into differences in the provision of particular ecosystem services by full-scale WWTP communities.
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Optogenetic activation of presynaptic inputs in lateral amygdala forms associative fear memory.
Learn. Mem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the lateral amygdala (LA) has been highlighted as a key brain site for association between sensory cues and aversive stimuli. However, learning-related changes are also found in upstream sensory regions such as thalamus and cortex. To isolate the essential neural circuit components for fear memory association, we tested whether direct activation of presynaptic sensory inputs in LA, without the participation of upstream activity, is sufficient to form fear memory in mice. Photostimulation of axonal projections from the two main auditory brain regions, the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and the secondary auditory cortex, was paired with aversive footshock. Twenty-four hours later the same photostimulation induced robust conditioned freezing and this fear memory formation was disrupted when glutamatergic synaptic transmission was locally blocked in the LA. Therefore, our results prove for the first time that synapses between sensory input areas and the LA, previously implicated as a crucial brain site for fear memory formation, actually are sufficient to serve as a conditioned stimulus. Our results strongly support the idea that the LA may be sufficient to encode and store associations between neutral cue and aversive stimuli during natural fear conditioning as a critical part of a broad fear memory engram.
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Renal Vein Extension During Living-Donor Kidney Transplantation in the Era of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Living-Donor Nephrectomy.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To evaluate retrospectively the clinical outcomes of living-donor kidney transplantations (LDKTs) using renal vein extension (RVE) for donor kidneys with short renal veins.
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Luteolin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Luteolin is a common flavonoid that exists in medicinal herbs, fruits, and vegetables. Luteolin has biochemical functions including anti-allergy, anti-inflammation, and anti-cancer functions. However, its efficacy and precise mode of action against breast cancer are still under study. To elucidate whether luteolin exhibits an anticancer effect in breast cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer cells were incubated with luteolin, and apoptosis was assessed by observing nuclear morphological changes and by performing cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, western blotting, RT-PCR, and mitochondrial membrane potential measurements. Luteolin inhibited growth through perturbation of cell cycle progression at the sub-G1 and G1 phases in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, luteolin enhanced the expression of death receptors, such as DR5, and activated caspase cascades. It enhanced the activities of caspase-8/-9/-3 in a dose-dependent manner, followed by inactivation of PARP. Activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 induced caspase-3 activity, respectively, in apoptosis of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Luteolin also induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and cytochrome c release, and increased Bax expression by inhibiting expression of Bcl-2. Taken together, these results suggest that luteolin provokes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis by activating the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.
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Postural responses during the various frequencies of anteroposterior perturbation.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This study investigated the characteristics of dynamic postural responses when subjects attempted to maintain an upright standing position on a support plate during continuous sinusoidal perturbation in the anterior-posterior direction. Fifteen healthy young subjects participated in the experiment. Body movement patterns during the perturbation were captured and analyzed using a 3D motion analysis system (APAS 3D motion analysis, Ariel Dynamics Inc.). Seven markers were attached on the subject's body to measure and analyze the motion patterns. The markers were positioned at the head, chest, hip, right knee, left knee, right ankle, and left ankle. Five different frequencies of motion were applied to the support surface: 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Hz with a 4-cm path of motion at the base. The experiments measured dynamic postural responses in a condition were subjects had their eyes open. The results showed that the median frequency of the knee and ankle increased in all frequency bands. Following an increase in the frequency of the perturbation, the postural control strategy was changed from the ankle strategy to a combined strategy. These experimental results could be applied to the dynamic postural training for the elderly and to rehabilitation training for patients to improve their ability for postural control.
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Effect of recovery from muscle strength imbalance in lower limb using four point weight bearing reduction system.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This study was performed to assess the improvement of muscle strength imbalance in the lower limbs using a four point weight bearing reduction system with a two-belt treadmill. Participants, each having differences in muscle function of the left and right legs of over 20%, were divided into two groups of ten. The participants were involved in experiments progressing 40 minutes per day, 3 days per week, during a period of 4 weeks. The maximal peak torque and average power were measured for testing joint torque in the hip, knee and ankle. The results showed the improvement of muscle imbalance as assessed by the maximal muscle strength was the most effective in the hip joint, while the improvement of muscular reaction was the most effective in the knee joint. We suggest that the method of weight bearing reduction could be sufficient to reduce muscle imbalance in the lower limbs.
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Fundamental study of lower limb muscle activity using an angled whole body vibration exercise instrument.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This research was performed to assess the effects of angled whole body vibration on muscle activity of the lower limbs, by examining adults in their twenties during squat exercises, taking into account two variables of exercise intensity (vibration frequency and gradient). Twenty healthy males in their twenties with previous experience of more than 6 month's weight training and no past medical history were included in this study. The experiment was performed by participating in squat exercises which consisted of 3 sets (1 set = 5 seconds x 3 repetitions of exercise), and the muscle activities of the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis were measured with variation in the gradients of 0°, 10°, and 20°, and vibration frequencies of 20, 30, and 40 Hz. At 30 and 40 Hz, the vastus lateralis showed the highest change in muscle activity, while activity of the vastus medialis also increased significantly. Analysis of muscle activity according to the gradient showed a significant increase of the vastus lateralis at 20°, while the highest muscle activity at 20° was observed for the vastus medialis. In comparison of the change in lower limb muscle activity according to simultaneous stimulation, at a gradient of 10°, high activity was shown in muscle, while at 20°, high muscle activities were produced at 40 Hz in the vastus lateralis, 40 Hz in the rectus femoris, and both 30 and 40 Hz in the vastus medialis.
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Comparative analysis of basal physical fitness and muscle function in relation to muscle balance pattern using rowing machines.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle function and basal physical fitness in relation to muscle balance pattern using rowing machines. Twenty four subjects participated in this study, using three different rowing machines. Rowing exercises were performed for twenty-five times a set, four sets a day, 3 days a week, for 8 weeks. Biodex system 3(Biodex Medical Systems Co., New York, USA) was used to measure joint torques in the elbow, shoulder, lumbar and knee of subjects, for analyzing muscle function. The evaluation of basal physical fitness included body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle reaction, agility, flexibility and explosive power. Before the experiment, significant differences of joint torques in the elbow, shoulder, lumbar and knee were present between subjects in the group. After the rowing exercise, significant improvement in every joint was witnessed. All aspects of basic fitness increased significantly, and the most improvement was observed in muscle strength from the joint torque results. As shown in the following results, every joint it was evident to have improved by more than 30% with the use of dependent load deviation type over the previously used water load method. This means that it is more effective for enhancing muscle strength and endurance to keep the muscle balance using dependent load deviation. The human body maintains motor coordination of muscle contraction during exercise. The muscle balances in the upper-lower and left-right arms could assist with effective activation of motor coordination. In this paper, an exercise method using dependent load deviation was demonstrated to be more efficient for improving muscle imbalance and strengthening muscles.
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Study of parameters for evaluating flow reduction with stents in a sidewall aneurysm phantom model.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The effect of stent design parameters such as porosity, pore density, number of strands, and strut angle to the artery were studied in vitro using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Five mesh stents were implanted into a sidewall aneurysm model. The flow features in a sidewall aneurysm silicone phantom model were investigated at a Reynolds number of 300. It was found that the lowest porosity stent had the best value for velocity and vorticity reduction in an aneurysm pocket. The stent with higher pore density had a tendency to decrease the mean and maximum velocities, but it was not superior to the effects of porosity. In addition, investigation of the evaluation system confirmed that higher stent strut angles to the parent artery had a tendency to lower mean velocity, as shown by PIV and CFD. However, this effect was relatively smaller compared to porosity and pore density. Our evaluation system suggested the best combinations of parameters for the development of an ideal stent would be lower porosity, higher pore density, and higher strut angle. The results obtained in this study indicated that our evaluation system could be useful for various purposes related to evaluation of endovascular interventional devices.
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Fundamental study of basal physical fitness and activities of daily living for the aged in relation to indoor horse riding exercise.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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In this study, we assessed indoor horse riding exercise's effects on basal physical exercise and activities of daily living (ADL) function using horse riding equipment, involving elderly test subjects (in their sixties). The participants were 20 people with no impediment to activity. They participated in experiments that lasted 60 min per day, 3 days per week, over 8 weeks, using the "SRider" (Rider Co. and Chonbuk National University Korea).We measured trunk flexion, sit-up, whole-body reaction, leg strength, and maximal oxygen uptake as basal physical fitness parameters. Also, 3-m gait, single stance with eyes open, and single stance with eyes closed, as ADL functions, were estimated once per month. The leg strength and whole body reaction result were significantly higher than before the exercise program. Moreover, the results of the 3-m walking ability alone increased significantly among the ADL functions. These findings indicate that the horse riding exercise may activate continuous muscular contraction, maintaining the tonus of the muscles. The continuous movement of horse riding could be lead to isometric muscle contraction in the lower limbs. These results suggest that the horse riding exercise develops muscle power and muscle reactions with exercise.
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Analysis of basal physical fitness and lumbar muscle function according to indoor horse riding exercise.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The aim of this study is to verify the effect of indoor horse riding exercise on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The subjects included were 20 healthy females, who participated in the horse riding exercise using SRider (Rider Co. & ChonbuK National Univ, Korea) for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, over a period of 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows, with 10 subjects in each group: Postural Balance Exercise mode (PBE), Abdomen Exercise mode (ADE), Whole body Exercise mode (WBE), and Multiple Exercise (MTE). Isokinetic muscular function test was performed before and after the horse riding exercise, to assess the effect of horse riding on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The test result on basal physical exercise and isokinetic muscular function showed improvements with variable degree in the back muscle strength, maximum joint torque, total work, and muscular acceleration time. The result signifies that the horse riding is an antagonistic exercise mainly performed on waist and abdomen area, and the machine induces persistent muscle contraction and causes myotonic induction enhancing the muscle strength. Indoor horse riding exercise proved its effectiveness for senior or the disabled people who need muscle exercises but have difficulties performing outdoor activities.
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Feasibility of compressive follower load on spine in a simplified dynamic state: a simulation study.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This study investigated that the spinal MFs can create compressive follower loads (CFLs) in the lumbar spine in a dynamic state. Three-dimensional optimization and finite element (FE) models of the spinal system were developed and validated using reported experimental data. An optimization analysis was performed to determine the MFs that create CFLs in the lumbar spine in various sagittal postures from 10° extension to 40° flexion. Optimization solutions for the MFs, CFLs, and follower load path (FLP) location were feasible for all studied postures. The FE predictions demonstrated that MFs which created CFLs along the base spinal curve connecting the geometrical centers or along a curve in its vicinity (within anterior or posterior shift by 2 mm) produced stable deformation of the lumbar spine in the neutral standing and flexed postures, whereas the MFs which created the smallest CFLs resulted in unstable deformation. For extended postures, however, finding CFLs creating MFs that produce stable deformation of the extended spine was not possible. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the spinal muscles may stabilize the spine via the CFL mechanism.
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Clinical outcomes of carotid endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery tandem lesions.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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When carotid artery tandem lesions are present, the benefits of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to reduce recurrent stroke remain uncertain. The present retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the clinical outcomes of CEA for carotid artery tandem stenosis that was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.
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Sagittal split osteotomy on the previously reconstructed mandible with fibula free flap.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The fibula free flap offers several advantages in mandibular reconstruction, including an optimal length and bone quality for dental implantation; therefore, the use of this flap has become a method of choice for mandibular reconstruction. Although the development of computer-assisted surgical planning has increased the accuracy of mandibular reconstruction, some unexpected outcomes still occur in clinical settings. The patient in this report underwent mandibular reconstruction with the fibula free flap because of mandibular resection resulting from an ameloblastoma. However, unexpected movement of the grafted fibula bone had been observed, and we could not achieve a proper occlusal relationship even with implant-supported prosthesis. To resolve this problem, we corrected the position of previously grafted fibula and implants by using orthognathic surgery: sagittal split osteotomy on body and angle area and vertical osteotomy on the mandibular symphysis. After the orthognathic surgery at the previously reconstructed mandible with fibula free flap, a favorable and stable occlusal relationship could be achieved. The result demonstrated that the sagittal split osteotomy at the previous fibula free flap site can be successfully carried out to establish the proper occlusion.
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Two different surgical approaches for prostatic stromal sarcoma: robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and open radical cysto-prostatectomy with ileal conduit.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Stromal sarcoma of the prostate is very rare and shows rapid growth, which consequently is related to poor prognosis. Recently, we treated two cases of prostatic stromal sarcoma: one with robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and the other with open radical cysto-prostatectomy with an ileal conduit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a prostatic stromal sarcoma managed by use of a robotic procedure. Here, we report of our experiences in the treatment of prostatic stromal sarcoma by use of two different methods.
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Role of Bcl-xL/Beclin-1 in synergistic apoptotic effects of secretory TRAIL-armed adenovirus in combination with mitomycin C and hyperthermia on colon cancer cells.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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In this study, we attempted to develop a multimodality approach using chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C, biologic agent tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo-2L), and mild hyperthermia to treat colon cancer. For this study, human colon cancer LS174T, LS180, HCT116 and CX-1 cells were infected with secretory TRAIL-armed adenovirus (Ad.TRAIL) and treated with chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C and hyperthermia. The combinatorial treatment caused a synergistic induction of apoptosis which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. The combinational treatment promoted the JNK-Bcl-xL-Bak pathway which transmitted the synergistic effect through the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. JNK signaling led to Bcl-xL phosphorylation at serine 62, dissociation of Bak from Bcl-xL, oligomerization of Bak, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, and subsequent cytochrome c release. Overexpression of dominant-negative mutant of Bcl-xL (S62A), but not dominant-positive mutant of Bcl-xL (S62D), suppressed the synergistic death effect. Interestingly, Beclin-1 was dissociated from Bcl-xL and overexpression of dominant-negative mutant of Bcl-xL (S62A), but not dominant-positive mutant of Bcl-xL (S62D), suppressed dissociation of Beclin-1 from Bcl-xL. A combinatorial treatment of mitomycin C, Ad.TRAIL and hyperthermia induced Beclin-1 cleavage, but the Beclin-1 cleavage was abolished in Beclin-1 double mutant (D133A/D146A) knock-in HCT116 cells, suppressing the apoptosis induced by the combination therapy. We believe that this study supports the application of the multimodality approach to colon cancer therapy.
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Combined injection of three different lineages of early-differentiating human amniotic fluid-derived cells restores urethral sphincter function in urinary incontinence.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To investigate whether a triple combination of early-differentiated cells derived from human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) would show synergistic effects in urethral sphincter regeneration.
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Clinicopathologic differences between prostate cancers detected during initial and repeat transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in Korea.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathologic differences between prostate cancer (PCa) detected at initial and repeat transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in a large Korean cohort.
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Endopelvic fascia preservation during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Does it affect urinary incontinence?
Scand J Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Abstract Objective. Urinary incontinence has a significant impact on the quality of life after radical prostatectomy. This study aimed to determine whether preserving the endopelvic fascia influences subsequent urinary incontinence. Material and methods. Consecutive patients (n = 138) who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer between October 2010 and June 2012 with a minimum of 1 year follow-up were retrospectively analysed. The subjects were divided into two groups: the non-preserved endopelvic fascia group (nPE group) and the preserved endopelvic fascia group (PE group). Continence was defined as not using any pads and having no urine leakages. Continence rates at set time-points after RALP were compared using the chi-squared test. Continence recovery rates were analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Prognostic factors of incontinence were identified using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results. The age, body mass index, preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels, prostate volume, estimated blood loss, mean operative time, Gleason score and pathological stage were not significantly different between the two study groups. The continence rate of the nPE group and PE group was 88.4% and 97.1%, respectively, at 12 months after surgery (p = 0.049), which was also significant according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis (p < 0.001). Preservation of endopelvic fascia was the only significant prognostic factor for urinary incontinence (p = 0.002, hazard ratio = 1.867) according to the multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Endopelvic fascia preservation during RALP significantly enhances postoperative continence and is related to the speed of recovery of continence.
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Comparison of gene expression between mandibular and iliac bone-derived cells.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in gene expression between the human mandibular and iliac bone-derived cells (BCs) for better understanding of the site-specific characteristics of bones.
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Systematic Molecular-Level Design of Binders Incorporating Meldrum's Acid for Silicon Anodes in Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Covalent or Noncovalent? Systematic investigation of polymeric binders incorporating Meldrum's acid reveals most critical binder properties for silicon -anodes in lithium ion batteries, that is self-healing effect facilitated by a series of noncovalent interactions.
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Decreased selenium-binding protein 1 mRNA expression is associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The anticancer effects of selenium may be mediated by selenium-binding proteins, such as SELENBP1. The association between SELENBP1 expression levels and clinicopathologic parameters was assessed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
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Study of parameters for evaluating the pushability of interventional devices using box-shaped blood vessel biomodels made of PVA-H or silicone.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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In this paper, we investigated several parameters with effect on the compressive force to assess the mechanical properties of interventional device. We find several parameters are highly influential and others are not. In our evaluation system, we prepared a box-shaped PVA-H and silicone with realistic geometry and carried out the measurement and evaluation of the pushability by using load cell machine. The parameters of velocity, position of device in the system do not affect the compressive force, whereas the length of catheter from the tip to fixed point is one of the most influential parameters for the force. Several behaviors such as passing through the curve or slip and stop can be observed and defined using this system. The balance of the bending force and the pushing force may make the tip with behavior of slip and stop or passing thorough the curve. The investigation of the evaluation system confirmed that high reproducibility with short error bar is indicated. The observation with movie record is also an advantage of our system because the high transparency of materials with silicone and PVA-H can check the inside of artery.
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Characteristic analysis of the lower limb muscular strength training system applied with MR dampers.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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A new training system that can adjust training intensity and indicate the center pressure of a subject was proposed by applying controlled electric current to the Magneto-Rheological damper. The experimental studying on the muscular activities were performed in lower extremities during maintaining and moving exercises, which were processed on an unstable platform with Magneto rheological dampers and recorded in a monitor. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the eight muscles in lower extremities were recorded and analyzed in certain time and frequency domain. Muscles researched in this paper were rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), vastuslateralis (VL), vastusmedialis (VM), gastrocnemius (Ga), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (So). Differences of muscular activities during four moving exercises were studied in our experimental results. The rate of the increment of the muscular activities was affected by the condition of the unstable platform with MR dampers, which suggested the difference of moving exercises could selectively train each muscle with varying intensities. Furthermore, these findings also proposed that this training system can improve the ability of postural balance.
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Activity analysis of trunk and leg muscles during whole body tilt exercise.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The objectives were to assess the trunk and leg muscle activities during the trunk tilt exercise by a 3D dynamic exercise device capable of active and passive movements, to study the evaluation of Root Mean Squire (RMS), and to investigation the influence of the trunk positions on these muscle activities. Eighteen healthy volunteers were selected. None of the subjects had any history of lumber and trunk muscle problems. Rotation capability was enabled for the investigation of A (anterior), R (right), P (posterior), L (left), AR (anterior right), AL (anterior left), PR (posterior right), PL (posterior left) tilt directions. EMG signals of trunk (rectus abdominis, external obliques, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae) muscles and leg (rectus femoris, Biceps femoris, Tibialis Anterior, gastrocnemius) muscles were taken out. Root Mean Squire (RMS) values were calculated. The results of this study indicate that different exercise patterns can be applied depending on the exercise types, which are appropriate and necessary to each user. We believe that the human body can be maintained in equilibrium through the interaction between the position and movement execution of the human body, contributing to the improvement of body balance control. Further quantitative data collection and analysis related to the development of various spinal stabilization exercise programs is required. In the near future, we will conduct a study concerning the effects of trunk tilt exercise in active and passive modes on the strength of the tilting muscles and postural balancing ability.
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Modification of Planned Postoperative Occlusion in Orthognathic Surgery, Based on Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing-Engineered Preoperative Surgical Simulation.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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In orthognathic surgery, it is important to have a planned postoperative occlusion. A 3-dimensional preoperative simulation, based on 3-dimensional optically scanned occlusion data, can predict how the planned postoperative occlusion will affect the maxilla-mandibular relationship that results from orthognathic surgery. In this study we modified the planned postoperative occlusion, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulations. This modification made it possible to resolve the facial asymmetry of the patient successfully with a simple bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy and no additional maxillary or mandibular surgery.
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Immunolocalization of Water Channel Proteins AQP1 and AQP4 in Rat Spinal Cord.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Aquaporin (AQP) is a water-selective channel protein. In the brain, AQPs play critical roles in the production of cerebrospinal fluid and in edema formation. In contrast, the expression and role of AQPs in spinal cord are unclear. We aimed to investigate the localization of AQP1 and AQP4 in normal rat spinal cord compared with the expression of marker proteins for astrocytes, neurons, and endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that AQP1 and AQP4 are expressed along all levels of the spinal cord from the cervical to lumbar levels. AQP1 immunolabeling was observed in the dorsal horns in the gray matter, whereas the labeling was weak and mainly seen close to glia limitans in the white matter. AQP1 was co-labeled with marker proteins for unmyelinated neuronal fibers (peripherin) and endothelial cells (RECA-1) of blood vessels that had penetrated through the glia limitans. In contrast, AQP1 did not colocalize with GFAP, an astrocyte marker, at any level of the spinal cord. AQP4 was exclusively localized at the astrocytes, but AQP4 expression in spinal cord exhibited a less polarized and more spatial distribution than that of brain astrocytes. The observed characteristic localization and expression patterns of AQP1 and AQP4 could provide insights toward gaining an understanding of the role of AQPs in the spinal cord.
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Enhanced performance on polymeric light-emitting diode with non-metallic ion in the water soluble non-conjugated polymer.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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We have fabricated a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) from the conventional blue-emitting polymer, polyfluorene (PFO), by constructing a multilayer structure with non-metal ion containing water soluble non-conjugated polymer, polyurethane with F- ion (PU:F-), on the top of the PFO. The device with PU:F- layer shows a maximum luminance of 5294 cd/m2 at an applied voltage of 10 V while the one without PU:F- layer shows only 4439 cd/m2 at the same applied voltage. We propose the improvement of device performance with PU:F- layer was due to not only an effective hole blocking at the polymer-polymer interface but also increase of electric field strength with anode after electro-stactic repulsion between electrons from the cathod and anions from the water soluble polymer layer. We will discuss the effect of multilayer polymer structure in PLED in terms of current/voltage characteristics, luminance, and quantum efficiency related with the applied bias.
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Development of a porcine renal extracellular matrix scaffold as a platform for kidney regeneration.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Acellular scaffolds, possessing an intact three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture and biochemical components, are promising for regeneration of complex organs, such as the kidney. We have successfully developed a porcine renal acellular scaffold and analyzed its physical/biochemical characteristics, biocompatibility, and kidney reconstructive potential. Segmented porcine kidney cortexes were treated with either 1% (v/v) Triton X-100 (Triton) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Scanning electron microscopy showed both treatments preserved native tissue architecture, including porosity and composition. Swelling behavior was higher in the Triton-treated compared with the SDS-treated scaffold. Maximum compressive strength was lower in the Triton-treated compared with the SDS-treated scaffold. Attenuated total reflective-infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of amide II (?NH) in both scaffolds. Furthermore, richer ECM protein and growth factor contents were observed in the Triton-treated compared with SDS-treated scaffold. Primary human kidney cell adherence, viability, and proliferation were enhanced on the Triton-treated scaffold compared with SDS-treated scaffold. Following murine in vivo implantation, tumorigenecity was absent for both scaffolds after 8 weeks and in the Triton-treated scaffold only, glomeruli-like structure formation and neovascularity were observed. We identified 1% Triton X-100 as a more suitable decellularizing agent for porcine renal ECM scaffolds prior to kidney regeneration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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Acute kidney injury in rats with or without pre-existing chronic kidney disease: cytokine/chemokine response.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Evidence suggests the possibility that pre-existing chronic kidney (CKD) disease may result in a more severe outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to examine whether CKD enhances the inflammatory response in the kidney, as well as other organs, in response to AKI in rats.
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Comparison of Surgical and Endovascular Salvage Procedures for Juxta-anastomotic Stenosis in Autogenous Wrist Radiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistula.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Although dysfunctional radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas (RCAVFs) are typically treated surgically, the endovascular approach is also considered suitable. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the cumulative patency rates following surgical and endovascular salvaging of dysfunctional RCAVFs, and to evaluate whether the maturity of vascular access sites at the time of treatment influenced the outcomes.
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Regional effects on chimera formation in 454 pyrosequenced amplicons from a mock community.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Chimeras are a frequent artifact in polymerase chain reaction and could be the underlying causes of erroneous taxonomic identifications, overestimated microbial diversity, and spurious sequences. However, little is known about the regional effects on chimera formation. Therefore, we investigated the chimera formation rates in different regions of phylogenetically important biomarker genes to test the regional effects on chimera formation. An empirical study of chimera formation rates was performed using the Roche GSFLX™ system with sequences of the V1/V2/V3 and V4/V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and sequences of the nifH gene from a mock microbial community. The chimera formation rates for the 16S V1/V2/V3 region, V4/V5 region, and nifH gene were 22.1-38.5%, 3.68-3.88%, and 0.31-0.98%, respectively. Some amplicons from the V1/V2/V3 regions were shorter than the typical length (?7-31%), reflecting incomplete extension. In the V1/V2/V3 and V4/V5 regions, conserved and hypervariable regions were identified. Chimeric hot spots were located in parts of conserved regions near the ends of the amplicons. The 16S V1/V2/V3 region had the highest chimera formation rate, likely because of long template lengths and incomplete extension. The amplicons of the nifH gene had the lowest frequency of chimera formation most likely because of variations in their wobble positions in triplet codons. Our results suggest that the main reasons for chimera formation are sequence similarity and premature termination of DNA extension near primer regions. Other housekeeping genes can be a good substitute for 16S rRNA genes in molecular microbial studies to reduce the effects of chimera formation.
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Characterization of a novel composite scaffold consisting of acellular bladder submucosa matrix, polycaprolactone and Pluronic F127 as a substance for bladder reconstruction.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The bladder is an organ susceptible to a variety of congenital anomalies, injuries and disorders. To address the clinical limitations of existing scaffolds, we fabricated a novel scaffold that can be applied to morphological and functional bladder reconstruction. As a first step to prove the benefit of the scaffold, intensive in vitro and in vivo analyses were conducted. The novel composite scaffold was fabricated using polycaprolactone/Pluronic F127 (PCL/F127) and variable proportions (1, 3, 5 and 10wt.%) of porcine acellular bladder submucosa matrix (BSM). Physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities of the scaffolds were characterized. For cell-mediated analysis, upper-urinary-tract-derived urine stem cells were used. Observations of tensile strength, modulus, porosity, cell adhesion, viability and proliferation characteristics of scaffolds indicated that the optimum proportion of BSM in the composite scaffolds was 3 or 5 wt.%. Based on comparison of 3 and 5 wt.% BSM/PCL/F127 scaffolds with respect to degradability, hydrophilicity, surface properties and functional group presence, the 3 wt.% BSM was chosen for in vivo studies. 8 weeks after kidney-subcapsular implantation of the 3 wt.% BSM/PCL/F127 scaffold, cells remained attached to the surface and there was no evidence of teratomas. A BSM content of 3 wt.% was the optimum proportion for fabrication of the neo scaffold. We predict that the 3 wt.% BSM/PCL/F127 composite scaffold could act as an ideal matrix after cystectomy based on its favorable physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities.
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Obwegeser II osteotomy (transoral angle osteotomy) for open bite with skeletal class III deformity.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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This study evaluated postoperative stability after Obwegeser II osteotomy (transoral angle osteotomy, first reported by Obwegeser 1973) for severe open bite with mandibular prognathism.
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The functional and taxonomic richness of wastewater treatment plant microbial communities are associated with each other and with ambient nitrogen and carbon availability.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The number of functional traits of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) microbial community (i.e. functional richness) is thought to be an important determinant of its overall functional performance, but the ecological factors that determine functional richness remain unclear. The number of taxa within a community (i.e. taxonomic richness) is one ecological factor that might be important. Communities that contain more taxa are more likely to have more functional traits, and a positive association is therefore expected between functional and taxonomic richness. Empirical tests for this positive association among WWTP communities, however, are lacking. We address this knowledge gap by measuring the functional and taxonomic richness of 10 independent WWTP communities. We demonstrate that functional and taxonomic richness are positively associated with each other. We further demonstrate that functional and taxonomic richness are negatively associated with the effluent NH4 -N and BOD5 concentrations. This led us to hypothesize that correlated variation in functional and taxonomic richness is likely related to variation in ambient nitrogen and carbon availability. We finally demonstrate that this hypothesis is consistent with the functional and taxonomic attributes of the WWTP communities. Together, our results improve our basic understanding of the ecology and functioning of WWTP communities.
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Impact of surgical wait time on oncologic outcomes in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To assess the effect of surgical wait time on the oncologic outcomes of patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), particularly in the ureter.
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Non-contrast-enhanced peripheral angiography using a sliding interleaved cylinder acquisition.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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To develop a new sequence for non-contrast-enhanced peripheral angiography using a sliding interleaved cylinder (SLINCYL) acquisition.
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Effects of dual-mode non-invasive brain stimulation on motor function.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dual-mode non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) on motor function and cortical excitability using both repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the bilateral primary motor cortices (M1s) of healthy individuals. Fifteen healthy right-handed volunteers (8 women; mean age 23.2 years) participated in this sham-controlled random-ordered crossover study. All of the participants received four randomly arranged dual-mode stimulations with a 24-h washout period: condition 1, preconditioning with cathodal tDCS over the left M1 followed by 10 Hz rTMS over the right M1; condition 2, preconditioning Lt. anodal tDCS followed by Rt. 10 Hz rTMS; condition 3, Lt. sham tDCS followed by Rt. 10 Hz rTMS; and condition 4, Lt. sham tDCS followed by Rt. sham rTMS. Corticomotor excitability and motor function were assessed in the left hand before and after stimulation. The motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes significantly increased after dual-mode stimulation in conditions 1 and 3, and significantly decreased in condition 2. The MEP latency became significantly shorter in condition 1. The motor function tests revealed a significant improvement in the Purdue pegboard test in condition 1, and in the box and block tests in conditions 1 and 3. The preconditioning tDCS over the contralateral M1 modulated the effects of subsequent rTMS on cortical excitability and motor function.
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Luteolin induces intrinsic apoptosis via inhibition of E6/E7 oncogenes and activation of extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways in HPV-18-associated cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Luteolin, a flavonoid extracted from a number of plants with recognized anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities, inhibits angiogenic processes and modulates multidrug resistance. However, the efficacy and mechanisms of action of this flavonoid agent are still undergoing study. In order to elucidate whether luteolin exhibits an anticancer effect in cervical cancer cells, HeLa cells were incubated with luteolin and apoptosis was assessed by observing nuclear morphological changes, and performing Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cell cycle analysis, western blotting, RT-PCR and mitochondrial membrane potential measurements were also carried out. Luteolin showed a significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effect only in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical cancer cells, when compared to its effect on HPV-negative cervical cancer C33A cells. Expression levels of human papilloma virus E6 and E7 oncogenes were suppressed, those of related factors pRb and p53 were recovered and E2F5 was increased by luteolin treatment. Furthermore, luteolin enhanced the expression of death receptors and death receptor downstream factors such as Fas/FasL, DR5/TRAIL and FADD in HeLa cells, and activated caspase cascades. In particular, luteolin enhanced the activity of caspase-3 and -8 in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of caspase-3 induced caspase-8 activity and vice versa. Luteolin also induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and cytochrome c release, and inhibited Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression. In conclusion, luteolin exerts anticarcinogenic activity through inhibition of E6 and E7 expression and cross-activation of caspase-3 and -8. Taken together, these results suggest that luteolin induces inactivation of HPV-18 oncogene expression and apoptosis by activating the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.
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Surgical smoke may be a biohazard to surgeons performing laparoscopic surgery.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Surgical smoke production is inevitable during surgical procedures. Although many workplaces have adopted smoke-free environments, healthcare workers, especially surgeons, continue to be exposed to surgical smoke.
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Hyperbranched ?-cyclodextrin polymer as an effective multidimensional binder for silicon anodes in lithium rechargeable batteries.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Polymeric binders play an important role in electrochemical performance of high-capacity silicon (Si) anodes that usually suffer from severe capacity fading due to unparalleled volume change of Si during cycling. In an effort to find efficient polymeric binders that could mitigate such capacity fading, herein, we introduce polymerized ?-cyclodextrin (?-CDp) binder for Si nanoparticle anodes. Unlike one-dimensional binders, hyperbranched network structure of ?-CDp presents multidimensional hydrogen-bonding interactions with Si particles and therefore offers robust contacts between both components. Even the Si nanoparticles that lost the original contacts with the binder during cycling recover within the multidimensional binder network, thus creating a self-healing effect. Utilizing these advantageous features, ?-CDp-based Si electrode shows markedly improved cycling performance compared to those of other well-known binder cases, especially when combined with linear polymers at an appropriate ratio to form hybrid binders.
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Prostate-specific antigen density toward a better cutoff to identify better candidates for active surveillance.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To investigate the impact of prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) on existing prostate cancer (PCa) active surveillance (AS) protocols.
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Interhemispheric modulation of dual-mode, noninvasive brain stimulation on motor function.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To investigate the effects of simultaneous, bihemispheric, dual-mode stimulation using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor functions and cortical excitability in healthy individuals.
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1H NMR-based metabolite profiling of plasma in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the gradual loss of the kidney function to excrete wastes and fluids from the blood. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was exploited to investigate the altered metabolic pattern in rats with CKD induced by surgical reduction of the renal mass (i.e., 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx)), particularly for identifying specific metabolic biomarkers associated with early of CKD. Plasma metabolite profiling was performed in CKD rats (at 4- or 8-weeks after 5/6 Nx) compared to sham-operated rats. Principle components analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plots showed a significant separation between the groups. The resulting metabolic profiles demonstrated significantly increased plasma levels of organic anions, including citrate, ?-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, acetate, acetoacetate, and formate in CKD. Moreover, levels of alanine, glutamine, and glutamate were significantly higher. These changes were likely to be associated with complicated metabolic acidosis in CKD for counteracting systemic metabolic acidosis or increased protein catabolism from muscle. In contrast, levels of VLDL/LDL (CH2)n and N-acetylglycoproteins were decreased. Taken together, the observed changes of plasma metabolite profiles in CKD rats provide insights into the disturbed metabolism in early phase of CKD, in particular for the altered metabolism of acid-base and/or amino acids.
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Reperfusion Injury on Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Carotid Revascularization.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Reperfusion injury can be revealed as delayed gadolinium enhancement in the subarachnoid space on a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image, which is designated as a hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM). We sought to investigate the occurrence and predictors of HARM and its association with new ischemic infarcts after carotid revascularization.
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Management of late-onset portal vein complications in pediatric living-donor liver transplantation.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the results of PTA for late-onset PV complications after pediatric LDLT and to assess whether a meso-Rex shunt is a viable option for treating restenosis of the PV after PTA in selected cases. Seventy-five children who underwent adult-to-child LDLT were included in this study, and there were six late-onset PV complications (8.0%). The initial therapeutic approach was PTA, with or without stent: PTA with balloon dilation for three children, PTA with stent placement for one child, and failure to cannulate the occluded PV for two children. A meso-Rex shunt was performed in the two children after failed PTA: One suffered complete obstruction of the main PV, and the other, restenosis with total thrombosis after PTA with stent. The PTA was a technical and clinical success in four with PV stenosis of the six patients (66.7%), and successful application of a meso-Rex shunt in the other two children resulted in restoration of PV flow. In conclusion, PTA is a safe and effective procedure for treating late-onset PV stenosis after pediatric LDLT. However, in growing pediatric recipients with restenosis of the PV after PTA or chronic PV thrombosis, a meso-Rex shunt may be a better choice for late-onset PV complications.
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Ecological patterns of nifH genes in four terrestrial climatic zones explored with targeted metagenomics using FrameBot, a new informatics tool.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Biological nitrogen fixation is an important component of sustainable soil fertility and a key component of the nitrogen cycle. We used targeted metagenomics to study the nitrogen fixation-capable terrestrial bacterial community by targeting the gene for nitrogenase reductase (nifH). We obtained 1.1 million nifH 454 amplicon sequences from 222 soil samples collected from 4 National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) sites in Alaska, Hawaii, Utah, and Florida. To accurately detect and correct frameshifts caused by indel sequencing errors, we developed FrameBot, a tool for frameshift correction and nearest-neighbor classification, and compared its accuracy to that of two other rapid frameshift correction tools. We found FrameBot was, in general, more accurate as long as a reference protein sequence with 80% or greater identity to a query was available, as was the case for virtually all nifH reads for the 4 NEON sites. Frameshifts were present in 12.7% of the reads. Those nifH sequences related to the Proteobacteria phylum were most abundant, followed by those for Cyanobacteria in the Alaska and Utah sites. Predominant genera with nifH sequences similar to reads included Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, the latter two without obvious plant hosts at the sites. Surprisingly, 80% of the sequences had greater than 95% amino acid identity to known nifH gene sequences. These samples were grouped by site and correlated with soil environmental factors, especially drainage, light intensity, mean annual temperature, and mean annual precipitation. FrameBot was tested successfully on three ecofunctional genes but should be applicable to any.
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Memory recall and modifications by activating neurons with elevated CREB.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Memory is supported by a specific ensemble of neurons distributed in the brain that form a unique memory trace. We previously showed that neurons in the lateral amygdala expressing elevated levels of cAMP response-element binding protein are preferentially recruited into fear memory traces and are necessary for the expression of those memories. However, it is unknown whether artificially activating just these selected neurons in the absence of behavioral cues is sufficient to recall that fear memory. Using an ectopic rat vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and capsaicin system, we found that activating this specific ensemble of neurons was sufficient to recall established fear memory. Furthermore, this neuronal activation induced a reconsolidation-like reorganization process, or strengthening of the fear memory. Thus, our findings establish a direct link between the activation of specific ensemble of neurons in the lateral amygdala and the recall of fear memory and its subsequent modifications.
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Preoperative cardiac evaluation by dipyridamole thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan provides no benefit in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the benefits of a preoperative dipyridamole thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.
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Preoperative magnetic resonance angiography as a predictive test for cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To evaluate whether the preoperative magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) can predict the risk of cerebral ischemia associated with the carotid endarterectomy (CEA).
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Stability of Mandibular Setback Surgery With and Without Presurgical Orthodontics.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The purpose of this study was to compare stability after mandibular setback surgery in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion with and without presurgical orthodontics.
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Cross-Cultural Application of the Korean Version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for Patients with Prostate Cancer - EORTC QLQ-PR25.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Objective: We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-PR25 when applied to Korean prostate cancer (PC) patients. Methods: A total of 172 patients who underwent curative radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy were asked to complete the Korean version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and PR25 questionnaires 3 times (before and 3 and 6 months after RP). Psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire was conducted. Results: Multitrait scaling analysis showed satisfactory construct validity in most scales except for bowel symptoms and hormonal treatment-related symptoms. Internal consistency tested by Cronbachs ? coefficient met the 0.70 criterion for the urinary symptom, sexual activity and sexual functioning scales at the all 3 time points. Known-group comparison analyses showed better quality-of-life (QOL) scores in patients with higher performance status, and higher hormonal treatment-related symptom scores in patients on hormonal treatment. Responsiveness to changes was in line with clinical implications over time after RP. Conclusions: Our results show that the EORTC QLQ-PR25 questionnaire has adequate levels in cross-cultural validity. The Korean version of the EORTC QLQ-PR25 is a generally reliable and robust instrument for the assessment of various QOL aspects that can be self-administered to Korean PC patients undergoing RP. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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In-depth characterization of wastewater bacterial community in response to algal growth using pyrosequencing.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Microalgae have been regarded as a natural resource for sustainable materials and fuels, as well as for removal of nutrients and micropollutants from wastewater, and their interaction with bacteria in wastewater is a critical factor to consider because of the microbial diversity and complexity in a variety of wastewater conditions. Despite their importance, very little is known about the ecological interactions between algae and bacteria in a wastewater environment. In this study, we characterized the wastewater bacterial community in response to the growth of a Selenastrum gracile UTEX 325 population in a real municipal wastewater environment. The Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technique was used for indepth analysis of amplicons of 16S rRNA genes from different conditions in each reactor, with and without the algal population. The algal growth reduced the bacterial diversity and affected the bacterial community structure in the wastewater. The following in-depth analysis of the deep-sequenced amplicons showed that the algal growth selectively stimulated Sphingobacteria class members, especially the Sediminibacterium genus population, in the municipal wastewater environment.
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AQP5 Expression Predicts Survival in Patients with Early Breast Cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Our previous study showed the association of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) up-regulation with cancer proliferation and migration in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and with unfavorable prognosis in a small number of patients with breast cancer. Accordingly, we analyzed the prognostic impact of AQP5 expression in a large number of patients with early breast cancer (EBC).
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Negative pressure wound therapy for inguinal lymphatic complications in critically ill patients.
J Korean Surg Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of regulated negative pressure vacuum-assisted wound therapy for inguinal lymphatic complications in critically ill, liver transplant recipients.
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Application of phage display for ligand peptidomics to identify peptide ligands binding to AQP2-expressing membrane fractions.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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In vitro phage display represents an emerging and innovative technology for the rapid isolation of high-affinity peptide ligands. Phage display technologies using phages comprising a vast library of peptides have become fundamental to the isolation of high-affinity binding ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, e.g., ligand proteomics, discovery of novel protein-protein interactions, antibody engineering, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents, and development of imaging probes. This chapter describes the procedures for phage display selection of peptide ligands that selectively bind to aquaporin-2-expressing membrane fractions of rat kidney.
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Nontransected Ventral Onlay-augmented Urethroplasty Using Autologous Saphenous Vein Graft in a Rabbit Model of Urethral Stricture.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of nontransected ventral onlay-augmented urethroplasty using an autologous saphenous vein graft in a rabbit model of urethral stricture.
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The N-end rule and retroviral infection: no effect on integrase.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Integration of double stranded viral DNA is a key step in the retroviral life cycle. Virally encoded enzyme, integrase, plays a central role in this reaction. Mature forms of integrase of several retroviruses (i.e. HIV-1 and MLV) bear conserved destabilizing N-terminal residues of the N-end rule pathway - a ubiquitin dependent proteolytic system in which the N-terminal residue of a protein determines its half life. Substrates of the N-end rule pathway are recognized by E3 ubiquitin ligases called N-recognins. We have previously shown that the inactivation of three of these N-recognins, namely UBR1, UBR2 and UBR4 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) leads to increased stability of ectopically expressed HIV-1 integrase. These findings have prompted us to investigate the involvement of the N-end rule pathway in the HIV-1 life cycle.
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The N-end rule proteolytic system in autophagy.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The N-end rule pathway is a cellular proteolytic system that utilizes specific N-terminal residues as degradation determinants, called N-degrons. N-degrons are recognized and bound by specific recognition components (N-recognins) that mediate polyubiquitination of low-abundance regulators and selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our earlier work identified UBR4/p600 as one of the N-recognins that promotes N-degron-dependent proteasomal degradation. In this study, we show that UBR4 is associated with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic vacuoles and is degraded by the lysosome. UBR4 loss causes multiple misregulations in autophagic pathways, including an increased formation of LC3 puncta. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis primarily due to defective vascular development in the yolk sac (YS), wherein UBR4 is associated with a bulk lysosomal degradation system that absorbs maternal proteins from the YS cavity and digests them into amino acids. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays a role not only in selective proteolysis of short-lived regulators through the proteasome, but also bulk degradation through the lysosome. Here, we discuss a possible mechanism of UBR4 as a regulatory component in the delivery of cargoes destined to interact with the autophagic core machinery.
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Signaling mechanism of tumor cell-induced up-regulation of E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR2.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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The N-end rule pathway contributes significantly to accelerated muscle proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in various catabolic conditions. UBR2 (aka E3?-II) is the only known E3 ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway that is up-regulated by cachectic stimuli including proinflammatory cytokines and tumors. However, the signaling mechanism through which UBR2 is up-regulated remains undetermined. Here we identify a signaling pathway that mediates tumor cell-induced up-regulation of UBR2. UBR2 expression in C2C12 myotubes was up-regulated by conditioned medium from Lewis lung carcinoma cells or C26 colon adenocarcinoma cells, which was blocked by a pharmacological inhibitor of p38?/? mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), SB202190. Similarly, SB202190 administration (i.p.) abolished UBR2 up-regulation in the tibialis anterior of LLC tumor-bearing mice. Genetic gain and loss of function assays in C2C12 myotubes indicated that tumor-induced activation of the p38? isoform is sufficient and necessary for UBR2 up-regulation. In addition, UBR2 up-regulation required p38?-mediated phosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-? Thr-188, which was critical to C/EBP? binding to the UBR2 promoter. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that the C/EBP? binding motif in the UBR2 promoter is a functional C/EBP?-responsive cis-element that enhances the promoter activity on activation by p38?. Finally, genetic ablation of C/EBP? blocked UBR2 up-regulation in LLC tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest that UBR2 up-regulation in cachectic muscle is mediated by the p38?-C/EBP? signaling pathway responsible for the bulk of tumor-induced muscle proteolysis.
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Increased nitrous oxide accumulation by bioelectrochemical denitrification under autotrophic conditions: Kinetics and expression of denitrification pathway genes.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Under autotrophic conditions, we investigated the effects of different current densities on bioelectrochemical denitrification (BED). In this study, nitrate consumption and nitrous oxide (N2O) production, microbial diversity and population dynamics, and denitrification pathway gene expressions were explored in continuous flow BED reactors at different current densities (0.2, 1, 5, 10 and 20 A/m(2)). We found that, under the autotrophic conditions, N2O accumulation was increased with increase in current density. The maximum rate of denitrification was 1.65 NO3(-)-N (g/NCCm(3).h), and approximately 70% of the reduced N was accumulated as N2O. After each current density was applied, pyrosequencing of the expressed 16S rRNA genes amplified from the cathodic biofilms revealed that that 16 genera were active and in common at all currents, and that eight of those showed a statistically significant correlation with particular current densities. The relative expression of napA and narG was highest, whereas nosZ was low relative to its level in the inoculum suggesting that this could have contributed the high N2O accumulation. Kinetic analysis of nitrate reduction and N2O accumulation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Vmax for nitrate consumption and N2O accumulation were similar, however the Km values determined as A/m(2) were not. This study provides better understanding of the community and kinetics of a current-fed, autotrophic, cathodic biofilm for evaluating its potential for scale-up and for N2O recovery.
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Transglutaminase type 2 in human abdominal aortic aneurysm is a potential factor in the stabilization of extracellular matrix.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) expression in human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue and to elucidate a potential role of TG2 in AAA formation. TG2, which is a Ca(2+)-dependent cross-linking enzyme, has been proven important for stabilizing the extracellular matrix. However, there is no evidence of the effect of TG2 on AAA formation in a human model.
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Congenital macroglossia treated by 2-stage partial glossectomy.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Persistent macroglossia affects speech, swallowing, and the dentofacial skeleton. A range of tongue reduction methods have been proposed to preserve the mobility and sensation of the tongue. However, recent reports have shown that speech or esthetic problems still exists, even after a comprehensive glossectomy in early childhood. Because a large volume reduction of the anterior tongue in young growing children might result in a short tongue tip with functional difficulties, it is important to select the appropriate tongue reduction method considering the growth of the tongue.In the current report, a staged tongue reduction was planned to minimize the functional and esthetic problems after surgery. A 3-year-old girl visited our clinic because of congenital macroglossia, phonation problems, and prognathic appearance of the mandible. The tongue was first reduced by a central glossectomy. The speech intelligibility, tongue movement, and skeletal growth pattern were improved after the first surgery. The secondary peripheral tongue reduction was performed 6 years later to achieve an esthetically pleasing tongue appearance.This 2-stage partial glossectomy, central tongue reduction first followed later by a peripheral tongue reduction, ensures functional integrity of the tongue and can provide an esthetically pleasing result in growing children. The results demonstrated that this strategic combination of a staged tongue reduction can be a successful treatment option for macroglossia.
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Molecular characteristics of cancer stem-like cells derived from human breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We characterized the cellular properties of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) isolated from immortalized MDA-MB453 human breast cancer cells in culture. We showed that although the expression of Octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4) correlates to stemness in these CSLCs, OCT4 knockdown does not induce their differentiation. Our results suggest that the differentiation program in MDA-MB453 CSLCs is blocked at a step upstream of the transcription of the OCT4 promoter, allowing CSLCs to maintain their population through asymmetric cell division during many repeated passages. Comparative expression analysis indicates that only a subset of genes and signaling pathways known to be associated with survival and maintenance of CSCs are selectively expressed in CSLCs, as compared with non-CSLCs fractionated from the same parental MDA-MB453 cells. These results suggest that selective expression of a limited number of genes may be sufficient for establishment and maintenance of CSLCs with high tumorigenicity.
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The role of lysyl oxidase-like 2 in the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Adult human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells those are isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types utilized for the formation of a reparative dentin-like complex. Using LC-MS/MS proteomics approaches, we identified the proteins secreted from the differentiating hDPSCs in mineralization media. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was identified as a protein that was down-regulated in the hDPSCs that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. The role of LOXL2 has not been studied in dental pulp stem cells. LOXL2 mRNA levels were reduced in differentiating hDPSCs, whereas the levels of other LOX family members including LOX, LOXL1, LOXL3, and LOXL4, are increased. The protein expression and secretion levels of LOXL2 were also decreased during odontogenic differentiation. Recombinant LOXL2 protein treatment to hDPSCs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the early differentiation and the mineralization accompanying with the lower levels of odontogenic markers such as DSPP, DMP-1 and ALP. These results suggest that LOXL2 has a negative effect on the differentiation of hDPSCs and blocking LOXL2 can promote the hDPSC differentiation to odontoblasts.
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Relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP.
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Risk factors for acute kidney injury after radical nephrectomy and inferior vena cava thrombectomy for renal cell carcinoma.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The objectives of the present study are to estimate the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) after radical nephrectomy with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, to investigate the risk factors for postoperative AKI, and to define the association between postoperative AKI and clinical outcome in patients undergoing such a surgery.
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UBR box N-recognin-4 (UBR4), an N-recognin of the N-end rule pathway, and its role in yolk sac vascular development and autophagy.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins act as degradation determinants (N-degrons). Substrates carrying N-degrons are recognized by N-recognins that mediate ubiquitylation-dependent selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our previous studies identified the mammalian N-recognin family consisting of UBR1/E3?, UBR2, UBR4/p600, and UBR5, which recognize destabilizing N-terminal residues through the UBR box. In the current study, we addressed the physiological function of a poorly characterized N-recognin, 570-kDa UBR4, in mammalian development. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis and exhibit pleiotropic abnormalities, including impaired vascular development in the yolk sac (YS). Vascular development in UBR4-deficient YS normally advances through vasculogenesis but is arrested during angiogenic remodeling of primary capillary plexus associated with accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. In the YS, UBR4 marks endoderm-derived, autophagy-enriched cells that coordinate differentiation of mesoderm-derived vascular cells and supply autophagy-generated amino acids during early embryogenesis. UBR4 of the YS endoderm is associated with a tissue-specific autophagic pathway that mediates bulk lysosomal proteolysis of endocytosed maternal proteins into amino acids. In cultured cells, UBR4 subpopulation is degraded by autophagy through its starvation-induced association with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic double membrane structures. UBR4 loss results in multiple misregulations in autophagic induction and flux, including synthesis and lipidation/activation of the ubiquitin-like protein LC3 and formation of autophagic double membrane structures. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays an important role in mammalian development, such as angiogenesis in the YS, in part through regulation of bulk degradation by lysosomal hydrolases.
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Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C(23)-X7/9-C(33)-X23/24-C(58)-X8-C(67)-X7-C(75)-X23-C(99)-X15-C(115)-X10-C(126)-X24/25/33-C(150)C(151)-X7-C(159)-X8-C(168)-X23/24-C(192)-X9/10-C(202) predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by Western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 and 48 h tick saliva proteins. Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ? 160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ? 16% and caused ? 24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (? 44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24h Ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.