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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biodiversity associates with the rates of micropollutant biotransformations among full-scale wastewater treatment plant communities.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Biodiversity can differ substantially among different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) communities. Whether differences in biodiversity translate into differences in the provision of particular ecosystem services, however, is under active debate. Theoretical considerations predict that WWTP communities with more biodiversity are more likely to contain strains that have positive effects on the rates of particular ecosystem functions, thus resulting in positive associations between those two variables. However, if WWTP communities were sufficiently biodiverse to nearly saturate the set of possible positive effects, then positive associations would not occur between biodiversity and the rates of particular ecosystem functions. To test these expectations, we measured the taxonomic biodiversity, functional biodiversity, and rates of ten different micropollutant biotransformations for ten full-scale WWTP communities. We demonstrate that biodiversity is positively associated with the rates of specific - but not all - micropollutant biotransformations. Thus, one cannot assume whether or how biodiversity will associate with the rate of any particular micropollutant biotransformation. We further demonstrate that the strongest positive association is between biodiversity and the collective rate of multiple micropollutant biotransformations. Thus, more biodiversity is likely required to maximize the collective rates of multiple micropollutant biotransformations than is required to maximize the rate of any individual micropollutant biotransformation. We finally provide evidence that the positive associations are stronger for rare micropollutant biotransformations than for common micropollutant biotransformations. Together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in biodiversity can indeed translate into differences in the provision of particular ecosystem services by full-scale WWTP communities.
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Differential Gambling Motivations and Recreational Activity Preferences Among Casino Gamblers.
J Gambl Stud
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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This study investigated three different types of gamblers (recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers) to determine differences in gambling motivations and recreational activity preferences among casino gamblers. We collected data from 600 gamblers recruited in an actual gambling environment inside a major casino in South Korea. Findings indicate that motivational factors of escape, sightseeing, and winning were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, pathological gamblers were more likely to be motivated by winning, whereas recreational gamblers were more likely to be motivated by scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Meanwhile, the problem gamblers fell between these two groups, indicating higher preferences for non-gambling activities than the pathological gamblers. As this study builds upon a foundational previous study by Lee et al. (Psychiatry Investig 6(3):141-149, 2009), the results of this new study were compared with those of the previous study to see if new developments within a resort-style casino contribute to changes in motivations and recreational activity preferences.
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Design and synthesis of a mitochondria-targeting carrier for small molecule drugs.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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A novel mitochondria-targeting carrier QCy7HA was developed. QCy7HA transported the covalently attached doxorubicin (DOX) to mitochondria specifically. The conjugate limited the effects of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux pumps of multidrug-resistant cells on DOX, indicating that diverting drugs to mitochondria is a potential promising method for treatment of drug-resistant cancers.
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Cynandione A attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators via MAPK inhibition and NF-?B inactivation in RAW264.7 macrophages and protects mice against endotoxin shock.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Cynanchum wilfordii has been traditionally used in eastern Asia for the treatment of various diseases such as gastrointestinal diseases and arteriosclerosis. Cynandione A (CA), an acetophenone, is one of major constituents from roots of C. wilfordii. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activities of CA were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-administered C57BL/6?N mice. CA significantly decreased LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner, while CA up to 200??M did not exhibit cytotoxic activity. Our data also showed that CA significantly attenuated expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated macrophages. CA inhibited phosphorylation of I?B-? and MAP kinases such as ERK and p38. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CA inhibited translocation of NF-?B to the nucleus, transcription of the NF-?B minimal promoter and NF-?B DNA binding activity. Administration of CA significantly decreased the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? in LPS-injected mice and improved survival of septic mice with lethal endotoxemia. These results demonstrate that CA has effective inhibitory effects on production of inflammatory mediators via suppressing activation of NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways, suggesting that CA may be used as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Development and evaluation of the korean health literacy instrument.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the Korean Health Literacy Instrument, which measures the capacity to understand and use health-related information and make informed health decisions in Korean adults. In Phase 1, 33 initial items were generated to measure functional, interactive, and critical health literacy with prose, document, and numeracy tasks. These items included content from health promotion, disease management, and health navigation contexts. Content validity assessment was conducted by an expert panel, and 11 items were excluded. In Phase 2, the 22 remaining items were administered to a convenience sample of 292 adults from community and clinical settings. Exploratory factor and item difficulty and discrimination analyses were conducted and four items with low discrimination were deleted. In Phase 3, the remaining 18 items were administered to a convenience sample of 315 adults 40-64 years of age from community and clinical settings. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the construct validity of the instrument. The Korean Health Literacy Instrument has a range of 0 to 18. The mean score in our validation study was 11.98. The instrument exhibited an internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.82, and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. The instrument is suitable for screening individuals who have limited health literacy skills. Future studies are needed to further define the psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Korean Health Literacy Instrument.
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Primary fallopian tube carcinoma diagnosed with endoscopic ultrasound elastography with fine needle biopsy.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is a rare gynecological cancer that is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Here, we report the case of a 66-year-old female patient with PFTC that was diagnosed preoperatively on the basis of the characteristic features on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) elastography and fine needle biopsy (FNB). EUS showed a sausage-shaped hypoechoic mass, 8 cm in size, with irregular margins and heterogeneous internal echoes extending to both adnexa. EUS elastography revealed that the mass had a blue color pattern, representing hard stiffness, and a heterogeneous green/red color pattern distributed outside the tumor, representing intermediate stiffness. Histopathologic analysis of the FNB and operative specimens confirmed the diagnosis of fallopian tube carcinoma. This is the first reported case of a combined EUS elastography and FNB of an adnexal mass leading to a preoperative diagnosis of fallopian tube carcinoma.
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Endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of a metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma mimicking a gastric subepithelial tumor.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix origin and mimicking a gastric subepithelial tumor (SET) is very rare. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling is a useful diagnostic method for SETs. However, the cytologic findings of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma are unfamiliar to many pathologists and gastroenterologists. These findings present a diagnostic challenge because the introduction of gastric epithelium and mucin into the specimen during the procedure can be misleading. This is the first reported experience of an EUS-guided sampling of a gastric SET in a patient with suspected appendiceal tumor, to make the diagnosis of a mucinous adenocarcinoma.
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Role of inflammasome activation in development and exacerbation of asthma.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Human airways contact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns present in many environments. Asthmatic's airways may be more susceptible to these patterns and lead to inflammasome activation; however, the participation of inflammasome in the development and exacerbation of asthma is not fully understood and remains controversial. Asthma is a heterogeneous group composed of different airway inflammation patterns with different underlying immune mechanisms. One mechanism is neutrophilic airway inflammation based on the axis of inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL) 1?/IL-18 production, T helper 17 activation, IL-8/IL-6 overproduction, and neutrophilic inflammation. The role of inflammasome activation has been highlighted in experimental asthma models and some evidence of inflammasome activation has been recently demonstrated in human neutrophilic asthmatic airways. In addition to caspase-1 activation, proteinase 3 and other protease from activated neutrophils directly cleave pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18 to IL-1? and IL-18, which contribute to the phenotype of subsequent adaptive immune responses without inflammasome activation. Data suggests that neutrophilics in asthmatic airways may have an additional effect in initiating inflammasome activation and amplifying immune responses. Among the mediators from neutrophils, S100A9 seems to be one candidate mediator to explain the action of neutrophils in amplifying the airway inflammation in concert with inflammasome.
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[Current issues on the treatment of chronic constipation].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Chronic constipation is a very common clinical problem with its prevalence of up to 14% in the general population. It is not a life-threatening disease, but since patient's satisfaction to the treatment is known to be as low as 50%, chronic constipation still remains a clinically challenging problem. Fortunately, many new treatments have been introduced or are to be introduced in the near future. This article will review the basic concepts and the results of recent studies on the new treatments for chronic constipation.
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Gefitinib induces cytoplasmic translocation of the CDK inhibitor p27 and its binding to a cleaved intermediate of caspase 8 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Cell Oncol (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents one of the first rationally selected molecules for targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib is a reversible and highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that competitively blocks the binding of adenosine triphosphate to its binding site in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR. It has been found that treatment with gefitinib induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NSCLC cells harboring activating EGFR mutations. Despite its clinical relevance, however, the mechanism underlying gefitinib-induced apoptosis has remained largely unknown.
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Monoclonal Antibodies against Vibrio vulnificus RtxA1 Elicit Protective Immunity through Distinct Mechanisms.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Vibrio vulnificus causes rapidly progressing septicemia with an extremely high mortality rate (?50%), even with aggressive antibiotic treatment. The bacteria secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins, which are involved in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative Vibrio species. Recently, we reported that immunization with the C-terminal region of V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv, RtxA1-C, elicits a protective immune response against V. vulnificus through a poorly defined mechanism. In this study, we generated a panel of new monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against V. vulnificus RtxA1-C and investigated their protective efficacies and mechanisms in a mouse model of infection. Prophylactic administration of seven MAbs strongly protected mice against lethal V. vulnificus infection (more than 90% survival). Moreover, three of these MAbs (21RA, 24RA, and 47RA) demonstrated marked efficacy as postexposure therapy. Notably, 21RA was therapeutically effective against lethal V. vulnificus infection by a variety of routes. Using Fab fragments and a neutropenic mouse model, we showed that 21RA and 24RA mediate protection from V. vulnificus infection through an Fc-independent and/or neutrophil-independent pathway. In contrast, 47RA-mediated protection was dependent on its Fc region and was reduced to 50% in neutropenic mice compared with 21RA-mediated and 24RA-mediated protection. Bacteriological study indicated that 21RA appears to enhance the clearance of V. vulnificus from the blood. Overall, these studies suggest that humoral immunity controls V. vulnificus infection through at least two different mechanisms. Furthermore, our panel of MAbs could provide attractive candidates for the further development of immunoprophylaxis/therapeutics and other therapies against V. vulnificus that target the MARTX toxin.
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Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms related to insulin resistance with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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We investigated and validated most of the hitherto-suggested polymorphisms for PCOS.
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Reliable harvest of a dorsal scapular artery perforator flap by augmenting its perfusion.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Despite confirmation of a reliable perforasome in the dorsal scapular artery in an anatomic study, a true perforator flap has not been recommended in previous clinical studies because of concerns regarding insufficient perfusion in the distal region. In this report, we present two cases of reconstruction for occipital defects caused by tumor extirpation using pedicled dorsal scapular artery perforator flaps without a muscle component. To secure the perfusion of the dorsal scapular artery perforator flap, inclusion of an additional perforator was attempted for perfusion augmentation. The second dorsal scapular artery perforator was harvested in one case. In an additional case, the sixth dorsal intercostal artery perforator with a branch that directly connected with the dorsal scapular artery within the trapezius muscle was additionally harvested. The flaps survived without any perfusion-related complications, including tip necrosis, and no donor site morbidities were observed. We suggest that a perfusion augmented dorsal scapular artery perforator flap by harvesting multiple perforators could be a safe and useful alternative for reconstructive surgery of head and neck defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014.
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Nanometrology and Its Perspectives in Environmental Research.
Environ Health Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Objectives: Rapid increasing engineered nanoparticles in many goods has raised a significant concern about their environmental safety. The proper methodologies are, therefore, needed to conduct the toxicity and exposure assessment of nanoparticles in environment. The study reviewed several analytical techniques for nanoparticles and summarized the principles, advantages and disadvantages, and the state of the art, and the perspectives of nanometrology to ENP studies Methods: Nanometrology is divided into five techniques with regard to the instrumental principle; microscopy, light scattering, spectroscopy, separation, and single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Discussion: Each analytical method has its own drawbacks such as detection limit, ability to quantify or qualify ENPs, and matrix effects. More than two different analytical methods should be used to better characterize ENPs. Characterizing ENPs, the researchers should understand the nanometrology and its demerits as well as merits to properly interpret their experimental results. Challenges lay on the nanometrology, pretreatment of ENPs from various matrix; extracting without dissolution or aggregation and concentrating ENPs to satisfy the instrumental detection limit.
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Cognitive function, behavioral problems, and physical function in long-term care insurance beneficiaries with dementia in South Korea: comparison of home care and institutional care services.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To examine, in beneficiaries with long-term care (LTC) insurance (LTCI) with dementia in Korea, changes in cognitive function, behavioral symptoms, and physical function over time in relation to LTCI service type and to determine the 2-year effects of service type on those health outcomes.
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Physical lysis only (PLO) methods suitable as rapid sample pretreatment for qPCR assay.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables rapid and sensitive gene quantification and is widely used in genomics, such as biological, medical, environmental, and food sciences. However, sample pretreatment requires the use of conventional DNA extraction kits which are time-consuming and labor intensive. In this study, we investigated four physical lysis only (PLO) methods which are rapid and could serve as alternatives to conventional DNA extraction kits. These PLO methods are bead mill, heating, sonication, and freeze-thaw. Using ethidium bromide-based assay, their performance was evaluated and compared. The effects of cell debris and its removal were also investigated. Bead mill method without cell debris removal appeared to yield the best qPCR results among the four PLO methods. In addition, bead mill method also performed better than conventional DNA extraction kits. It is probably due to the substantial loss of DNA material during the extensive purification of the conventional DNA extraction kits. The bead mill method has been demonstrated to successfully quantify 10(2) to 10(7) copies of the PAH-RHD? gene of Pseudomonas putida.
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South Korean endoscopists' attitudes toward endoscopic ultrasound for the evaluation of gastrointestinal diseases.
Turk J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Despite the common use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for various gastrointestinal diseases in Asia, little is known about Asian endoscopists' attitudes toward the practice. The aim of our study was to provide a profile of Korean endoscopists' attitudes toward EUS use.
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Residual Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure (4sIRP) as a Prognostic Factor in the Pneumatic Balloon Treatment of Achalasia.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Pneumatic balloon dilatation (PD) is a mainstay in achalasia treatment. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for successful treatment.
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The Combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and SAHA induces apoptosis and autophagy-mediated cell death to overcome acquired resistance in EGFR T790M-mutated lung cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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To overcome T790M-mediated acquired resistance of lung cancer cells to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs), second generation TKIs such as BIBW2992 (afatinib) and third generation TKIs including WZ4002 have been developed. However, clinical data on their efficacy in treating T790M mutant tumors are lacking. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to arrest cell growth and to lead to differentiation and apoptosis of various cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we assessed whether the combination of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat), a potent HDAC inhibitor, and BIBW2992 or WZ4002 could overcome EGFR TKI resistance associated with T790M mutation in lung cancer cells. While treatment with BIBW2992 or WZ4002 alone slightly reduced the viability of PC-9G and H1975 cells, which possess T790M mutation, combining them with SAHA resulted in significantly decreased cell viability through the activation of the apoptotic pathway. This combination also enhanced autophagy occurrence and inhibition of autophagy significantly reduced the apoptosis induced by the combination treatment, showing that autophagy is required for the enhanced apoptosis. Caspase-independent autophagic cell death was also induced by the combination treatment with SAHA and either BIBW2992 or WZ4002. Finally, the combined treatment with SAHA and either BIBW2992 or WZ4002 showed an enhanced anti-tumor effect on xenografts of H1975 cells in vivo. In conclusion, the combination of new generation EGFR TKIs and SAHA may be a new strategy to overcome the acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs in T790M mutant lung cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Double-balloon enteroscopy in elderly patients: is it safe and useful?
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Providers may be hesitant to perform double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in the elderly because the increased number of co-morbidities in this population poses a greater risk of complications resulting from sedation. There are limited data on the use of DBE in the elderly. Here, we assessed the safety and efficacy of DBE in the elderly compared to those in younger patients.
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Challenges in assessing pathogenicity based on frequency of variants in mismatch repair genes: an extreme case of a MSH2 variant and a meta-analysis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The clinical interpretation of variants in mismatch repair (MMR) genes associated with Lynch syndrome can be confusing when the functional nature of the variant is not clearly defined. We report an extreme case where a polymorphism in the MSH2 gene which had a low minor allele frequency, was misclassified as a mutation based on low evidential methods in the database and previous publications. We expanded this experience to perform a systematic meta-analysis in order to investigate other variants that have potentially been misclassified. Our results suggested that the interpretation of pathogenicity should be more cautious and emphasized the need for solid validation through multiple analyses including functional analysis for variants in MMR genes.
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Long-term outcomes of balloon dilation versus botulinum toxin injection in patients with primary achalasia.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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We compared the long-term outcomes of balloon dilation versus botulinum toxin injection in Korean patients with primary achalasia and identified factors predicting remission.
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A systematic review of functional donor-site morbidity after latissimus dorsi muscle transfer.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The authors performed a comprehensive literature review regarding functional impairment after latissimus dorsi muscle transfer, to investigate functional changes in the donor site and the potential impact on patients' daily lives.
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Activities of Daily Living in Nursing Home and Home Care Settings: A Retrospective 1-Year Cohort Study.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Korea introduced universal long-term care insurance (LTCI) for physically dependent older adults in 2008. Older adults, their family members, and policy makers in Korea want to know patient outcomes in different care modalities because older adults who have a similar functional status and LTC needs can choose either nursing home care or home care. The aim of this study was to compare activities of daily living (ADLs) in nursing home care and home care settings for physically dependent older adults in Korea.
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Is Holm Zone III safe from fat necrosis in medial row perforator-based deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps?
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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This study investigated which zonal tissue would be more secure from the risk of fat necrosis between Holm zones II and III and examined the risk factors of fat necrosis in a clinical series of medial row perforator-based deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps.
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Acute mediastinitis arising from pancreatic mediastinal fistula in recurrent pancreatitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Acute mediastinitis is a fatal disease that usually originates from esophageal perforation and surgical infection. Rare cases of descending necrotizing mediastinitis can occur following oral cavity and pharynx infection or can be a complication of pancreatitis. The most common thoracic complications of pancreatic disease are reactive pleural effusion and pneumonia, while rare complications include thoracic conditions, such as pancreaticopleural fistula with massive pleural effusion or hemothorax and extension of pseudocyst into the mediastinum. There have been no reports of acute mediastinitis originating from pancreatitis in South Korea. In this report, we present the case of a 50-year-old female suffering from acute mediastinitis with pleural effusion arising from recurrent pancreatitis that improved after surgical intervention.
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Mutant Enrichment with 3'-Modified Oligonucleotides (MEMO)-Quantitative PCR for Detection of NPM1 Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Detection of NPM1 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is important for risk stratification, treatment decision, and therapeutic monitoring. We have designed a real-time PCR method implementing the Mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotides (MEMO) technique to detect NPM1 mutations and validated its utility in clinical samples.
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Thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone induction therapy: feasibility for myeloma patients destined for autologous stem cell transplantation.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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This study explored the effect of thalidomide and cyclophosphamide on stem cell collection, in addition to assessing their efficacy as induction therapy for myeloma patients destined for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We analyzed newly diagnosed myeloma patients who received TCD (thalidomide 100 mg/day for 28 days, oral cyclophosphamide 150 mg/m 2 /day and dexamethasone 40 mg/day on days 1–4) as induction therapy prior to ASCT. Peripheral stem cells were mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and cyclophosphamide. Thirty-six patients (median age 54 years) received TCD chemotherapy (median 4 cycles). The overall response rate to TCD was 77.8% (28/36). The median number of CD34+ cells was 6.5 × 10 6 /kg, and 2 patients failed to achieve the optimal number of CD34+ cells, i.e. 4.0 × 10 6 /kg, although they were able to attain >2.0 × 10 6 /kg. The overall response rate increased up to 94.4% (34/36) after ASCT; this included 9 patients with a stringent complete response without transplantation-related mortality. Four patients died due to disease progression and 17 were found to have progressed after ASCT (the median progression-free survival after ASCT was 19.6 months). TCD chemotherapy can be an effective and feasible induction regimen prior to ASCT for myeloma patients.
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Endoscopic Treatment of Various Gastrointestinal Tract Defects with an Over-the-Scope Clip: Case Series from a Tertiary Referral Hospital.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Recently, increasingly invasive therapeutic endoscopic procedures and more complex gastrointestinal surgeries such as endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection, and novel laparoscopic approaches have resulted in endoscopists being confronted more frequently with perforations, fistulas, and anastomotic leakages, for which nonsurgical closure is desired. In this article, we present our experiences with the use of over-the-scope clip (OTSC) for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) closure, prevention of perforation, anastomotic leakages, and fistula closures. The OTSC is a valuable device for closing intestinal perforations and fistulas, for NOTES closure, and for the prevention of perforation after the excision of a tumor from the proper muscle layer. Furthermore, it seems to be quite safe to perform, even by endoscopists with little experience of the technique.
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Human health risk assessment for ingestion exposure to groundwater contaminated by naturally occurring mixtures of toxic heavy metals in the Lao PDR.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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This study constitutes the first systematic risk assessment in the Lao PDR of the safety of groundwater for consumption. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from seven Lao provinces to determine the quantitative health impact of heavy metals through ingestion exposure. Contamination levels for arsenic (As; 46.0 %) and barium (Ba; 16.2 %) exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, especially in Mekong River floodplains. A USEPA assessment model for health risks from daily groundwater ingestion, with adjustments for local water consumption values, was applied to estimate the size of the population at risk for noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health problems. As was the only element contributing to noncarcinogenic health risks in all contaminated areas. The populations of Bolikhamxai, Savannakhet, Saravane, Champasak, and Attapeu, moreover, were at risks of cancer. In addition to the As groundwater concentration factor, noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were positively correlated with the average daily dose of As, exposure duration, and subject body weight. The level of As in hair correlated with groundwater consumption and average daily dose of As. 25.5 % of the population (n?=?228) showed As levels in hair above the toxicity level.
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Regional effects on chimera formation in 454 pyrosequenced amplicons from a mock community.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Chimeras are a frequent artifact in polymerase chain reaction and could be the underlying causes of erroneous taxonomic identifications, overestimated microbial diversity, and spurious sequences. However, little is known about the regional effects on chimera formation. Therefore, we investigated the chimera formation rates in different regions of phylogenetically important biomarker genes to test the regional effects on chimera formation. An empirical study of chimera formation rates was performed using the Roche GSFLX™ system with sequences of the V1/V2/V3 and V4/V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and sequences of the nifH gene from a mock microbial community. The chimera formation rates for the 16S V1/V2/V3 region, V4/V5 region, and nifH gene were 22.1-38.5%, 3.68-3.88%, and 0.31-0.98%, respectively. Some amplicons from the V1/V2/V3 regions were shorter than the typical length (?7-31%), reflecting incomplete extension. In the V1/V2/V3 and V4/V5 regions, conserved and hypervariable regions were identified. Chimeric hot spots were located in parts of conserved regions near the ends of the amplicons. The 16S V1/V2/V3 region had the highest chimera formation rate, likely because of long template lengths and incomplete extension. The amplicons of the nifH gene had the lowest frequency of chimera formation most likely because of variations in their wobble positions in triplet codons. Our results suggest that the main reasons for chimera formation are sequence similarity and premature termination of DNA extension near primer regions. Other housekeeping genes can be a good substitute for 16S rRNA genes in molecular microbial studies to reduce the effects of chimera formation.
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Equilibria, kinetics, and spectroscopic analyses on the uptake of aqueous arsenite by two-line ferrihydrite.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Arsenite sorption from aqueous solutions was investigated using two-line ferrihydrite at room temperature, as a function of solution pH and arsenite loading. The isotherms, pH envelopes, and kinetics of arsenite sorption were characterized and its mechanism was elucidated via X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies. Arsenite sorption showed only slight pH dependence with a sorption maximum centered around pH 8.0. The Langmuir isotherm is most appropriate for arsenite sorption over the wide range of pH, indicating the homogenous and monolayer sorption of arsenite. The kinetic study demonstrated that arsenite sorption onto two-line ferrihydrite is considerably fast and the equilibrium is achieved within the reaction time of 3 h. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy elucidated a slight change in oxidation state of arsenite for the initial concentration of 13.35 mM at pH 4. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy results indicate that types of surface complexes of arsenite appeared to be very similar to those proposed by the previous studies in that the bidentate binuclear corner-sharing (2C) complex is predominant at all the surface loadings. However, our EXAFS results suggest that regardless ofpH, the mixed complexes of2C and bidentate mononuclear edge-sharing surface complex (2E) as well as the 2C complex are favoured at low and intermediate surface loadings, but only the 2C complex is dominant at high surface loading. Overall, the EXAFS results support the efficient removal of arsenite by the two-line ferrihydrite through the formation of highly stable inner-sphere surface complexes, such as 2C complex.
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The clinical characteristics of colonic pseudo-obstruction and the factors associated with medical treatment response: a study based on a multicenter database in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) is defined as marked colonic distension in the absence of mechanical obstruction. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of CPO and the factors associated with the response to medical treatment by using a multicenter database in Korea. CPO was diagnosed as colonic dilatation without mechanical obstruction by using radiologic and/or endoscopic examinations. Acute CPO occurring in the postoperative period in surgical patients or as a response to an acute illness was excluded. CPO cases were identified in 15 tertiary referral hospitals between 2000 and 2011. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. In total, 104 patients (53 men; mean age at diagnosis, 47 yr) were identified. Seventy-seven of 104 patients (74%) showed a transition zone on abdominal computed tomography. Sixty of 104 patients (58%) showed poor responses to medical treatment and underwent surgery at the mean follow-up of 7.4 months (0.5-61 months). Younger age at the time of diagnosis, abdominal distension as a chief complaint, and greater cecal diameter were independently associated with the poor responses to medical treatment. These may be risk factors for a poor response to medical treatment.
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High-resolution Impedance Manometry Criteria in the Sitting Position Indicative of Incomplete Bolus Clearance.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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We used high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) to determine the length of breaks on the isobaric contour which would predict incomplete bolus clearance in patients in the sitting position.
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The functional and taxonomic richness of wastewater treatment plant microbial communities are associated with each other and with ambient nitrogen and carbon availability.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The number of functional traits of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) microbial community (i.e. functional richness) is thought to be an important determinant of its overall functional performance, but the ecological factors that determine functional richness remain unclear. The number of taxa within a community (i.e. taxonomic richness) is one ecological factor that might be important. Communities that contain more taxa are more likely to have more functional traits, and a positive association is therefore expected between functional and taxonomic richness. Empirical tests for this positive association among WWTP communities, however, are lacking. We address this knowledge gap by measuring the functional and taxonomic richness of 10 independent WWTP communities. We demonstrate that functional and taxonomic richness are positively associated with each other. We further demonstrate that functional and taxonomic richness are negatively associated with the effluent NH4 -N and BOD5 concentrations. This led us to hypothesize that correlated variation in functional and taxonomic richness is likely related to variation in ambient nitrogen and carbon availability. We finally demonstrate that this hypothesis is consistent with the functional and taxonomic attributes of the WWTP communities. Together, our results improve our basic understanding of the ecology and functioning of WWTP communities.
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Antigen Expression Patterns of Plasma Cell Myeloma: An Association of Cytogenetic Abnormality and International Staging System (ISS) for Myeloma.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Immunophenotyping of plasma cell has become an important diagnostic tool for plasma cell myeloma. There have been a few studies for association of antigen expression and cytogenetic abnormality of plasma cell myeloma.
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Constipation misperception is associated with gender, marital status, treatment utilization and constipation symptoms experienced.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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It is essential that clinicians have an understanding of patients' perceptions of constipation as well as constipation mis-perception (CM), which can be defined as failure to recognize the six constipation symptoms (infrequency, straining, hard stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction or manual maneuver). The aims of our study were to identify the prevalence of CM and its association with demographics and clinical features.
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Impedance Analysis Using High-resolution Impedance Manometry Facilitates Assessment of Pharyngeal Residue in Patients With Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Impedance analysis using high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) enables the recognition of pharyngeal residue in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aims of this study were to evaluate appropriate criteria for impedance analysis in a large patient cohort, as well as the diagnostic accuracy and agreement of analysis performed by HRIM trainees.
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Clinical application of catalytically cleavable fluorescence probe technology for multiplexing quantification of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Accurate measurement of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts is critical for therapeutic stratification in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Previous studies have reported the variable performance of the existing quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). Here, we developed a one-step multiplex RQ-PCR method based on the catalytically cleavable fluorescence probe technology for quantification of BCR-ABL1 transcripts.
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How to predict adequate bowel preparation before colonoscopy using conventional polyethylene glycol: Prospective observational study based on survey.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The present study investigated the conditions and predictive factors for adequate bowel preparation using 4-L polyethylene glycol (PEG) preparation in clinical practice.
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PTPRG inhibition by DNA methylation and cooperation with RAS gene activation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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While the cytogenetic and genetic characteristics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) are well studied, less clearly understood are the contributing epigenetic mechanisms that influence the leukemia phenotype. Our previous studies and others identified gene mutation (RAS) and DNA methylation (FHIT) to be associated with the most common cytogenetic subgroup of childhood ALL, high hyperdiploidy (having five more chromosomes). We screened DNA methylation profiles, using a genome-wide high-dimension platform of 166 childhood ALLs and 6 normal pre-B cell samples and observed a strong association of DNA methylation status at the PTPRG locus in human samples with levels of PTPRG gene expression as well as with RAS gene mutation status. In the 293 cell line, we found that PTPRG expression induces dephosphorylation of ERK, a downstream RAS target that may be critical for mutant RAS-induced cell growth. In addition, PTPRG expression is upregulated by RAS activation under DNA hypomethylating conditions. An element within the PTPRG promoter is bound by the RAS-responsive transcription factor RREB1, also under hypomethylating conditions. In conclusion, we provide evidence that DNA methylation of the PTPRG gene is a complementary event in oncogenesis induced by RAS mutations. Evidence for additional roles for PTPR family member genes is also suggested. This provides a potential therapeutic target for RAS-related leukemias as well as insight into childhood ALL etiology and pathophysiology.
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Selective targeting of Toll-like receptors and OX40 inhibit regulatory T-cell function in follicular lymphoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Immunotherapeutic strategies are promising approaches for the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, their efficacy may be limited by immunosuppressive elements in the immune system and tumor microenvironment. Therefore, strategies to reverse the effects of the immunosuppressive elements are needed. We observed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in the peripheral blood at diagnosis and persisted in high numbers after induction of clinical remission with a cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimen in FL patients. High levels of peripheral blood Tregs prior to therapy were associated with decreased progression-free survival in FL patients treated with either chemotherapy or combination immunotherapy that targeted CD20 and PD-1 with monoclonal antibodies rituximab and pidilizumab, respectively. Intratumoral and peripheral blood Tregs potently suppressed autologous antitumor effector T cells in FL. However, the effects of FL Tregs could be reversed by triggering Toll-like receptors (TLR) with TLR ligands Pam3 CSK4 (TLR 1/2), flagellin (TLR 5), and CpG-B (TLR 9), and/or OX40. The TLR ligands synergized with each other as well as OX40 signaling to inhibit Tregs. Furthermore, they restored the function of FL tumor-specific effector T cells. Our results suggest that a state of tolerance exists in FL patients at diagnosis and after induction of clinical remission, and agents that activate TLRs 1/2, 5, and 9, and OX40 may serve as adjuvants to enhance the efficacy of antitumor immunotherapeutic strategies and preventive vaccines against infectious diseases in these patients.
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Molecular characterization of near-complete trisomy 17p syndrome from inverted duplication in association with cryptic deletion of 17pter.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 17 (T17P) is a genomic disorder presenting with growth retardation, motor and mental retardation and constitutional physical anomalies including congenital heart defects. Here we report a case of near-complete T17P of which the genomic dosage aberrations were delineated by chromosomal microarray along with conventional diagnostic modalities. A 9-year-old Korean boy was admitted because of esophageal obstruction. He showed clinical manifestations of T17P, along with atypical features of scoliosis, corpus callosum agenesis, and seizure. Chromosome analyses revealed an inverted duplication of the chromosomal segment between 17p11.2 and 17p13.3. Chromosomal microarray revealed a duplication of the most of the short arm of chromosome 17 (size ~19.09 Mb) along with a cryptic deletion of a small segment of 17p terminal end (17pter) (~261 Kb). This is the first report of molecular characterization of near-complete T17P from inverted duplication in association with 17pter microdeletion. The fine delineation of the extent of genomic aberration by SNP-based microarray could help us better understand the molecular mechanism and genotype-phenotype correlations in T17P syndrome.
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Soyo-san reduces depressive-like behavior and proinflammatory cytokines in ovariectomized female rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Soyo-san is a traditional oriental medicinal formula, a mixture of 9 crude drugs, and it has been clinically used for treating mild depressive disorders. The role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in psychiatric disorders has been the focus of great research attention in recent years. In the present study, we detected the antidepressant effect of soyo-san in the ovariectomized and repeated stressed female rats.
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Comparison of 22-gauge aspiration needle with 22-gauge biopsy needle in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided subepithelial tumor sampling.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Abstract Objective. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) may facilitate tissue sampling for histopathological diagnosis of subepithelial tumors (SETs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, immunohistochemistry is not always feasible using EUS-FNA samples due to the low quality of specimens often obtained by aspiration. This study aimed to compare the use of 22-gauge (G) EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) with 22G EUS-FNA for core sampling used for histopathological examination, including immunohistochemistry, in patients with GI SETs. Methods. Twenty-eight patients with GI SETs ?2 cm in size were prospectively enrolled at five university hospitals in Korea between January and June 2013. They were randomized to undergo either EUS-FNB or EUS-FNA. Results. A total of 22 patients was finally analyzed in this study: 10 and 12 patients underwent EUS-FNA and EUS-FNB, respectively. Compared to the EUS-FNA group, the EUS-FNB group had a significantly lower median number of needle passes to obtain macroscopically optimal core samples (4 vs. 2, p = 0.025); higher yield rates of macroscopically and histologically optimal core samples with three needle passes (30% vs. 92%, p = 0.006; 20% vs. 75%, p = 0.010, respectively); and a higher diagnostic sufficiency rate (20% vs. 75%, p = 0.010). No technical difficulties were encountered in either group. Conclusions. This study shows that EUS-FNB has a better ability to obtain histological core samples and a higher diagnostic sufficiency rate than EUS-FNA and that EUS-FNB is a feasible, safe, and preferable modality for adequate core sampling for histopathological diagnosis of GI SETs.
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Herpes simplex virus duodenitis accompanying Crohns disease.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection in immunodeficient patients. Although a few cases of HSV gastritis and colitis in immunocompromised patients have been reported, there are no reports of HSV duodenitis in patients with Crohns disease (CD). A 74-year-old female was admitted with general weakness and refractory epigastric pain. She had been diagnosed with CD three years ago. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed diffuse edematous and whitish mucosa with multiple erosions in the duodenum. Considering the possibility of viral co-infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunohistochemical staining, PCR, and cultures of duodenal biopsies were performed, all of which were negative with the exception of the isolation of HSV in culture. After administration of intravenous acyclovir for 1 week, follow-up EGD showed almost complete resolution of the lesions and the patients symptoms improved. In CD patients with refractory gastro-intestinal symptoms, HSV, as well as CMV, should be considered as a possible cause of infection, so that the diagnosis of viral infection is not delayed and the appropriate antiviral treatment can be initiated. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;62:292-295).
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[Advanced neoplasm detection and its associated factors in colonoscopic surveillance of endoscopically resected early colorectal cancer].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Early colon cancer can be effectively diagnosed and treated by colonoscopy, and surveillance colonoscopy is necessary to detect precursor lesions or new early colon cancer. We analyzed the surveillance results of patients with endoscopically resected early colon cancer to evaluate the detection rate of advanced neoplasia and its associated factors.
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Is there a difference in the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease between peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients?
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common upper gastrointestinal disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, little is known about the prevalence of GERD in dialysis patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in the prevalence of GERD in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients.
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Distinct frequencies and mutation spectrums of genetic thrombophilia in Korea in comparison with other Asian countries both in patients with venous thromboembolism and in general population.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Hereditary natural anticoagulant deficiencies are the major cause of genetic thrombophilia in Asia. Given the growing acknowledgment of the risk of venous thromboembolism in Asian populations, we investigated the frequency and mutation spectrums of natural anticoagulant deficiency in Korea. The patient group consisted of consecutive patients with venous thromboembolism screened for thrombophilia. Genetic tests were performed on suspicion of natural anticoagulant deficiency. For the population group, >3,000 were screened from routine check-up, and those with a decreased level (<1-percentile) of natural anticoagulant underwent genetic tests. Mutations were detected by direct sequencing of PROC, PROS1, and SERPINC1, followed by additional multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for PROS1 and SERPINC1 for dosage mutations. Total 127 among 500 patients screened were suspected to have natural anticoagulant deficiency, and 71 were genetically confirmed: protein C deficiency in 36 (50.7%), antithrombin deficiency in 21 (29.6%), and protein S deficiency in 14 (19.7%). Total 3,129 individuals were screened from population, and the frequency of natural anticoagulant deficiency was ~1.0%: antithrombin deficiency 0.49%, protein C deficiency 0.35%, and protein S deficiency 0.16%. Two PROC mutations causing type I protein C deficiency were prevalent (Arg211Trp and Met406Ile in patients and Arg211Trp in population). Two SERPINC1 mutations causing type II antithrombin deficiency, Arg79Cys and Ser158Pro, were prevalent in the population group. This is the first study on the genetic epidemiology of natural anticoagulant deficiencies in Korea. The results demonstrated distinct frequencies and mutation spectrums underlying genetic thrombophilia in Korea in comparison with not only Caucasian but also other Asian populations.
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Ecological patterns of nifH genes in four terrestrial climatic zones explored with targeted metagenomics using FrameBot, a new informatics tool.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Biological nitrogen fixation is an important component of sustainable soil fertility and a key component of the nitrogen cycle. We used targeted metagenomics to study the nitrogen fixation-capable terrestrial bacterial community by targeting the gene for nitrogenase reductase (nifH). We obtained 1.1 million nifH 454 amplicon sequences from 222 soil samples collected from 4 National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) sites in Alaska, Hawaii, Utah, and Florida. To accurately detect and correct frameshifts caused by indel sequencing errors, we developed FrameBot, a tool for frameshift correction and nearest-neighbor classification, and compared its accuracy to that of two other rapid frameshift correction tools. We found FrameBot was, in general, more accurate as long as a reference protein sequence with 80% or greater identity to a query was available, as was the case for virtually all nifH reads for the 4 NEON sites. Frameshifts were present in 12.7% of the reads. Those nifH sequences related to the Proteobacteria phylum were most abundant, followed by those for Cyanobacteria in the Alaska and Utah sites. Predominant genera with nifH sequences similar to reads included Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium, the latter two without obvious plant hosts at the sites. Surprisingly, 80% of the sequences had greater than 95% amino acid identity to known nifH gene sequences. These samples were grouped by site and correlated with soil environmental factors, especially drainage, light intensity, mean annual temperature, and mean annual precipitation. FrameBot was tested successfully on three ecofunctional genes but should be applicable to any.
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Accuracy of a scoring system for the differential diagnosis of common gastric subepithelial tumors based on endoscopic ultrasonography.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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We aimed to validate a new scoring system for the differential diagnosis of astric subepithelial tumors (SETs) without histological envidence, and to determine its diagnostic yield for different gastric SETs.
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Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome Diagnosed with Linear Endoscopic Ultrasound (with Video) in a Patient with Normal Body Mass Index.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon disease that results from SMA compression of the third portion of the duodenum. Patients with SMA syndrome present with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The diagnosis is usually made from an upper barium study or computed tomography. Typically, SMA syndrome is caused by a decreased aortomesenteric angle of 6° to 25°. An underweight body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for development of SMA syndrome. There are few reports of the role of linear endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis of SMA syndrome. We report a case of SMA syndrome, with normal BMI, that was diagnosed with the aid of linear EUS. Although SMA syndrome is not typically within the scope of practice of endosonographers, it is useful to get familiar with the findings.
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Bioaccumulation and the soil factors affecting the uptake of arsenic in earthworm, Eisenia fetida.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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To better understand arsenic (As) bioaccumulation, a soil invertebrate species was exposed to 17 field soils contaminated with arsenic due to mining activity. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were kept in the soils for 70 days under laboratory conditions, as body burden increased and failed to reach equilibrium in all soils. After 70 days of exposure, XANES spectra determined that As was biotransformed to a highly reduced form. Uptake kinetics for As was calculated using one compartment model. Stepwise multiple regression suggested that sorbed As in soils are bioaccessible, and uptake is governed by soil properties (iron oxide, sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon) that control As mobility in soils. As in soil solution are highly related to uptake rate except four soils which had relatively high chloride or phosphate. The results imply that uptake of As is through As interaction with soil characteristics as well as direct from the soil solution. Internal validation showed that empirically derived regression equations can be used for predicting As uptake as a function of soil properties within the range of soil properties in the data set.
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Close observation of gastric mucosal pattern by standard endoscopy can predict Helicobacter pylori infection status.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Common endoscopic findings in stomachs with Helicobacter pylori infections include antral nodularity, thickened gastric folds, and visible submucosal vessels. These findings are suggestive but not diagnostic of H.?pylori infection. Magnifying endoscopy can reveal more precisely the abnormal mucosal patterns in an H.?pylori-infected stomach; however, it requires more training, expertise, and time. We aimed to establish a new classification for predicting H.?pylori-infected stomachs by non-magnifying standard endoscopy alone.
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection using a thulium laser: preliminary results of a new method for treatment of gastric epithelial neoplasia.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel laser system for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric epithelial neoplasia.
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In-depth characterization of wastewater bacterial community in response to algal growth using pyrosequencing.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Microalgae have been regarded as a natural resource for sustainable materials and fuels, as well as for removal of nutrients and micropollutants from wastewater, and their interaction with bacteria in wastewater is a critical factor to consider because of the microbial diversity and complexity in a variety of wastewater conditions. Despite their importance, very little is known about the ecological interactions between algae and bacteria in a wastewater environment. In this study, we characterized the wastewater bacterial community in response to the growth of a Selenastrum gracile UTEX 325 population in a real municipal wastewater environment. The Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technique was used for indepth analysis of amplicons of 16S rRNA genes from different conditions in each reactor, with and without the algal population. The algal growth reduced the bacterial diversity and affected the bacterial community structure in the wastewater. The following in-depth analysis of the deep-sequenced amplicons showed that the algal growth selectively stimulated Sphingobacteria class members, especially the Sediminibacterium genus population, in the municipal wastewater environment.
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Interaction of allergy history and antibodies to specific varicella-zoster virus proteins on glioma risk.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Glioma is the most common cancer of the central nervous system but with few confirmed risk factors. It has been inversely associated with chicken pox, shingles and seroreactivity to varicella virus (VZV), as well as to allergies and allergy-associated IgE. The role of antibody reactivity against individual VZV antigens has not been assessed. Ten VZV-related proteins, selected for high immunogenicity or known function, were synthesized and used as targets for antibody measurements in the sera of 143 glioma cases and 131 healthy controls selected from the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study. Glioma cases exhibited significantly reduced seroreactivity compared to controls for six antigens, including proteins IE63 [odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.58, comparing lowest quartile to highest) and the VZV-unique protein ORF2p (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.96, lowest quartile to highest). When stratifying the study population into those with low and high self-reported allergy history, VZV protein seroreactivity was only associated inversely with glioma among individuals self-reporting more than two allergies. The data provide insight into both allergy and VZV effects on glioma: strong anti-VZV reactions in highly allergic individuals are associated with reduced occurrence of glioma. This result suggests a role for specificity in the anti-VZV immunity in brain tumor suppression for both individual VZV antigens and in the fine-tuning of the immune response by allergy. Anti-VZV reactions may also be a biomarker of effective CNS immunosurveillance owing to the tropism of the virus.
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Protection against Vibrio vulnificus infection by active and passive immunization with the C-terminal region of the RtxA1/MARTXVv protein.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Vibrio vulnificus is a foodborne pathogen that is prevalent in coastal waters worldwide. Infection with V. vulnificus causes septicemia with fatality rates exceeding 50% even with aggressive antibiotic therapy. Several vaccine studies to prevent V. vulnificus infection have been performed but have had limited success. In this study, we identified the C-terminal region (amino acids 3491 to 4701) of the V. vulnificus multifunctional autoprocessing RTX (MARTXVv or RtxA1) protein, RtxA1-C, as a promising antigen that induces protective immune responses against V. vulnificus. Vaccination of mice with recombinant RtxA1-C protein with adjuvant elicited a robust antibody response and a dramatic reduction in blood bacterial load in mice infected intraperitoneally. Vaccination resulted in significant protection against lethal challenge with V. vulnificus. Furthermore, intraperitoneal passive immunization with serum raised against the recombinant RtxA1-C protein demonstrated marked efficacy in both prophylaxis and therapy. These results suggest that active and passive immunization against the C-terminal region of the RtxA1 protein may be an effective approach in the prevention and therapy of V. vulnificus infections.
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Repeated heat exposure impairs nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in mice.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Environmental heat stress is associated with physical stress responses, including changes in monoamines, protein expression, and neuronal circuits and damage to neurons in the brain. This study determined the effects of heat stress on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system based on behavioral, histological, and neurochemical analyses. To evaluate behavioral changes after heat exposure, we subjected mice to the pole and open field tests. The data suggested that heat stress for 7 d significantly impaired movement. Then, we conducted a histological analysis using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the striatum and substantia nigra (SN). Heat stress induced a significant deficit in TH-positive fibers and cells after 14- and 21-d exposure, respectively. We also measured the striatal dopamine (DA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels. The data suggested that DA turnover rate increased with heat exposure in a time-dependent manner, resulting in the significant decrease of DA after 28 d. Moreover, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was increased in the mouse SN with up to 14-d heat exposure, but decreased after 21 d of the stress. And glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) was gradually increased in the mouse SN with 28-d heat exposure. The caspase-3 activity was also increased after 14-d heat exposure. These findings are the first evidence that repeated heat stress impairs nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, motor function, and DA availability with changes of HSP70 and GRP78 expressions and caspase-3 activity in mice.
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Clinical significance of the first surveillance colonoscopy after endoscopic early colorectal cancer removal.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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We investigated the clinical significance of the first surveillance colonoscopy after endoscopic cancer removal.
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Inhibitory effect of Coptis chinensis on inflammation in LPS-induced endotoxemia.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Rhizoma coptidis (RC) has been used as a remedy for inflammation-related diseases in traditional medicine. Although it is known to have anti-inflammatory activities, its mechanism of action on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation has not yet been identified in detail.
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Elevation of S100 calcium binding protein A9 in sputum of neutrophilic inflammation in severe uncontrolled asthma.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Neutrophilic airway inflammation is frequently observed in severe uncontrolled asthma (UA) and controlled asthma (CA). However, there is no sputum biomarker to differentiate the 2 conditions.
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Development of the short form of the Korean Health Literacy Scale for the elderly.
Res Nurs Health
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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We developed and examined a shortened form of the Korean Health Literacy Scale (KHLS) with a sample of 543 elderly in South Korea. Rasch analysis of the KHLS was conducted to examine the unidimensionality of the scale, along with a confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate both the item fit and item difficulty. Based on these data the KHLS was narrowed down to 12 of the original 24 items (7 comprehension and numeracy questions and 5 health-related questions). The internal consistency of the resulting short form (S-KHLS) was 0.80. The S-KHLS is a short and reliable scale for testing the health literacy skills of elderly Korean adults.
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Effect of culture medium type on canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and developmental competence of interspecies cloned embryos.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are promising as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). It has been suggested that different cell cultures possess different capacities to support pre-implantation development of SCNT embryos. The aim of this study is to investigate whether two culture medium (RCMEP, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium [DMEM]) affect gene expression of ASCs, subsequent development of interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) and gene expression of cloned embryos. The RCMEP-cultured cells contained significantly greater amounts of SOX2, NANOG, OCT4, DNMT1, and MeCP2 than DMEM-cultured cells (P < 0.05). In iSCNT, the use of DMEM medium for culturing cells resulted in similar development to the blastocyst stage than those derived from RCMEP cultured cells (4.5% and 3.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). The expression of all transcripts except for DNMT1 in cloned blastocysts from RCMEP cultured cells followed those of cloned blastocysts derived from DMEM cultured cells. The alteration of gene expression in ASCs by culture medium was not manifested in the iSCNT embryos derived from these cells. Although the culture medium can induce changes of gene expression by ASCs, such alterations in donor cells did not affect the developmental competence or gene expression patterns of iSCNT embryos.
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Magnifying endoscopy for the diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia in short-segment Barretts esophagus.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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To determine whether magnified observation of short-segment Barretts esophagus (BE) is useful for the detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM).
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Differential diagnosis of left-sided abdominal pain: primary epiploic appendagitis vs colonic diverticulitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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To investigate the clinical characteristics of left primary epiploic appendagitis and to compare them with those of left colonic diverticulitis.
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Comparison of clinical effectiveness of the emergent colonoscopy in patients with hematochezia according to the type of bowel preparation.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Colonoscopy (CFS) is a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with hematochezia. However, the optimal preparation method of emergent CFS for hematochezia has not been defined. We investigated the clinical effectiveness of bowel preparation of patients with hematochezia using polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution and glycerin or water enemas.
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Induction of human leukemia U937 cell apoptosis by an ethanol extract of Dendropanax morbifera Lev. through the caspase-dependent pathway.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Dendropanax morbifera Leveille is found throughout southwestern Korea, and has been used in traditional medicine for various diseases, such as migraine headache, infectious diseases, skin diseases and dysmenorrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms of D. morbifera concerning its biochemical actions in cancer have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of an ethanol extract of D. morbifera stem bark (EEDM) on human leukemia U937 cells. EEDM markedly inhibited the growth of U937 cells by decreasing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. EEDM-induced apoptosis in U937 cells was associated with the upregulation of death receptor-related protein levels and downregulation of anti-apoptotic IAP family proteins. The increase in apoptosis was also associated with proteolytic activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, inhibition of anti?apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression, Bid cleavage, and loss of MMP suggesting that apoptosis of U937 cells induced by EEDM was through the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VED-fmk, significantly inhibited EEDM-induced U937 cell apoptosis indicating that the caspases were key regulators of apoptosis in response to EEDM in U937 cells. Our data suggest that D. morbifera may be a potential anticancer agent for cancer treatment.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.