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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reactivation of inactive X chromosome and post-transcriptional reprogramming of Xist in induced pluripotent stem cells.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells entails the obliteration of somatic cell memory and the reestablishment of epigenetic events. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been created by reprogramming somatic cells through the transduction of reprogramming factors. During cell reprogramming, female somatic cells must overcome at least one more barrier than male somatic cells in order to enter a pluripotent state, as they must reactivate an inactive X chromosome (Xi). In this study, we investigated whether the sex of somatic cells affects reprogramming efficiency, differentiation potential, and the post-transcriptional processing of Xist RNA after reprogramming. There were no differences between male and female iPS cells with respect to reprogramming efficiency or their differentiation potential in vivo. However, reactivating Xi took longer than reactivating pluripotency-related genes. We also found that direct reprogramming leads to gender appropriate posttranscriptional reprogramming: like male embryonic stem (ES) cells, male iPS cells expressed only the long Xist isoform, whereas female iPS cells, like female ES cells, expressed both the long and short isoforms.
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Optogenetic activation of presynaptic inputs in lateral amygdala forms associative fear memory.
Learn. Mem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the lateral amygdala (LA) has been highlighted as a key brain site for association between sensory cues and aversive stimuli. However, learning-related changes are also found in upstream sensory regions such as thalamus and cortex. To isolate the essential neural circuit components for fear memory association, we tested whether direct activation of presynaptic sensory inputs in LA, without the participation of upstream activity, is sufficient to form fear memory in mice. Photostimulation of axonal projections from the two main auditory brain regions, the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and the secondary auditory cortex, was paired with aversive footshock. Twenty-four hours later the same photostimulation induced robust conditioned freezing and this fear memory formation was disrupted when glutamatergic synaptic transmission was locally blocked in the LA. Therefore, our results prove for the first time that synapses between sensory input areas and the LA, previously implicated as a crucial brain site for fear memory formation, actually are sufficient to serve as a conditioned stimulus. Our results strongly support the idea that the LA may be sufficient to encode and store associations between neutral cue and aversive stimuli during natural fear conditioning as a critical part of a broad fear memory engram.
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Evaluation of cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity using urinary metabolomic profiles in sprague-dawley male rats.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate urinary metabolomic profiles associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity and their potential mechanisms. Metabolomic profiles were measured by high-resolution (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the urine of rats after oral exposure to CdCl2 (1, 5, or 25 mg/kg) for 6 wk. The spectral data were further analyzed by a multivariate analysis to identify specific urinary metabolites. Urinary excretion levels of protein biomarkers were also measured and CdCl2 accumulated dose-dependently in the kidney. High-dose (25 mg/kg) CdCl2 exposure significantly increased serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), but serum creatinine (sCr) levels were unchanged. High-dose CdCl2 (25 mg/kg) exposure also significantly elevated protein-based urinary biomarkers including osteopontin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), kidney injury molecules-1 (Kim-1), and selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) in rat urine. Under these conditions, six urinary metabolites (citrate, serine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, dimethylamine, and betaine) were involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism. In addition, a few number of amino acids such as glycine, glutamate, tyrosine, proline, or phenylalanine and carbohydrate (glucose) were altered in urine after CdCl2 exposure. In particular, the metabolites involved in the glutathione biosynthesis pathway, including cysteine, serine, methionine, and glutamate, were markedly decreased compared to the control. Thus, these metabolites are potential biomarkers for detection of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Our results further indicate that redox metabolomics pathways may be associated with Cd-mediated chronic kidney injury. These findings provide a biochemical pathway for better understanding of cellular mechanism underlying Cd-induced renal injury in humans.
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Nephrotoxic potential and toxicokinetics of melamine combined with cyanuric Acid in rats.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To investigate the nephrotoxic potential of melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CA) in male Sprague-Dawley rats, 7-d repeated-dose studies were performed. The experimental groups of MEL100 and CA100 were orally administered with MEL and CA at 100 mg/kg/d for 7 d, respectively. In groups dosed with MEL-CA mixtures, melamine and cyanuric acid (1:1) were simultaneously administered at 4, 20, or 100 mg/kg/d for 7 d (i.e., MEL-CA4, MEL-CA20, or MEL-CA100, respectively). Body weights were not markedly affected in MEL100, CA100, and MEL-CA4 groups, but significantly reduced in MEL-CA 20 and 100 rats. Most parameters determined in sera and tissues were not markedly altered in MEL100, CA100, and MEL-CA4-treated rodents. However, BUN, creatinine, total protein, and kidney weights were significantly increased in MEL-CA20- and MEL-CA100-treated animals. Renal histopathologic findings also revealed signs of toxicity, including tubular dilatation, crystal deposition, granulomatous tubulo-interstitial inflammation, and tubular necrosis with regeneration. Data suggested that the combination of MEL and CA might be responsible for observed nephrotoxicity that was not seen following individual exposure to either MEL or CA alone. Subsequently, the concentrations of MEL and CA were determined in serum, urine, and kidney tissues by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Toxicokinetic studies indicated that MEL or CA alone might be eliminated almost completely within 24 h after dosing showing no accumulation in kidney. However, the combined MEL-CA dose produced marked accumulation of chemicals in blood and kidneys. These results suggested that combined MEL and CA might produce renal toxicity due to significant chemical accumulation in kidney accompanied by low excretion.
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Pterocarpan-Enriched Soy Leaf Extract Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic ?-Cell Proliferation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL) are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND), HFD (60 kcal% fat diet), EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt) EASL), and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt) pinitol) groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), paired box 4 (Pax4), and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating ?-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.
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Conversion of partially reprogrammed cells to fully pluripotent stem cells is associated with further activation of stem cell maintenance- and gamete generation-related genes.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Somatic cells are reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by overexpression of a combination of defined transcription factors. We generated iPSCs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (with Oct4-GFP reporter) by transfection of pCX-OSK-2A (Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4) and pCX-cMyc vectors. We could generate partially reprogrammed cells (XiPS-7), which maintained more than 20 passages in a partially reprogrammed state; the cells expressed Nanog but were Oct4-GFP negative. When the cells were transferred to serum-free medium (with serum replacement and basic fibroblast growth factor), the XiPS-7 cells converted to Oct4-GFP-positive iPSCs (XiPS-7c, fully reprogrammed cells) with ESC-like properties. During the conversion of XiPS-7 to XiPS-7c, we found several clusters of slowly reprogrammed genes, which were activated at later stages of reprogramming. Our results suggest that partial reprogrammed cells can be induced to full reprogramming status by serum-free medium, in which stem cell maintenance- and gamete generation-related genes were upregulated. These long-term expandable partially reprogrammed cells can be used to verify the mechanism of reprogramming.
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Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? inhibits angiotensin II-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J. Vasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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We investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? on angiotensin (Ang) II-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Activation of PPAR? by GW501516, a specific ligand for PPAR?, attenuated Ang II-induced activation of MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. GW501516 also inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in VSMCs treated with Ang II. A marked increase in the mRNA levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and -3, endogenous antagonists of MMPs, was also observed in GW501516-treated VSMCs. These effects were markedly reduced in the presence of siRNAs against PPAR?, indicating that the effects of GW501516 are PPAR? dependent. Among the protein kinases inhibited by GW501516, suppression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling was shown to have the greatest effect on activation of MMP-2 in VSMCs treated with Ang II. Concomitantly, GW501516-mediated inhibition of MMP-2 activation in VSMCs treated with Ang II was associated with the suppression of cell migration to levels approaching those in cells not exposed to Ang II. Thus, activation of PPAR? confers resistance to Ang II-induced degradation of the extracellular matrix by upregulating expression of its endogenous inhibitor TIMP and thereby modulating cellular responses to Ang II in vascular cells.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? modulates MMP-2 secretion and elastin expression in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to ultraviolet B radiation.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Changes in skin connective tissues mediated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation have been suggested to cause the skin wrinkling normally associated with premature aging of the skin. Recent investigations have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? plays multiple biological roles in skin homeostasis.
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Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor ? (ER?) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer.
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Flavonoids from Machilus japonica stems and their inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (-)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3-6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively.
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Another option of perforator flap in the lateral thoracic area: lateral thoracic perforator flap.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The lateral thoracic donor site provides two types of perforator flap; the latissimus dorsi perforator flap based on the musculocutaneous perforator, and the thoracodorsal perforator flap based on the septocutaneous perforators from the thoracodorsal artery. In this article, we introduce a direct cutaneous perforator derived from the lateral thoracic artery, which provides another option for harvesting a perforator flap from the lateral thoracic region.
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Protein kinase a phosphorylates Dlx3 and regulates the function of Dlx3 during osteoblast differentiation.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Protein kinase A (PKA), a serine/threonine kinase, regulates bone formation, and enhances Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblast differentiation. However, the mechanisms of how PKA controls the cellular response to BMP are not well known. We investigated the effects of modulating PKA activity during BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation, and found that PKA regulates the function of Dlx3. Dlx3 plays crucial roles in osteoblast differentiation and it is expressed in most skeletal elements during development. We found that PKA activation increases BMP2-induced expression of Dlx3 protein, and enhances the protein stability, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity of Dlx3. In addition, PKA activation induces the phosphorylation of Dlx3 at consensus PKA phosphorylation target site(s). Lastly, substitution of serine 10 in Dlx3 to alanine significantly reduces, if not completely abolishes, the phosphorylation of Dlx3 and the regulation of Dlx3 function by PKA. These results suggest that Dlx3 is a novel target of PKA, and that PKA mediates BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation, at least in part, by phosphorylating Dlx3 and modulating the protein stability and function of Dlx3.
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Replacing with whole grains and legumes reduces Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs in patients with prediabetes or T2D.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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To determine dietary effects on circulating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and enzyme activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), 99 patients with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly-diagnosed T2D were randomly assigned to either a control group (usual diet with refined rice) or the whole grain and legume group. Substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice was associated with the replacement of 7% of energy from carbohydrates with energy from protein (about 4%) and fat. After 12 weeks, the whole grain and legume group showed a significant decrease in fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, malondialdehyde, plasma Lp-PLA2 activity, and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and an increase in LDL particle size. The changes (?s) in these variables in the whole grain and legume group were significantly different from those in controls after adjustment for the baseline levels. When all subjects were considered, ? plasma Lp-PLA2 positively correlated with ? glucose, ? PBMC Lp-PLA2, ? ox-LDL, and ? urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2? after being adjusted for confounding factors. The ? PBMC Lp-PLA2 correlated positively with ? glucose and ? ox-LDL, and negatively with ? LDL particle size and baseline PBMC Lp-PLA2. The substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice resulted in a reduction in Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs partly through improved glycemic control, increased consumption of protein relative to carbohydrate, and reduced lipid peroxides.
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Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties.
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The beneficial effect of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf extracts in adults with prediabetes: a randomized placebo controlled trial.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The present study investigated the effects of soybean leaf extracts (SLEs) on blood glucose, insulin resistance, body fat and dyslipidemia in prediabetes subjects, and compared them with the effects of banaba extracts (BE) which is known to ameliorate diabetes in several animals and clinical studies. Overweight subjects with mild hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose level of 100-125 mg dL(-1)) were randomly assigned to three groups and administered four capsules containing starch (2 g per day, Placebo), BE (300 mg per day, 0.3% corosolic acid) or SLE (2 g per day) during regular meals for 12 weeks. The SLE as well as BE significantly decreased the baseline-adjusted final blood glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and transaminase levels compared to the placebo group. The body weight, BMI and WHR were not different between the groups, but the baseline-adjusted final body fat content and waist circumference were lower in the BE and SLE groups than in the placebo group. Furthermore, the baseline-adjusted final plasma triglyceride concentration was lower in the BE and SLE groups compared to the placebo group. There were no significant differences in plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations between the groups. However, the SLE, but not the BE, significantly increased the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol after 12 weeks of supplementation compared to the placebo group, while the atherogenic index was decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that SLE may play an important role in improving blood glucose, insulin resistance, adiposity, and dyslipidemia in prediabetes subjects consuming their habitual diet, similar to or better than BE.
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Selective induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 2B activity by leelamine in vivo, as a potent novel inducer.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is an important enzyme that can act on xenobiotic substances such as toxic chemicals or drugs. Phenobarbital (PB) has been widely used to induce CYP2B activity to investigate the drug-drug interaction of CYP2B substrate drugs. Leelamine is a diterpene compound, and is the current focus of efforts to develop a treatment for diabetes. In this study, we identified the selective and potent inductive effect of leelamine on CYP2B at doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg in male ICR mice for 1 or 3 days. In liver, the activity of CYP2B significantly increased 3.6-fold after treatment with leelamine, compared to vehicle-treated group. Activities of benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase significantly increased 6.3- and 5.3-fold, respectively, with a single treatment of 20 mg/kg leelamine for 1 day. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis showed that significantly and dose-dependently increased CYP2B10 protein levels in liver. However, PCR results showed that there were no significant changes in the CAR and CYP2B mRNA levels after leelamine treatment. Accordingly, we suggest that leelamine is a novel substitute of PB for the selective induction of CYP2B activity in vivo.
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Neural stem cells differentiated from iPS cells spontaneously regain pluripotency.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells by transduction of exogenous reprogramming factors. After induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are established, exogenous genes are silenced. In the pluripotent state, retroviral genes integrated in the host genome are kept inactive through epigenetic transcriptional regulation. In this study, we tried to determine whether exogenous genes remain silenced or are reactivated upon loss of pluripotency or on differentiation using an in vitro system. We induced differentiation of iPS cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro; the NSCs appeared morphologically indistinguishable from brain-derived NSCs and stained positive for the NSC markers Nestin and Sox2. These iPS cell-derived NSCs (iPS-NSCs) were also capable of differentiating into all three neural subtypes. Interestingly, iPS-NSCs spontaneously formed aggregates on long-term culture and showed reactivation of the Oct4-GFP marker, which was followed by the formation of embryonic stem cell-like colonies. The spontaneously reverted green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive (iPS-NSC-GFP(+) ) cells expressed high levels of pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog) and formed germline chimeras, indicating that iPS-NSC-GFP(+) cells had the same pluripotency as the original iPS cells. The reactivation of silenced exogenous genes was tightly correlated with the downregulation of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) during differentiation of iPS cells. This phenomenon was not observed in doxycycline-inducible iPS cells, where the reactivation of exogenous genes could be induced only by doxycycline treatment. These results indicate that pluripotency can be regained through reactivation of exogenous genes, which is associated with dynamic change of Dnmt levels during differentiation of iPS cells.
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Ilimaquinone induces death receptor expression and sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP signaling pathways.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, development of resistance to TRAIL is a major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Therefore, novel pharmacological agents that enhance sensitivity to TRAIL are necessary. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which ilimaquinone isolated from a sea sponge sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL. Ilimaquinone pretreatment significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 cells and sensitized colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through increased caspase-8, -3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA damage. Ilimaquinone also reduced the cell survival proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, while strongly up-regulating death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5 expression. Induction of DR4 and DR5 by ilimaquinone was mediated through up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). The up-regulation of CHOP, DR4 and DR5 expression was mediated through activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Finally, the generation of ROS was required for CHOP and DR5 up-regulation by ilimaquinone. These results demonstrate that ilimaquinone enhanced the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP-mediated up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 expression, suggesting that ilimaquinone could be developed into an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug.
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Perineal perforator-based island flaps: the next frontier in perineal reconstruction.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Perineal reconstruction is a challenging prospect. Conventional flap reconstruction often involves the sacrifice of a source artery and muscle, resulting in significant donor morbidity. Perforator flaps sought to overcome this but required tedious dissection. In this article, the authors introduce a new concept in perineal reconstruction using perforator-based island flaps.
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The adipokine Retnla modulates cholesterol homeostasis in hyperlipidemic mice.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Hyperlipidemia is a well-recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis and can be regulated by adipokines. Expression of the adipokine resistin-like molecule alpha (Retnla) is regulated by food intake; whether Retnla has a role in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is unknown. Here we report that Retnla has a cholesterol-lowering effect and protects against atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. On a high-fat diet, Retnla deficiency promotes hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis, whereas Retnla overexpression reverses these effects and improves the serum lipoprotein profile, with decreased cholesterol in the very low-density lipoprotein fraction concomitant with reduced serum apolipoprotein B levels. We show that Retnla upregulates cholesterol-7-?-hydroxylase, a key hepatic enzyme in the cholesterol catabolic pathway, through induction of its transcriptional activator liver receptor homologue-1, leading to increased excretion of cholesterol in the form of bile acids. These findings define Retnla as a novel therapeutic target for treating hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis.
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Increased genomic integrity of an improved protein-based mouse induced pluripotent stem cell method compared with current viral-induced strategies.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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It has recently been shown that genomic integrity (with respect to copy number variants [CNVs]) is compromised in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated by viral-based ectopic expression of specific transcription factors (e.g., Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc). However, it is unclear how different methods for iPSC generation compare with one another with respect to CNV formation. Because array-based methods remain the gold standard for detecting unbalanced structural variants (i.e., CNVs), we have used this approach to comprehensively identify CNVs in iPSC as a proxy for determining whether our modified protein-based method minimizes genomic instability compared with retro- and lentiviral methods. In this study, we established an improved method for protein reprogramming by using partially purified reprogramming proteins, resulting in more efficient generation of iPSCs from C57/BL6J mouse hepatocytes than using protein extracts. We also developed a robust and unbiased 1 M custom array CGH platform to identify novel CNVs and previously described hot spots for CNV formation, allowing us to detect CNVs down to the size of 1.9 kb. The genomic integrity of these protein-based mouse iPSCs (p-miPSCs) was compared with miPSCs developed from viral-based strategies (i.e., retroviral: retro-miPSCs or lentiviral: lenti-miPSCs). We identified an increased CNV content in lenti-miPSCs and retro-miPSCs (29?53 CNVs) compared with p-miPSCs (9?10 CNVs), indicating that our improved protein-based reprogramming method maintains genomic integrity better than current viral reprogramming methods. Thus, our study, for the first time to our knowledge, demonstrates that reprogramming methods significantly influence the genomic integrity of resulting iPSCs.
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An Additional Option for Split-Thickness Skin Graft Donors: The Previous Free Flap Sites.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Free flap reconstruction is the best choice for soft-tissue defect. However, there are often accompanying problems such as partial flap loss, donor-site skin problems, and loss of previous skin grafts surrounding the flap site. This is especially true when dealing with multiple trauma, complex defects, and large skin flaps. Because of the simplicity of the procedure involved, split-thickness skin grafts are usually used for reconstructing skin and soft-tissue defects. These are also a good choice when there is a need for further procedures because of defects from several potential causes. Pain and the loss of healthy donor tissue are major concerns in such operations. Hence, we thought that the previous skin flap area might be a good alternative area for split-thickness skin grafts accompanying procedures subsequent to free flap reconstruction. Because this donor area is no longer sensitive, local anesthesia can be used during harvesting, and there is no loss of healthy donor tissue. Therefore, this procedure is an economical means of obtaining tissue for soft-tissue reconstruction. We describe 9 examples of flap reconstruction done in this way and suggest that this is a useful option for donor site.
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Effects of A379V variant of the Lp-PLA 2 gene on Lp-PLA 2 activity and markers of oxidative stress and endothelial function in Koreans.
J. Thromb. Thrombolysis
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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A379V variant in the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA 2) gene is known to be functional, but there are contradicting data concerning the A379V polymorphism, Lp-PLA2 activity and cardiovascular disease risk. We determined the interplay between A379V SNP, Lp-PLA2 activity, and markers of oxidative stress and endothelial function with and without the effect of V279F variant. 3,220 unrelated and healthy Koreans (40-79 years) were genotyped for the Lp-PLA 2 polymorphism (A379V and V279F). Lp-PLA2 activity and markers of oxidative stress and endothelial function were measured. Lp-PLA2 activity was 3.9% higher in A/V subjects (n = 821) and 7.8% in V/V (n = 79) than in those with A/A (n = 2,320). Urinary levels of 8-epi-PGF2? were significantly lower in subjects with the A/V or the V/V genotype than in those with the A/A genotype (A/A; 1,426 ± 14, A/V; 1,371 ± 26, V/V; 1,199 ± 58 pg/mg creatinine, P = 0.003). Subjects with the 379 V/V genotype had lower serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and p-selectin compared to those with the A/A or the A/V genotype. When subjects were further stratified into subgroups based on the combination of A379V and V279F genotypes, there was no significant association between A379V genotypes and Lp-PLA2 activities in the 279 V/V group. However, the associations of the A379V SNP with levels of 8-epi-PGF2?, sICAM-1, and p-selectin remained in the subset analysis based on the V279F genotypes. This study showed a reduction in oxidative stress in subjects carrying 379V allele and the recessive effect of the A379V on the endothelial function. It is likely that the A379V polymorphism has a qualitative effect, probably by disrupting the affinity of Lp-PLA2 for platelet-activating factor substrate, towards a more anti-oxidative or anti-atherogenic form.
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Evaluation of renal toxicity by combination exposure to melamine and cyanuric Acid in male sprague-dawley rats.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Melamine-induced nephrotoxicity is closely associated with crystal formation in the kidney caused by combined exposure to melamine (Mel) and cyanuric acid (CA). However, there are few dosage-finding studies for toxicological evaluation of chronic co-exposure to Mel and CA. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible mechanism by which a Mel and CA mixture lead to renal toxicity in rats. Mel and CA were co-administered to rats via oral gavage for 50 days. Nephrotoxicity was determined by measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCr) levels. Relative kidney weights were significantly increased in rats after co-exposure to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg) mixtures. BUN and sCr levels were significantly increased after Mel and CA co-exposure. Taken together, significant increase in KIM-1, NGAL, and calbindin levels were observed in the urine of rats exposed to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg) compared with the corresponding control group. Histological analysis revealed epithelial degeneration and necrotic cell death in the proximal tubules of the kidney after co-exposure to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg). Our data suggest that Mel-mediated renal toxicity may be influenced by CA concentrations in Mel-contaminated milk or foods.
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Intraoral zygoma reduction using L-shaped osteotomy.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Because of the various defects of malarplasty, including a large incision, much bleeding, visible scars after the operation, and so on, caused by the conventional coronal incision or the temporal incision with the intraoral incision approach, the malarplasty by simple intraoral approach is an innovative development.
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Eosinophilic Pleuritis due to Sparganum: A Case Report.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion.
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Perforator flaps after excision of large epidermal cysts in the buttocks.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Epidermal cysts are commonly occurring masses usually less than 5 cm in diameter, but in predisposed patients, epidermal cysts can grow relatively large due to chronic infection.
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Delayed hypersensitivity reaction resulting in maculopapular-type eruption due to entecavir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Several clinical trials have demonstrated the potent antiviral efficacy of entecavir (ETV), and this relatively new nucleoside analogue drug has rapidly become a frequently prescribed therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) worldwide. While the studies have also shown a good overall safety profile for ETV, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients with advanced cirrhosis have been reported and represent a broad spectrum of drug-induced injuries, including lactic acidosis, myalgia, neuropathy, azotemia, hypophosphatemia, muscular weakness, and pancreatitis, as well as immune-mediated responses (i.e., allergic reactions). Cutaneous ADRs associated with ETV are very rare, with only two case reports in the publicly available literature; both of these cases were classified as unspecified hypersensitivity allergic (type I) ADR, but neither were reported as pathologically proven or as evaluated by cytokine release analysis. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with a generalized maculopapular rash after one week of ETV treatment for lamivudine-resistant CHB. The patient reported having experienced a similar skin eruption during a previous three-month regimen of ETV, for which she had self-discontinued the medication. Histopathological analysis of a skin biopsy showed acanthotic epidermis with focal parakeratosis and a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate admixed with interstitial eosinophils in the papillary and reticular dermis, consistent with a diagnosis of drug sensitivity. A lymphocyte stimulation test showed significantly enhanced IL-4, indicating a classification of type IVb delayed hypersensitivity. The patient was switched to an adefovir-lamivudine combination regimen and the skin eruption resolved two weeks after the ETV withdrawal. This case represents the first pathologically and immunologically evidenced ETV-induced delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction reported to date. Physicians should be aware of the potential, although rare, for cutaneous ADRs associated with ETV treatment.
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A Comparison of the In Vitro Inhibitory Effects of Thelephoric Acid and SKF-525A on Human Cytochrome P450 Activity.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Thelephoric acid is an antioxidant produced by the hydrolysis of polyozellin, which is isolated from Polyozellus multiplex. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of polyozellin and thelephoric acid on 9 cytochrome P450 (CYP) family members (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4) were examined in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) using a cocktail probe assay. Polyozellin exhibited weak inhibitory effects on the activities of all 9 CYPs examined, whereas thelephoric acid exhibited dose- and time-dependent inhibition of all 9 CYP isoforms (IC50 values, 3.2-33.7 ?M). Dixon plots of CYP inhibition indicated that thelephoric acid was a competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. In contrast, thelephoric acid was a noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6. Our findings indicate that thelephoric acid may be a novel, non-specific CYP inhibitor, suggesting that it could replace SKF-525A in inhibitory studies designed to investigate the effects of CYP enzymes on the metabolism of given compounds.
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Quantitative determination of amisulpride in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Amisulpride, a selective antagonist of D2 and D3 dopamine receptors, is used as an antipsychotic drug. In this study, we reported a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determining amisulpride concentrations in rat plasma, and a preclinical pharmacokinetic study in the rat. After a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing methaqualone as an internal standard, the analytes were separated on a reversed-phase column with a mobile phase of 0.2 % aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile (3:7, v/v). The accuracy and precision of the assay were in accordance with FDA guidance for the validation of bioanalytical methods. This analytical method was used successfully to characterize the time course of the plasma concentration of amisulpride following oral administration of a single 10 mg/kg dose in rats.
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Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins attenuate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions via suppression of NF-?B and STAT1 and activation of Nrf2/ARE-mediated heme oxygenase-1.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The consequences of precipitously rising allergic skin inflammation rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Natural product-based agents with good efficacy and low risk of side effects offer promising prevention and treatment strategies for inflammation-related diseases. We have already reported that Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins (Changkil saponins, CKS) have many pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, but its influence on AD remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of CKS, mainly platycodin D, on AD-like skin symptoms in mice and the possible mechanisms in cells.
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Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ER? pathway.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor ? (ER?), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ER?-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER?-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ER? knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ER?-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ER? at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ER? activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ER? phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ER? pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells.
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Modulation of Atg5 expression by globular adiponectin contributes to autophagy flux and suppression of ethanol-induced cell death in liver cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Globular adiponectin (gAcrp) protects liver cells from ethanol-induced apoptosis via induction of autophagy. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The present study aims to investigate the potential role of autophagy-related protein 5 (Atg5), an essential Atg for the elongation of autophagosomes, in suppression of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity by gAcrp. Here, we demonstrated that suppression of Atg5 expression by ethanol was restored by pretreatment with gAcrp both in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Moreover, ethanol-induced accumulation of p62 (sequestosome1), a marker of autophagic flux, was restored by gAcrp treatment, implying that gAcrp modulates autophagic flux in liver cells. Further, Atg5 silencing prevented p62 degradation by gAcrp, suggesting that Atg5 plays a critical role in induction of autophagic flux by gAcrp. Interestingly, gene silencing of Atg5 by siRNA abrogated restoration of autophagosome formation by gAcrp in ethanol-treated cells. Finally, protection of liver cells by gAcrp from ethanol-induced apoptosis was also significantly attenuated by knocking-down of Atg5 expression, suggesting an important role of Atg5 in autophagy induction and cellular apoptosis modulated by gAcrp. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Atg5 expression, at least in part, is implicated in gAcrp-induced autophagy and subsequent anti-apoptotic effects in ethanol-treated liver cells.
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Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide against Thioacetamide-Induced Toxicity: A Possible Role of Cytochrome P450 2E1.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity were investigated. When male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of DAS in corn oil for three consecutive days, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1-selective p-nitrophenol hydroxylase was dose-dependently suppressed. In addition, the activities of CYP 2B-selective benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase were significantly induced by the treatment with DAS. Western immunoblotting analyses also indicated the suppression of CYP 2E1 protein and/or the induction of CYP 2B protein by DAS. To investigate a possible role of metabolic activation by CYP enzymes in thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity, rats were pre-treated with 400 mg/kg of DAS for 3 days, followed by a single intraperitoneal treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg of thioacetamide in saline for 24 hr. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly elevated by thioacetamide were protected in DAS-pretreated animals. Likewise, the suppressed antibody response to sheep erythrocytes by thioacetamide was protected by DAS pretreatment in female BALB/c mice. Taken together, our present results indicated that thioacetamide might be activated to its toxic metabolite(s) by CYP 2E1, not by CYP 2B, in rats and mice.
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Flavonoids from Lindera glauca Blume as low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitors.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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In order to identify antioxidant flavonoids from Lindera glauca Blume, we performed phytochemical analysis of L. glauca Blume heartwood and isolated eight flavonoids - lindeglaucol (1), lindeglaucone (2), cilicicone B (3), tamarixetin 3-O-?-L-rhamnoside (4), procyanidin A2 (5), cinnamtannin B1 (6), cinnamtannin D1 (7), and procyanidin A1 (8) - through repeated column chromatography over silica gel (SiO?), octadecyl silica gel (ODS) and Sephadex LH-20. The chemical structures of compounds 1-8 were elucidated from spectroscopic data (NMR, IR and MS). The low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. Compounds 5-8 exhibited high inhibition activity, comparable to the positive control butyl hydroxyl toluene. Compounds 2 and 3 were slightly less active, while 1 and 4 expressed low activity.
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Absolute bioavailability and metabolism of aceclofenac in rats.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Aceclofenac is one of the most popular analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs used for the relief of pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. To date, no intravenous preparation of aceclofenac has been developed because of its poor water solubility. In this study, to investigate its absolute bioavailability and metabolism in rats, aceclofenac was dissolved in a sterile aqueous solution containing urea (20 %) and trisodium citrate (10 %), and administered via oral (20 mg/kg) and intravenous (10 mg/kg) routes. Blood samples were taken serially, and aceclofenac and its three major metabolites (4'-hydroxydiclofenac, 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac, and diclofenac) were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. The absolute oral bioavailability of aceclofenac was approximately 15 %. Diclofenac and 4'-hydroxydiclofenac were the main metabolites in rats, in contrast to 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac in humans. The low bioavailability of aceclofenac is likely due to extensive metabolism, and bioavailability may be even lower if the drug were administered as a tablet, considering its low water solubility. This study provides complete time profiles of the plasma concentrations of aceclofenac and its metabolites in rats and highlights the difference in drug metabolism between rats and humans.
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Ground-state conditions promote robust Prdm14 reactivation and maintain an active Dlk1-Dio3 region during reprogramming.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are capable of unlimited self-renewal and can give rise to all three germ layers, thereby providing a new platform with which to study mammalian development and epigenetic reprogramming. However, iPSC generation may result in subtle epigenetic variations, such as the aberrant methylation of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus, among the clones, and this heterogeneity constitutes a major drawback to harnessing the full potential of iPSCs. Vitamin C has recently emerged as a safeguard to ensure the normal imprinting of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus during reprogramming. Here, we show that vitamin C exerts its effect in a manner that is independent of the reprogramming kinetics. Moreover, we demonstrate that reprogramming cells under 2i conditions leads to the early upregulation of Prdm14, which in turn results in a highly homogeneous population of authentic pluripotent colonies and prevents the abnormal silencing of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus.
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Prandial effect on the systemic exposure of amisulpride.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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A substituted benzamide, amisulpride is an atypical antipsychotic and a specific antagonist for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. The prandial effect on amisulpride absorption remains unclear, therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of food on the systemic exposure to amisulpride in healthy volunteers. The study was a randomized, two-way crossed trial in which a single oral dose of amisulpride was administered on two occasions, with 7-days washout period between each drug administration. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups and received amisulpride (50 mg) with Korean traditional food or under fasting state. Blood was serially taken, and the plasma amisulpride concentrations were measured by LC/MS/MS. At fasting state, amisulpride reached the first peak (37.1 ± 13.3 ng/ml) at ~2.3 h, and decreased down to 19.4 ± 4.3 ng/ml until 3.5 h, and then again went up to the second peak (25.3 ± 5.8 ng/ml) at 5 h followed by a slow decay with 10.6 h of half-life. In contrast, no double peaks were shown when the drug was given with meal. The maximum concentration of amisulpride (56.0 ± 12.7 ng/ml) was increased by a 1.5-fold compared with that under fasting (p > 0.05), and the time to peak shortened a little (1.7 ± 0.6 h).
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Neural stem cells derived from epiblast stem cells display distinctive properties.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Pluripotent stem cells can be derived from preimplantation and postimplantation mouse embryos. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from blastocysts are in a "naive" pluripotent state and meet all of the criteria for pluripotency, including the ability to generate live pups through tetraploid complementation. Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) derived from postimplantation epiblasts are in a "primed" pluripotent state. ESCs and EpiSCs show different phenotypes and gene expression patterns, and EpiSCs are thought to be less pluripotent than ESCs. In this study, we addressed whether EpiSCs can be differentiated into specialized cell types in vitro. To do this, we first derived EpiSCs from E5.5-6.5 mouse embryos containing the Oct4-GFP transgene. We found that EpiSCs expressed pluripotency markers and differentiated into all three germ layers in intro and in vivo. Interestingly, EpiSCs also efficiently differentiated into a homogenous population of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. The EpiSC-derived NSCs (EpiSC-NSCs) expressed NSC markers (Nestin, Sox2, and Musashi), self-renewed for more than 20 passages, and differentiated into neuronal and glial neural cell subtypes in vitro. We then transplanted the EpiSC-NSCs into the neonatal mouse brains, and found that they were able to survive and differentiate into robust neurons and glial cells in the mouse brains, demonstrating that primed pluripotent EpiSCs efficiently form functional NSCs. We compared the global gene expression patterns of NSCs differentiated from EpiSC-NSCs, ESCs, and brain tissue and found that the expression patterns of most genes, including pluripotency and NSC specificity, were similarly clustered, but that the developmental process-related genes were distantly clustered. Moreover, the global gene expression pattern of brain-derived NSCs was more similar to that of ESC-derived NSCs than that of EpiSC-derived NSCs. Taken together, these results indicate that although NSCs, regardless of their origins, display very similar in vitro and in vivo differentiation properties, their global gene expression profiles may differ, depending on the pluripotency state, i.e., naive or primed.
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Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum Suppresses TGF?1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Via Repression of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 Pathway in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces growth arrest, tissue fibrosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activation of Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. EMT is the differentiation switch by which polarized epithelial cells differentiate into contractile and motile mesenchymal cells. Our previous studies have shown that saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (CKS) have antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimetastatic, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CKS on TGF?1-induced alterations characteristic of EMT in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. We found that CKS-treated cells displayed inhibited TGF?1-mediated E-cadherin downregulation and Vimentin upregulation and also retained epithelial morphology. Furthermore, TGF?1-increased Snail expression, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of the EMT, was reduced by CKS. CKS inhibited TGF?1-induced phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Inhibition of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 also blocked TGF?1-induced GSK-3? phosphorylation and Snail activation. Furthermore, TGF?1-increased Snail expression was reduced by selective inhibitors of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, CKS treatment attenuated TGF?1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation and upregulated Smad7 expression. These results indicate that pretreatment with the CKS inhibits the TGF?1-induced EMT through PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, GSK-3? and Smad2/3 in human lung carcinoma cells.
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A basosquamous cell carcinoma of the periorbital region arising from a chronic wound created by laser ablation of a basal cell carcinoma.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Basosquamous cell carcinomas (BSCs) are very rare and behave aggressively, with features of both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of BSC includes a spectrum of histologic definitions, ranging from coexistence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with or without a transition zone, to any basal cell carcinoma with evidence of keratinization.A 63-year-old man presented with a BSC within a chronic periorbital wound, which was confirmed through a postoperative histologic examination. The wound was created from a previous laser ablation of a diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The BSC was excised without causing any deformity, and coverage of the defect was obtained using a local perforator-based flap. No recurrence was observed during a 5-month follow-up.
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Multidisciplinary approach to lethal bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation in the external auditory canal.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are composed of abnormally connecting feeding arteries as well as draining veins and lack a regulatory system. Frequent recurrences and unpredictable behavior are their main problems. Potential mortality and morbidity associated with therapeutic procedures must be considered with these patients. Improper treatment often aggravates the condition, potentially rendering therapy more complex. A multidisciplinary approach, including an endovascular approach, surgical excision, and flap reconstruction, is considered to completely eradicate an AVM. This study introduces a complicated case of AVM with massive bleeding through the external auditory canal that was treated with a multidisciplinary approach.
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Activation-Induced Deaminase-Coupled DNA Demethylation Is Not Crucial for the Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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DNA methylation constitutes a major obstacle in the reprogramming of cells to pluripotency. Although little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of DNA demethylation, activation-induced deaminase (AID), which is known to function in antibody diversification, has been implicated in DNA demethylation through a base excision repair (BER)-mediated pathway. Here we comprehensively examine the plausibility of coupled AID-BER demethylation in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and show that AID is dispensable for reprogramming cells into iPSCs. Additionally, the overexpression of AID and other factors involved in AID-coupled DNA demethylation does not increase the efficiency of reprogramming. Moreover, BER is not likely to play a role in this process. Our results indicate that the reactivation of key genes governing the pluripotency circuitry occurs through a mechanism that is independent of deamination-coupled demethylation.
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Flavonoids from the grains of C1/R-S transgenic rice, the transgenic Oryza sativa spp. japonica, and their radical scavenging activities.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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The transgenic rice cultivar of Oryza sativa spp. japonica cv. Hwa-Young, C1/R-S transgenic rice (C1/R-S rice), is a flavonoid-rich cultivar of rice. The grains of C1/R-S rice were extracted with aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O, successively. Repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica gel (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies for the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions afforded four new flavonoids (compounds 2, 3, 7, and 8) along with four known flavonoids: (+)-3-O-methyltaxifolin (1), brassicin (4), isorhamnetin-4-O-?-D-glucosyranoside (5), and 3-O-methyltaxifolin-5-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (6). The new flavonoids were identified as 3-O-methyltaxifolin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-methyltaxifolin-4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), isorhamnetin-7-O-?-D-cellobioside (brassicin-4?-O-?-D-glucopyranoside) (7), and brassicin-4-O-?-D-glucosyranoside (8) from the result of spectroscopic data including nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Also, quantitative analysis of major flavonoids (compounds 2, 3, and 8) in C1/R-S rice, O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Hwa-Young (HY), and a hybrid of two cultivar (C1/R-S rice/HY) extracts was performed using HPLC experiment. The isolated flavonoids were evaluated for their radical-scavenging effect on DPPH and ABTS radicals.
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Memory recall and modifications by activating neurons with elevated CREB.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Memory is supported by a specific ensemble of neurons distributed in the brain that form a unique memory trace. We previously showed that neurons in the lateral amygdala expressing elevated levels of cAMP response-element binding protein are preferentially recruited into fear memory traces and are necessary for the expression of those memories. However, it is unknown whether artificially activating just these selected neurons in the absence of behavioral cues is sufficient to recall that fear memory. Using an ectopic rat vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and capsaicin system, we found that activating this specific ensemble of neurons was sufficient to recall established fear memory. Furthermore, this neuronal activation induced a reconsolidation-like reorganization process, or strengthening of the fear memory. Thus, our findings establish a direct link between the activation of specific ensemble of neurons in the lateral amygdala and the recall of fear memory and its subsequent modifications.
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Genipin induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via NADPH oxidase, MAPKs, AP-1, and NF-?B in RAW 264.7 cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Genipin is a compound found in gardenia fruit extract with diverse pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism underlying genipin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of genipin on COX-2 expression and determined that exposure to genipin dose-dependently enhanced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX-2 metabolite, in RAW 264.7 cells. These effects were mediated by genipin-induced activation of the COX-2 promoter, as well as AP-1 and NF-?B luciferase constructs. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt and MAPKs were also significantly activated by genipin, and Akt and MAPKs inhibitors (PD98059, SB20358, SP600125, and LY294002) inhibited genipin-induced COX-2 expression. Moreover, genipin increased production of the ROS and the ROS-producing NAPDH-oxidase (NOX) family oxidases, NOX2 and NOX3. Inhibition of NADPH with diphenyleneiodonium attenuated ROS production, COX-2 expression and NF-?B and AP-1 activation. These results suggest that the molecular mechanism mediating ROS-dependent COX-2 up-regulation and PGE2 production by genipin involves activation of Akt, MAPKs and AP-1/NF-?B.
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A chimaeric-pattern flap design for implantable Doppler surrogate monitoring: A novel placement technique.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Postoperative flap monitoring is a vital aspect of free tissue transfer in order to detect early vascular compromise and to enable early flap salvage. The implantable Doppler monitoring system is one of many monitoring devices used to ensure accuracy and reduce unnecessary flap explorations. However, there are a number of concerns with its use, namely tension on the anastomosis, possible vessel constriction and false-negative detection. This study aimed to alleviate these concerns, by introducing a new method of placing the implantable Doppler probe on the adjacent vessel limb of a chimaeric flap. This is illustrated by a case series of chimaeric free tissue flaps that allow this surrogate placement of the Doppler probe.
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HS-1793, a resveratrol analogue, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, is a naturally occurring phytochemical and is found in a variety of plants, including food such as grapes, berries and peanuts. It has gained much attention for its potential anticancer activity against various types of human cancer. However, the usefulness of resveratrol as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by its photosensitivity and metabolic instability. In this study the effects of a synthetic analogue of resveratrol, HS-1793, on the proliferation and apoptotic cell death were investigated using MCF-7 (wild-type p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mutant p53) human breast cancer cells. HS-1793 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis was determined by morphological changes, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) poly-merase, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase activities. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that HS-1793 induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression in both types of cells. Of note, HS-1793 induced p53/p21WAF1/CIP1-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, whereas it exhibited p53-independent apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, HS-1793 showed more potent anticancer effects in several aspects compared to resveratrol in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, these findings suggest that HS-1793 has potential as a candidate chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer.
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Procyanidins from the stem wood of Machilus japonica and their inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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The stem wood of Machilus japonica Siebold & Zucc were extracted with 80 % aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was successively partitioned with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol, and water. From the EtOAc fraction, five procyanidins, procyanidin A1 (1), procyanidin A2 (2), procyanidin B7 (3), cinnamtannin B1 (4), and aesculitannin B (5), were isolated. Their chemical structures were identified through spectroscopic data analyses including NMR, MS, and IR. This is the first time any of these compounds have been isolated from this plant. The compounds were evaluated for inhibition activity on LDL oxidation. All of these compounds and the positive control, BHT, showed a very high inhibition effect with IC50 values of 0.94, 2.1, 1.8, 1.1, 1.0, and 1.9 ?M, respectively.
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Reconstruction of extensive lower limb defects with thoracodorsal axis chimeric flaps.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Extensive defects of the lower extremities are usually reconstructed with microvascular free flaps because of inadequate local tissues and wound complexity. Many attempts have been made to reconstruct such defects using the chimeric flap concept, enabling flaps with larger surface areas to be used while maintaining economical tissue use. The latissimus dorsi chimeric flap is one of the most useful tools for resurfacing extensive limb defects.
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Activation of pluripotency genes by a nanotube-mediated protein delivery system.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The overexpression of cell reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, Nanog, and c-Myc) allows differentiated cells to revertto an earlier developmental stage. Differentiated cells can also be reprogrammed by directly delivering reprogramming proteins tagged with cell-penetrating peptides, which allow the proteins to pass through the cell membrane and into the cytoplasm-although this method has been an inefficient process. Here, we describe a novel technique for delivering reprogramming proteins into cells using titanium oxide (TiO2 ) nanotubes, which show no cytotoxic effects and do not affect cell proliferation. TiO2 nanotubes successfully transferred the above-mentioned reprogramming factors into differentiated somatic cells. After 3 weeks of treatment with protein-conjugated nanotubes, the somatic cells adopted an embryonic stem cell-like morphology and expressed activated Oct4-green fluorescent protein, a pluripotency biomarker. Our results indicate that TiO2 nanotubes can be used to directly deliver reprogramming factors into somatic cells to induce pluripotency. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 80: 1000-1008, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The effect of gut microbiota on drug metabolism.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Numerous drugs and toxicants must be metabolized to an active form. Metabolic activation by host tissues, such as the liver, has been well studied. However, drug and toxicant metabolism by the intestinal microbiota is an unexplored, but essential, field of study in pharmacology and toxicology. The taxonomic diversity and sheer numbers of the intestinal microbiota, and their capacity to metabolize xenobiotics, underscore the importance of this mode of metabolism.
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Bromopropane compounds inhibit osteogenesis by ERK-dependent Runx2 inhibition in C2C12 cells.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Bromopropane (BP) is a halogenated alkan compound used in various industries as chemical intermediates, extraction solvents, and degreasing compounds. Halogenated alkan compounds can damage the nervous system, immune system, and hematopoietic and reproductive functions in animals and humans. However, the effect of BPs on bone formation has not yet been examined. This study examined the effects of BPs on osteoblast differentiation and analyzed the mechanisms involved in C2C12, mesenchymal stem cells. BPs dose dependently reduced the alkaline phosphatase activity, expression levels and promoter activity of bone marker genes. Additionally, 1,2-dibromopropane (1,2-DBP) significantly reduced the levels and transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Osterix, major bone transcription factors, in BMP2 induced C2C12 cells. Furthermore, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly inhibited by 1,2-DBP. These results demonstrate that BPs inhibit osteoblast differentiation by suppressing Runx2 and Osterix through the ERK/JNK pathway.
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An improved method for the derivation of high quality iPSCs in the absence of c-Myc.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold tremendous potential for the development of new regenerative medicine therapies and the study of molecular mechanisms of pluripotency and development. However, reactivation of c-Myc, which results in tumor formation in chimeric mice, is a major roadblock in the translation of iPSCs into therapies. Although ectopic expression of c-Myc is not absolutely required for somatic reprogramming, in the absence of c-Myc, the overall efficiency of reprogramming is drastically reduced and the reprogramming time is increased. Subtle, abnormal epigenetic modifications in iPSCs derived in the absence of c-Myc have also been documented. Therefore, we developed a reprogramming method without c-Myc to generate high-quality iPSCs, a prerequisite to harnessing the full potential of iPSCs. In this study, we determined that serum replacement (SR)-based culture conditions dramatically increased the transcription factor-mediated reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs). The process was shortened to approximately 8 days when Oct4/Sox2/Klf4 (3F)-transduced MEFs were first cultured for 3 days under low serum conditions (LS protocol). The 3F-derived iPSCs that were generated by this method resembled mouse ES cells (mESCs) in morphology, gene expression, and in vitro differentiation. Finally, we observed that 3F-derived iPSC colonies were able to reach definite pluripotency in terms of molecular signatures when the catalytic function of c-Myc was tolerated. The 3F induction of pluripotency described here should facilitate the use of iPSCs and may also facilitate the mechanistic dissection of somatic reprogramming.
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Multiple-digit resurfacing using a thin latissimus dorsi perforator flap.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Traumatic digit defects of high complexity and with inadequate local tissue represent challenging surgical problems. Recently, perforator flaps have been proposed for reconstructing large defects of the hand because of their thinness and pliability and minimal donor site morbidity. Here, we illustrate the use of thin latissimus dorsi perforator flaps for resurfacing multiple defects of distal digits. We describe the cases of seven patients with large defects, including digits, circumferential defects and multiple-digit defects, who underwent reconstruction with thin latissimus dorsi perforator flaps between January 2008 and March 2012. Single-digit resurfacing procedures were excluded. The mean age was 56.3 years and the mean flap size was 160.4 cm(2). All the flaps survived completely. Two patients had minor complications including partial flap loss and scar contracture. The mean follow-up period was 11.7 months. The ideal flap for digit resurfacing should be thin and amenable to moulding, have a long pedicle for microanastomosis and have minimal donor site morbidity. Thin flaps can be harvested by excluding the deep adipose layer, and their high pliability enables resurfacing without multiple debulking procedures. The latissimus dorsi perforator flap may be the best flap for reconstructing complex defects of the digits, such as large, multiple-digit or circumferential defects, which require complete wrapping of volar and dorsal surfaces.
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Microsurgery training for the twenty-first century.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Current educational interventions and training courses in microsurgery are often predicated on theories of skill acquisition and development that follow a practice makes perfect model. Given the changing landscape of surgical training and advances in educational theories related to skill development, research is needed to assess current training tools in microsurgery education and devise alternative methods that would enhance training. Simulation is an increasingly important tool for educators because, whilst facilitating improved technical proficiency, it provides a way to reduce risks to both trainees and patients. The International Microsurgery Simulation Society has been founded in 2012 in order to consolidate the global effort in promoting excellence in microsurgical training. The societys aim to achieve standarisation of microsurgical training worldwide could be realised through the development of evidence based educational interventions and sharing best practices.
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Use of lateral intercostal artery perforator free flaps for resurfacing lower extremities.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Although latissimus dorsi perforator flaps vary less than flaps from other regions, we have encountered several cases where reliable perforator arteries were absent and we harvested lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) flaps instead.Since April 2002, we have attempted to use 97 latissimus dorsi perforator flaps to reconstruct lower extremity defects. In 4 cases, no adequate latissimus dorsi perforators were present, and in 3 cases, the perforators were too small. In all these 7 cases, LICAP were found to be more reliable. The mean pedicle length was 5.4 cm, and the average perforator diameter was 0.8 mm. There were no surgical complications.In this article, we describe these 7 examples of foot and ankle resurfacing using LICAP flaps. Lateral intercostal artery perforator flaps may be an alternative in reconstructive surgery of the foot and ankle region when reliable perforators cannot be found in the lateral thoracic region.
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Foot reconstruction using a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site after failure of a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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The free flap failure rate for the lower extremities is high, which adversely affects limb salvage efforts. In this article, we report a case of failure of a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, which was simultaneously reconstructed with a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site. A 56-year-old male patient had infected wound for 3 months due to Achilles tendon rupture. We reconstructed the defect using a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap. However, 2 days after the operation, we found the congested flap. We were obliged to discard the whole flap and harvested a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site. The patients foot healed uneventfully. After flap failure, the use of a second free flap from the same donor site may be an effective and safe procedure in specific cases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2013.
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Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3?) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3? regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3? up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3? regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix.
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Role of metabolism by intestinal microbiota in pharmacokinetics of oral baicalin.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Baicalin (baicalein-7-glucuronide) is a flavonoid purified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi that has traditionally been used for treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and viral hepatitis. In this study, the effects of intestinal microbiota on the pharmacokinetics of baicalin were investigated in normal and antibiotic-pretreated rats following p.o. administration of 100 mg/kg baicalin by using liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. When rats were pretreated orally with cefadroxil, oxytetracycline and erythromycin for 3 days to control the number of intestinal bacteria, the pharmacokinetic parameters of oral baicalin were significantly affected by antibiotics: Cmax, T1/2(?), Kel and AUC values were significantly changed compared to those in normal rats. These results indicate that intestinal microbiota might play a key role in the oral pharmacokinetics of baicalin.
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Conversion of genomic imprinting by reprogramming and redifferentiation.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), generated from somatic cells by overexpression of transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc have the same characteristics as pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs). iPSCs reprogrammed from differentiated cells undergo epigenetic modification during reprogramming, and ultimately acquire a similar epigenetic state to that of ESCs. In this study, these epigenetic changes were observed in reprogramming of uniparental parthenogenetic somatic cells. The parthenogenetic pattern of imprinted genes changes during the generation of parthenogenetic maternal iPSCs (miPSCs), a process referred to as pluripotent reprogramming. We determined whether altered imprinted genes are maintained or revert to the parthenogenetic state when the reprogrammed cells are redifferentiated into specialized cell types. To address this question, we redifferentiated miPSCs into neural stem cells (miPS-NSCs) and compared them with biparental female NSCs (fNSCs) and parthenogenetic NSCs (pNSCs). We found that pluripotent reprogramming of parthenogenetic somatic cells could reset parthenogenetic DNA methylation patterns in imprinted genes, and that alterations in DNA methylation were maintained even after miPSCs were redifferentiated into miPS-NSCs. Notably, maternally methylated imprinted genes (Peg1, Peg3, Igf2r, Snrpn and Ndn), whose differentially methylated regions were fully methylated in pNSCs, were demethylated and their expression levels were found to be close to the levels in normal biparental fNSCs after reprogramming and redifferentiation. Our findings suggest that pluripotent reprogramming of parthenogenetic somatic cells followed by redifferentiation leads to changes in DNA methylation of imprinted genes and the reestablishment of gene expression levels to those of normal biparental cells.
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Antitumor efficacy of piperine in the treatment of human HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Piperine is a bioactive component of black pepper, Piper nigrum Linn, commonly used for daily consumption and in traditional medicine. Here, the molecular mechanisms by which piperine exerts antitumor effects in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells was investigated. The results showed that piperine strongly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, piperine inhibited HER2 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Blockade of ERK1/2 signaling by piperine significantly reduced SREBP-1 and FAS expression. Piperine strongly suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of AP-1 and NF-?B activation by interfering with ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt signaling pathways resulting in a reduction in migration. Finally, piperine pretreatment enhanced sensitization to paclitaxel killing in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that piperine may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer with HER2 overexpression.
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S-allyl cysteine attenuates free fatty acid-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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S-Allyl cysteine (SAC), a nontoxic garlic compound, has a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this report, we provide evidence that SAC prevented free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. SAC significantly reduced FFA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, caspase activation and subsequent cell death. Also, SAC mitigated total cellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation in steatotic HepG2 cells. SAC significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, SAC down-regulated the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and its target genes, including ACC and fatty acid synthase. Use of a specific inhibitor showed that SAC activated AMPK via calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) and silent information regulator T1. Our results demonstrate that SAC activates AMPK through CaMKK and inhibits SREBP-1-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. Therefore, SAC has therapeutic potential for preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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Correction of infraorbital dark circles using collagenase-digested fat cell grafts.
Dermatol Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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A number of factors, including visibility of the orbicularis oculi muscle through thin skin, can cause dark circles around the eyes. Fat grafts have been used to augment the lower eyelid skin to correct dark circles, but irregularities caused by leaving visible lumps of the fat can occur. We used collagenase-digested fat cell grafts to correct these deformities.
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Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages.
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Selective inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isoform by hyperoside and its potent inhibition of CYP2D6.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, is a flavonoid isolated from Oenanthe javanica. In the present study, we investigated potential herb-drug inhibitory effects of hyperoside on nine cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human recombinant cDNA expressed CYP using a cocktail probe assay. Hyperoside strongly inhibited CYP2D6-catalyzed dextromethorphan O-demethylation, with IC50 values of 1.2 and 0.81 ?M after 0 and 15 min of preincubation, and a Ki value of 2.01 ?M in HLMs, respectively. Hyperoside strongly decreased CYP2D6 activity dose-, but not time-, dependently in HLMs. In addition, the Lineweaver-Burk and Secondary plots for the inhibition of CYP2D6 in HLMs fitted a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, hyperoside decreased CYP2D6-catalyzed dextromethorphan O-demethylation activity of human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP2D6, with an IC50 value of 3.87 ?M. However, other CYPs were not inhibited significantly by hyperoside. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that hyperoside is a potent selective CYP2D6 inhibitor in HLMs, and suggest that hyperoside might cause herb-drug interactions when co-administrated with CYP2D substrates.
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Tensor fascia lata flap versus tensor fascia lata perforator-based island flap for the coverage of extensive trochanteric pressure sores.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Tensor fascia lata (TFL) musculocutaneous flaps often require a donor site graft when harvesting a large flap. However, a major drawback is that it also sacrifices the muscle. To overcome this disadvantage, we designed a TFL perforator-based island flap that was harvested from a site near the defect and involved transposition within 90 degrees without full isolation of the pedicles. We performed procedures on 17 musculocutaneous flaps and 23 perforator-based island flaps, and compared the outcomes of these surgeries. The overall complication rate was 27.5% (11 regions). There were 7 complications related to the musculocutaneous flaps and 4 complications related to the perforator flaps. Although there were no statistical differences between those groups, lower complication rates were associated with procedures involving perforator flaps. The TFL perforator procedure is a simple and fast operation that avoids sacrificing muscle. This decreases complication rates compared to true perforator flap techniques that require dissection around the perforator or pedicle.
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Inhibitory effect of dihydroartemisinin against phorbol ester-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L., has recently been shown to possess antitumor activity in various cancer cells. However, the effect of anti-inflammatory potentials of DHA in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells has not been studied. The present study investigated the effect of COX-2 and molecular mechanisms by DHA in PMA stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. DHA dose-dependently decreased PMA-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, as well as COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity. Additionally, DHA decreased luciferase activity of COX-2 regulation-related transcription factors including NF-?B, AP-1, C/EBP and CREB. DHA also remarkably reduced PMA-induced p65, C/EBP?, c-jun and CREB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, DHA evidently inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of AKT and the MAP Kinases, such as ERK, JNK and p38. Taken together, our data indicated that DHA effectively attenuates COX-2 production via down-regulation of AKT and MAPK pathway, revealing partial molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of DHA.
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CREB and neuronal selection for memory trace.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Despite considerable progress over the past several decades, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying memory encoding, storage, and expression in a complex neural network are far from complete. In particular, how some neurons rather than others are selectively engaged to encode memory remains largely unknown. Using virus-mediated gene delivery into a small subset of neurons in a given network, molecular imaging of neuronal activity, pharmacological perturbation of specific neurons activity and animal behavior assays, recent studies have begun to provide insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the selection of neurons for inclusion into a memory trace. Here, we focus on a review of recent findings supporting the hypothesis that the level of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP/Ca(2+)-response element binding protein) is a key factor governing which neurons are recruited to a given memory trace. These recent findings open a new perspective on memory trace at the neural circuit level and also raise many important questions. Future studies employing more advanced neurobiological techniques for targeting defined populations of neurons and manipulating their activity in time and space in a complex neural network will give answers to these newly emerging questions and extend our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the memory trace.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.