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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluation of cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity using urinary metabolomic profiles in sprague-dawley male rats.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate urinary metabolomic profiles associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity and their potential mechanisms. Metabolomic profiles were measured by high-resolution (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the urine of rats after oral exposure to CdCl2 (1, 5, or 25 mg/kg) for 6 wk. The spectral data were further analyzed by a multivariate analysis to identify specific urinary metabolites. Urinary excretion levels of protein biomarkers were also measured and CdCl2 accumulated dose-dependently in the kidney. High-dose (25 mg/kg) CdCl2 exposure significantly increased serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), but serum creatinine (sCr) levels were unchanged. High-dose CdCl2 (25 mg/kg) exposure also significantly elevated protein-based urinary biomarkers including osteopontin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), kidney injury molecules-1 (Kim-1), and selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) in rat urine. Under these conditions, six urinary metabolites (citrate, serine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, dimethylamine, and betaine) were involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism. In addition, a few number of amino acids such as glycine, glutamate, tyrosine, proline, or phenylalanine and carbohydrate (glucose) were altered in urine after CdCl2 exposure. In particular, the metabolites involved in the glutathione biosynthesis pathway, including cysteine, serine, methionine, and glutamate, were markedly decreased compared to the control. Thus, these metabolites are potential biomarkers for detection of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Our results further indicate that redox metabolomics pathways may be associated with Cd-mediated chronic kidney injury. These findings provide a biochemical pathway for better understanding of cellular mechanism underlying Cd-induced renal injury in humans.
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Broadly neutralizing antibodies suppress HIV in the persistent viral reservoir.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Several highly potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HIV have recently been isolated from B cells of infected individuals. However, the effects of these antibodies on the persistent viral reservoirs in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are unknown. We show that several HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies--in particular, PGT121, VRC01, and VRC03--potently inhibited entry into CD4(+) T cells of HIV isolated from the latent viral reservoir of infected individuals whose plasma viremia was well controlled by ART. In addition, we demonstrate that HIV replication in autologous CD4(+) T cells derived from infected individuals receiving ART was profoundly suppressed by three aforementioned and other HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies. These findings have implications for passive immunotherapy as an approach toward controlling plasma viral rebound in patients whose ART is withdrawn.
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Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected newborns can achieve sustained virologic suppression with low frequency of CD4+ T cells carrying HIV in peripheral blood.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected infant started on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at 30 hours of life was recently reported to have no detectable plasma viremia after discontinuing cART. The current study investigated the impact of early cART initiation on measures of HIV-1 reservoir size in HIV-1-infected children with sustained virologic suppression.
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HIV Type 1 (HIV-1) Proviral Reservoirs Decay Continuously Under Sustained Virologic Control in HIV-1-Infected Children Who Received Early Treatment.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected infants controls HIV-1 replication and reduces mortality.
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Abnormal B cell memory subsets dominate HIV-specific responses in infected individuals.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Recently, several neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have been isolated from memory B cells of HIV-infected individuals. Despite extensive evidence of B cell dysfunction in HIV disease, little is known about the cells from which these rare HIV-specific antibodies originate. Accordingly, we used HIV envelope gp140 and CD4 or coreceptor (CoR) binding site (bs) mutant probes to evaluate HIV-specific responses in peripheral blood B cells of HIV-infected individuals at various stages of infection. In contrast to non-HIV responses, HIV-specific responses against gp140 were enriched within abnormal B cells, namely activated and exhausted memory subsets, which are largely absent in the blood of uninfected individuals. Responses against the CoRbs, which is a poorly neutralizing epitope, arose early, whereas those against the well-characterized neutralizing epitope CD4bs were delayed and infrequent. Enrichment of the HIV-specific response within resting memory B cells, the predominant subset in uninfected individuals, did occur in certain infected individuals who maintained low levels of plasma viremia and immune activation with or without antiretroviral therapy. The distribution of HIV-specific responses among memory B cell subsets was corroborated by transcriptional analyses. Taken together, our findings provide valuable insight into virus-specific B cell responses in HIV infection and demonstrate that memory B cell abnormalities may contribute to the ineffectiveness of the antibody response in infected individuals.
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Glycosylation, hypogammaglobulinemia, and resistance to viral infections.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Genetic defects in MOGS, the gene encoding mannosyl-oligosaccharide glucosidase (the first enzyme in the processing pathway of N-linked oligosaccharide), cause the rare congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIb (CDG-IIb), also known as MOGS-CDG. MOGS is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in the trimming of N-glycans. We evaluated two siblings with CDG-IIb who presented with multiple neurologic complications and a paradoxical immunologic phenotype characterized by severe hypogammaglobulinemia but limited clinical evidence of an infectious diathesis. A shortened immunoglobulin half-life was determined to be the mechanism underlying the hypogammaglobulinemia. Impaired viral replication and cellular entry may explain a decreased susceptibility to infections.
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Fat depot-specific gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) adipose-derived stem cells.
Matrix Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1 or Ly6A/E) is a cell surface marker that is widely expressed in mesenchymal stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We hypothesized that the fat depot-specific gene signature of Sca1(high) ASCs may play the major role in defining adipose tissue function and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in a depot-specific manner. Herein we aimed to characterize the unique gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) ASCs isolated from subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (epididymal) adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs are found in the adventitia and perivascular areas of adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs purified with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrate dendrite or round shape with the higher expression of cytokines and chemokines (e.g., Il6, Cxcl1) and the lower expression of a glucose transporter (Glut1). Subcutaneous and visceral fat-derived Sca1(high) ASCs particularly differ in the gene expressions of adhesion and ECM molecules. While the expression of the major membrane-type collagenase (MMP14) is comparable between the groups, the expressions of secreted collagenases (MMP8 and MMP13) are higher in visceral Sca1(high) ASCs than in subcutaneous ASCs. Consistently, slow but focal MMP-dependent collagenolysis was observed with subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived vascular stromal cells, whereas rapid and bulk collagenolysis was observed with visceral adipose tissue-derived cells in MMP-dependent and -independent manners. These results suggest that the fat depot-specific gene signatures of ASCs may contribute to the distinct patterns of ECM remodeling and adipose function in different fat depots.
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Quantification of plasma HIV RNA using chemically engineered peptide nucleic acids.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The remarkable stability of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) towards enzymatic degradation makes this class of molecules ideal to develop as part of a diagnostic device. Here we report the development of chemically engineered PNAs for the quantitative detection of HIV RNA at clinically relevant levels that are competitive with current PCR-based assays. Using a sandwich hybridization approach, chemical groups were systematically introduced into a surface PNA probe and a reporter PNA probe to achieve quantitative detection for HIV RNA as low as 20 copies per millilitre of plasma. For the surface PNA probe, four cyclopentane groups were incorporated to promote stronger binding to the target HIV RNA compared with PNA without the cyclopentanes. For the reporter PNA probe, 25 biotin groups were attached to promote strong signal amplification after binding to the target HIV RNA. These general approaches to engineer PNA probes may be used to detect other RNA target sequences.
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3-D adipocyte differentiation and peri-adipocyte collagen turnover.
Meth. Enzymol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Peri-adipocyte extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a key biological process observed during adipose tissue development and expansion. The genetic loss of a pericellular collagenase, MMP14 (also known as MT1-MMP), renders mice lipodystrophic with the accumulation of undigested collagen fibers in adipose tissues. MMP14 is not necessary for adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) per se under a conventional two-dimensional (2-D) culture condition; however, MMP14 plays a critical role in adipogenesis in vivo. The role of MMP14 in adipogenesis and adipocyte gene expression was uncovered in vitro only when tested within a three-dimensional (3-D) collagen gel, which recapitulated the in vivo ECM-rich environment. Studying adipogenesis in 3-D may serve as an effective experimental approach to bridge gaps in our understanding of in vivo adipocyte biology. Moreover, by assessing the content of collagen family members and their rate of degradation in adipose tissues, we should be able to better define the role of dynamic ECM remodeling in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes.
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Short-term Results of Total Ankle Arthroplasty for End-stage Ankle Arthritis With Severe Varus Deformity.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Many authors have reported that an ankle varus deformity more than 10 to 15 degrees may be the cause of failures in total ankle arthroplasty. Our study aim was to analyze short-term outcomes of total ankle arthroplasty with additional procedures accompanied by more than 20 degrees of varus deformity.
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Absence of detectable HIV-1 viremia after treatment cessation in an infant.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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An infant born to a woman with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) 30 hours after birth owing to high-risk exposure. ART was continued when detection of HIV-1 DNA and RNA on repeat testing met the standard diagnostic criteria for infection. After therapy was discontinued (when the child was 18 months of age), levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA, proviral DNA in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, and HIV-1 antibodies, as assessed by means of clinical assays, remained undetectable in the child through 30 months of age. This case suggests that very early ART in infants may alter the establishment and long-term persistence of HIV-1 infection.
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Thrombospondin 1 mediates high-fat diet-induced muscle fibrosis and insulin resistance in male mice.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1 or TSP-1) is a circulating glycoprotein highly expressed in hypertrophic visceral adipose tissues of humans and mice. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces the robust increase of circulating THBS1 in the early stages of HFD challenge. The loss of Thbs1 protects male mice from diet-induced weight gain and adipocyte hypertrophy. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study has demonstrated that Thbs1-null mice are protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance. Tissue-specific glucose uptake study has revealed that the insulin-sensitive phenotype of Thbs1-null mice is mostly mediated by skeletal muscles. Further assessments of the muscle phenotype using RNA sequencing, quantitative PCR, and histological studies have demonstrated that Thbs1-null skeletal muscles are protected from the HFD-dependent induction of Col3a1 and Col6a1, coupled with a new collagen deposition. At the same time, the Thbs1-null mice display a better circadian rhythm and higher amplitude of energy expenditure with a browning phenotype in sc adipose tissues. These results suggest that THBS1, which circulates in response to a HFD, may induce insulin resistance and fibrotic tissue damage in skeletal muscles as well as the de-browning of sc adipose tissues in the early stages of a HFD challenge. Our study may shed new light on the pathogenic role played by a circulating extracellular matrix protein in the cross talk between adipose tissues and skeletal muscles during obesity progression.
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On being the right size: scaling effects in designing a human-on-a-chip.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Developing a human-on-a-chip by connecting multiple model organ systems would provide an intermediate screen for therapeutic efficacy and toxic side effects of drugs prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. However, correctly designing individual organs and scaling them relative to each other to make a functional microscale human analog is challenging, and a generalized approach has yet to be identified. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of rational design of both the individual organ and its relationship with other organs, using a simple two-compartment system simulating insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipose tissues. We demonstrate that inter-organ scaling laws depend on both the number of cells and the spatial arrangement of those cells within the microfabricated construct. We then propose a simple and novel inter-organ metabolically supported functional scaling approach predicated on maintaining in vivo cellular basal metabolic rates by limiting resources available to cells on the chip. This approach leverages findings from allometric scaling models in mammals that limited resources in vivo prompt cells to behave differently than in resource-rich in vitro cultures. Although applying scaling laws directly to tissues can result in systems that would be quite challenging to implement, engineering workarounds may be used to circumvent these scaling issues. Specific workarounds discussed include the limited oxygen carrying capacity of cell culture media when used as a blood substitute and the ability to engineer non-physiological structures to augment organ function, to create the transport-accessible, yet resource-limited environment necessary for cells to mimic in vivo functionality. Furthermore, designing the structure of individual tissues in each organ compartment may be a useful strategy to bypass scaling concerns at the inter-organ level.
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Effect of antiretroviral therapy on HIV reservoirs in elite controllers.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Elite controllers suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia to below the limit of detection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, precise frequencies of CD4(+) T cells carrying replication-competent HIV and/or the dynamics of the infectious viral reservoirs in response to initiation and discontinuation of ART in elite controllers are unknown. We show that the size of the pool of CD4(+) T cells harboring infectious HIV diminished significantly after initiation of ART and rebounded to baseline upon cessation of therapy. Our data provide compelling evidence that persistent viral replication occurs in untreated elite controllers even in the absence of detectable plasma viremia.
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CXCR4/IgG-expressing plasma cells are associated with human gastrointestinal tissue inflammation.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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We previously reported abnormalities in circulating B cells in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and those with HIV infection. Gastrointestinal complications are common to both diseases and likely involve perturbation of immune cells, including plasma cells (PCs). IgA is the most abundant immunoglobulin in the human body, with roles in protection and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. IgA is produced primarily by PCs residing in mucosal tissues that are also thought to circulate in the blood.
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Highly potent, synthetically accessible prostratin analogs induce latent HIV expression in vitro and ex vivo.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) decreases plasma viremia below the limits of detection in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, thus serving to slow disease progression. However, HAART targets only actively replicating virus and is unable to eliminate latently infected, resting CD4(+) T cells. Such infected cells are potentially capable of reinitiating virus replication upon cessation of HAART, thus leading to viral rebound. Agents that would eliminate these reservoirs, when used in combination with HAART, could thus provide a strategy for the eradication of HIV. Prostratin is a preclinical candidate that induces HIV expression from latently infected CD4(+) T cells, potentially leading to their elimination through a virus-induced cytopathic effect or host anti-HIV immunity. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of designed prostratin analogs and report in vitro and ex vivo studies of their activity relevant to induction of HIV expression. Members of this series are up to 100-fold more potent than the preclinical lead (prostratin) in binding to cell-free PKC, and in inducing HIV expression in a latently infected cell line and prostratin-like modulation of cell surface receptor expression in primary cells from HIV-negative donors. Significantly, selected members were also tested for HIV induction in resting CD4(+) T cells isolated from infected individuals receiving HAART and were found to exhibit potent induction activity. These more potent agents and by extension related tunable analogs now accessible through the studies described herein should facilitate research and preclinical advancement of this strategy for HIV/AIDS eradication.
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Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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There is intense interest in developing curative interventions for HIV. How such a cure will be quantified and defined is not known. We applied a series of measurements of HIV persistence to the study of an HIV-infected adult who has exhibited evidence of cure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a homozygous CCR5?32 donor. Samples from blood, spinal fluid, lymph node, and gut were analyzed in multiple laboratories using different approaches. No HIV DNA or RNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spinal fluid, lymph node, or terminal ileum, and no replication-competent virus could be cultured from PBMCs. However, HIV RNA was detected in plasma (2 laboratories) and HIV DNA was detected in the rectum (1 laboratory) at levels considerably lower than those expected in ART-suppressed patients. It was not possible to obtain sequence data from plasma or gut, while an X4 sequence from PBMC did not match the pre-transplant sequence. HIV antibody levels were readily detectable but declined over time; T cell responses were largely absent. The occasional, low-level PCR signals raise the possibility that some HIV nucleic acid might persist, although they could also be false positives. Since HIV levels in well-treated individuals are near the limits of detection of current assays, more sensitive assays need to be developed and validated. The absence of recrudescent HIV replication and waning HIV-specific immune responses five years after withdrawal of treatment provide proof of a clinical cure.
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Characterization of plasmablasts in the blood of HIV-infected viremic individuals: evidence for nonspecific immune activation.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Terminal differentiation of B cells and hypergammaglobulinemia are hallmarks of B-cell hyperactivity in HIV disease. Plasmablasts are terminally differentiating B cells that circulate transiently in the blood following infection or vaccination; however, in HIV infection, they arise early and are maintained at abnormally high levels in viremic individuals. Here we show that only a small fraction of plasmablasts in the blood of viremic individuals is HIV specific. Assessment of plasmablast immunoglobulin isotype distribution revealed increased IgG(+) plasmablasts in early and most prominently during chronic HIV viremia, contrasting with a predominantly IgA(+) plasmablast profile in HIV-negative individuals or in aviremic HIV-infected individuals on treatment. Of note, IgG is the predominant immunoglobulin isotype of plasmablasts that arise transiently in the blood following parenteral immunization. Serum immunoglobulin levels were also elevated in HIV-infected viremic individuals, especially IgG, and correlated with levels of IgG(+) plasmablasts. Several soluble factors associated with immune activation were also increased in the sera of HIV-infected individuals, especially in viremic individuals, and correlated with serum immunoglobulin levels, particularly IgG. Thus, our data suggest that while plasmablasts in the blood may contribute to the HIV-specific immune response, the majority of these cells are not HIV specific and arise early, likely from indirect immune-activating effects of HIV replication, and reflect over time the effects of chronic antigenic stimulation. Such B-cell dysregulation may help explain why the antibody response is inadequate in HIV-infected individuals, even during early infection.
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The effect of ossicle resection in the lateral ligament repair for treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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The management of an ossicle or avulsion fragment of the fibular tip in chronic lateral ankle instability is an open question. Some authors maintain the necessity of osteosynthesis for reconstruction of the lateral ligamentous structure if the fragment is large. We hypothesized that the modified Broström procedure with resection of the ossicle would result in good outcomes compared to that of the same procedure for chronic lateral instability patients without ossicle.
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Tracking replication-competent HIV reservoirs in infected individuals.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Prolonged suppression of plasma viremia is now achievable in a majority of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, ART alone cannot eradicate HIV in infected individuals. The purpose of this review is to discuss the importance of tracking levels of infected CD4(+) T cells carrying replication-competent HIV in basic and clinical research and how the use of this virologic marker could help determine the efficacy of ART and several novel therapeutic strategies that are being proposed for eliminating persistent viral reservoir in infected individuals receiving ART.
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Application of an endo-GIA for ligation of the cystic duct during difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard modality for treating gallbladder disease. There are many techniques for the ligation of a dilated and inflamed cystic duct. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and applicability of an Endo-GIA for dilated cystic duct ligation.
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Relationship between residual plasma viremia and the size of HIV proviral DNA reservoirs in infected individuals receiving effective antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Residual plasma viremia (<50 copies/mL) persists in certain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the relationship between the degree of residual plasma viremia, the size of HIV reservoirs, and the level of immune activation has not been delineated. Here, we demonstrate that residual plasma viremia correlates with the size of the CD4(+) T cell viral reservoir, but not with markers of immune activation, suggesting that reactivation of the latent viral reservoir may not be the sole source of residual plasma viremia. Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting the source of residual viremia may be necessary to achieve viral eradication.
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Enhancing effects of adjuvanted 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A vaccine on memory B-cell responses in HIV-infected individuals.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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To assess the humoral immune response to low-dose AS03-adjuvanted and standard-dose nonadjuvanted 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A vaccine in HIV-infected aviremic individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy and in uninfected individuals.
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Pathogenic mechanisms of HIV disease.
Annu Rev Pathol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is generally characterized by inefficient viral transmission; an acute phase of intense viral replication and dissemination to lymphoid tissues; a chronic, often asymptomatic phase of sustained immune activation and viral replication; and an advanced phase of marked depletion of CD4(+) T cells that leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Major insight into HIV transmission and each phase of infection has been gained from studies on blood and tissue specimens obtained from HIV-infected individuals, as well as from animal and ex vivo models. Not only has the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy greatly diminished the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV disease progression, it has also provided new avenues of research toward delineating the mechanisms of HIV-induced pathogenesis. Further advances in therapeutics and informative technologies, combined with a better understanding of the immunologic and virologic components of HIV disease, hold promise for new preventative and even curative strategies.
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The analysis of risk factors in no thumb test in total knee arthroplasty.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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We would like to analyze the risk factors of no thumb test among knee alignment tests during total knee arthroplasty surgery.
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Attenuation of HIV-associated human B cell exhaustion by siRNA downregulation of inhibitory receptors.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals leads to accumulation of exhausted tissue-like memory B cells. Exhausted lymphocytes display increased expression of multiple inhibitory receptors, which may contribute to the inefficiency of HIV-specific antibody responses. Here, we show that downregulation of B cell inhibitory receptors in primary human B cells led to increased tissue-like memory B cell proliferation and responsiveness against HIV. In human B cells, siRNA knockdown of 9 known and putative B cell inhibitory receptors led to enhanced B cell receptor-mediated (BCR-mediated) proliferation of tissue-like memory but not other B cell subpopulations. The strongest effects were observed with the putative inhibitory receptors Fc receptor-like-4 (FCRL4) and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 6 (Siglec-6). Inhibitory receptor downregulation also led to increased levels of HIV-specific antibody-secreting cells and B cell-associated chemokines and cytokines. The absence of known ligands for FCRL4 and Siglec-6 suggests these receptors may regulate BCR signaling through their own constitutive or tonic signaling. Furthermore, the extent of FCLR4 knockdown effects on BCR-mediated proliferation varied depending on the costimulatory ligand, suggesting that inhibitory receptors may engage specific pathways in inhibiting B cell proliferation. These findings on HIV-associated B cell exhaustion define potential targets for reversing the deleterious effect of inhibitory receptors on immune responses against persistent viral infections.
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Adipogenic histone mark regulation by matrix metalloproteinase 14 in collagen-rich microenvironments.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Adipogenesis is directed by both transcriptional network and posttranslational modification of chromatin structure. Although adipogenesis in vivo proceeds in collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) environments, the impact of ECM proteins and their modifying enzymes on the epigenetic regulation of adipogenesis has been largely unknown. We aimed to define the role of fibrillar type I collagen and its modifying enzymes in regulating adipogenic chromatin signatures and gene regulation in the in vivo-like settings. Adipogenic cocktail induces a robust increase in the level of protranscriptional acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) within 24 h. When cultured atop fibrillar type I collagen gel, however, H3K9ac levels in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells are substantially reduced. The suppression of adipogenic histone mark in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells is type I collagen density dependent and released by heat denaturing of the subjacent collagen substratum, pointing to the critical role played by the triple-helical structure of type I collagen. By probing adipogenic collagenolysis with a series of proteinase inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family members are found to be responsible for adipogenic collagenolysis. At the same time, MMP inhibitor specifically blocked the adipogenic induction of H3K9ac. By targeting individual MMP using small interfering RNA oligos, MMP14 was identified as the major adipogenic MMP critical for H3K9 acetylation. Consistently, MMP14-null adipose tissues display diminished protranscriptional histone mark H3K9ac while maintaining repressive histone mark tri-methylated histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3). Taken together, MMP14-dependent collagenolysis plays the major role in regulating adipogenic histone marks by releasing the epigenetic constraints imposed by fibrillar type I collagen.
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Sigmoid Th17 populations, the HIV latent reservoir, and microbial translocation in men on long-term antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Th17 cells play an important role in mucosal defence and repair and are highly susceptible to infection by HIV. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV viremia and can restore CD4(+) numbers in the blood and gastrointestinal mucosa, but the resolution of systemic inflammation and gut microbial translocation is often incomplete. We hypothesized that this might relate to persistent dysregulation of gut CD4(+) Th17 subsets.
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Rebound of plasma viremia following cessation of antiretroviral therapy despite profoundly low levels of HIV reservoir: implications for eradication.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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Sustained suppression of plasma viremia in HIV-infected individuals is attainable with antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, eradication of virus that would allow discontinuation of ART has been hampered by the persistence of HIV reservoirs. It is of great interest to identify individuals who had received ART for prolonged periods of time with extremely low or undetectable HIV reservoirs and monitor plasma viremia following discontinuation of therapy.
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B cells in early and chronic HIV infection: evidence for preservation of immune function associated with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Characterization of lymphocytes including B cells during early versus chronic HIV infection is important for understanding the impact of chronic viremia on immune cell function. In this setting, we investigated B cells before and after reduction of HIV plasma viremia by antiretroviral therapy (ART). At baseline, peripheral blood B-cell counts were significantly lower in both early and chronic HIV-infected individuals compared with uninfected controls. Similar to CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T cells, B-cell numbers in both groups increased significantly after ART. At baseline, B cells of early HIV-infected individuals were composed of a higher percentage of plasmablasts and resting memory B cells compared with chronic HIV-infected individuals whose B cells were composed of a higher percentage of immature/transitional and exhausted B cells compared with their early infection counterparts. At 1 year after ART, the percentage of resting memory B cells remained higher in early compared with chronic HIV-infected individuals. This difference translated into a better functional profile in that memory B-cell responses to HIV and non-HIV antigens were superior in early- compared with chronic-treated HIV infected individuals. These findings provide new insights on B cells in HIV infection and how early initiation of ART may prevent irreversible immune system damage.
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Genetic link between obesity and MMP14-dependent adipogenic collagen turnover.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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In white adipose tissue, adipocytes and adipocyte precursor cells are enmeshed in a dense network of type I collagen fibrils. The fate of this pericellular collagenous web in diet-induced obesity, however, is unknown. This study seeks to identify the genetic underpinnings of proteolytic collagen turnover and their association with obesity progression in mice and humans.
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HIV persistence and the prospect of long-term drug-free remissions for HIV-infected individuals.
Science
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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HIV infection can persist in spite of efficacious antiretroviral therapies. Although incomplete inhibition of viral replication may contribute to this phenomenon, this is largely due to the early establishment of a stable reservoir of latently infected cells. Thus, life-long antiviral therapy may be needed to control HIV. Such therapy is prone to drug resistance and cumulative side effects and is an unbearable financial burden for regions of the world hit hardest by the epidemic. This review discusses our current understanding of HIV persistence and the limitations of potential approaches to eradicate the virus and accordingly pleads for a joint multidisciplinary effort toward two highly related goals: the development of an HIV prophylactic vaccine and the achievement of long-term drug-free remissions in HIV-infected individuals.
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Practical engineering approaches and infrastructure to address the problem of marine debris in Korea.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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As a solution to the problem of persistent solid marine debris, a nationwide project began in Korea in 1999 to develop and popularize fundamental changes to the infrastructure. The ten year project, called "A Practical Integrated System for Marine Debris," consists of four linked types of technology: prevention, deep-water survey, removal and treatment (recycling). These reflect the characteristics of marine debris, which though widespread, vary by location and time of generation. Each technical component has each representative outcome that has been outreached the local governments and marine debris-related associations. The in situ infrastructures lead to enhance the retrieval of the marine debris and create direct and indirect benefits to industry. Both end-of-pipe technology improvement and the introduction of front-of-pipe technology should be considered as we strive to reduce the generation of marine debris in Korean coastal areas.
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A new structural class of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Effective inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase hold promise towards becoming useful therapeutic agents. Since most efforts have focused on the development of nucleoside analog inhibitors, issues regarding bioavailability and selectivity have been major challenges. Considering the marine sponge metabolite ilimaquinone was found to be a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, new opportunities for developing selective new inhibitors of this enzyme have become available. Based on the activities of various hybrid analogs, SAR studies, pharmacophore modeling, and computer docking studies have lead to a predictive understanding of ilimaquinones S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitory activities. These studies have allowed for the design and preparation of simplified structural variants possessing new furanoside bioisosteres with 100-fold greater inhibitory activities than that of the natural product.
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Evaluation of the pathogenesis of decreasing CD4(+) T cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving successfully suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals experience increases in peripheral CD4(+) T cell counts with suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) that achieves plasma HIV RNA levels that are less than the limit of detection. However, some individuals experience decreasing CD4(+) T cell counts despite suppression of plasma viremia. We evaluated 4 patients with a history of CD4(+) T cell decline despite successfully suppressive ART, from a median of 719 cells/mm(3) (range, 360-1141 cells/mm(3)) to 227 cells/mm(3) (range, 174-311 cells/mm(3)) over a period of 18-24 months; 3 of the patients were receiving tenofovir and didanosine, which may have contributed to this decrease. There was no evidence of HIV replication, nor of antiretroviral drug resistance in the blood or lymphoid tissue, or increased proliferation or decreased thymic production of naive CD4(+) T cells. All 4 patients had significant fibrosis of the T cell zone of lymphoid tissue, which appeared to be an important factor in the failure to reconstitute T cells.
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High frequencies of resting CD4+ T cells containing integrated viral DNA are found in rhesus macaques during acute lentivirus infections.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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We and others have reported that the vast majority of virus-producing CD4(+) T cells during the acute infection of rhesus macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or CXCR4 (X4)-using simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) exhibited a nonactivated phenotype. These findings have been extended to show that resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes collected from SIV- or X4-SHIV-infected animals during the first 10 days of infection continue to release virus ex vivo. Furthermore, we observed high frequencies of integrated viral DNA (up to 5.1 x 10(4) DNA copies per 10(5) cells) in circulating resting CD4(+) T cells during the first 10 days of the infection. Integration of SIV DNA was detected only in memory CD4(+) T cells and SHIVs preferentially integrated into resting naïve CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, these results show that during the acute infection large numbers of resting CD4(+) T cells carry integrated nonhuman primate lentiviral DNA and are the major source of progeny virions irrespective of coreceptor usage. Prompt and sustained interventions are therefore required to block the rapid systemic dissemination of virus and prevent an otherwise fatal clinical outcome.
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A phylogroup of the Siberian chipmunk from Korea (Tamias sibiricus barberi) revealed from the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene.
Biochem. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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In the full sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene, 26 haplotypes (Tamias sibiricus barberi) from six localities of central and southern Korea were distinct from 21 haplotypes (Tamias sibiricus orientalis) from five localities of northeast China and Vladivostok, Russia. The average Tamura-Nei nucleotide distance between the subspecies (11.40%) and maximum infrasubspecific distances (3.74% and 4.72%) support the subspecies classification of T. s. barberi based on morphometric comparison. The 26 haplotypes of T. s. barberi were also distinct from 2 haplotypes of T. s. orientalis and Tamias sibiricus jacutensis from far-east Russia (average distance, 11.86%). Thus T. s. barberi constitutes a "phylogroup" (average nucleotide distance > 10%); analyses with nuclear genes of northeast Asian specimens, including North Korean ones, are necessary to clarify its taxonomic status. Furthermore, 49 haplotypes of T. sibiricus from eastern Asia differed from 19 haplotypes of another 18 Tamias spp. from America (weighted-average distance, 18.58%). T. sibiricus is, therefore, distinct enough to be recognized as a subgenus, Eutamias.
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Peri-adipocyte ECM remodeling in obesity and adipose tissue fibrosis.
Adipocyte
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Adipocytes differentiate and function in environments rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The phenotypes of genetically modified mice have aided in recognizing the importance of ECM proteins and their modifiers, e.g., proteinases, in the regulation of obesity and metabolism. Most of the molecular mechanisms through which ECM proteins and modifiers regulate adipogenesis or adipocyte function have not been fully defined. Adipose tissue fibrosis may be a factor that links obesity to diabetes or cardiovascular disease risk in conjunction with tissue inflammation. Defining the molecular mechanisms through which the ECM environment regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte function should provide us with a better understanding of the disease link between obesity and diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.
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Humans with chronic granulomatous disease maintain humoral immunologic memory despite low frequencies of circulating memory B cells.
Blood
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CD27(+) memory B cells are reduced in the blood of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) for reasons and consequences that remain unclear. Here we confirm not only decreased CD27(+) but also IgG(+) B cells in the blood of CGD patients compared with healthy donors (HDs). However, among IgG(+) B cells, the ratio of CD27(-) to CD27(+) was significantly higher in CGD patients compared with HDs. Similar to conventional memory B cells, CD27(-)IgG(+) B cells of CGD patients expressed activation markers and had undergone somatic hypermutation, albeit at levels lower than their CD27(+) counterparts. Functional analyses revealed slight reductions in frequencies of total IgG but not influenza-specific memory B-cell responses, as measured by Elispot in CGD patients compared with HDs. Serum IgG levels and influenza-specific antibodies were also normal in these CGD patients. Finally, we provide evidence that influenza-specific memory B cells can be present within the CD27(-)IgG(+) B-cell compartment. Together, these findings show that, despite reduced circulating CD27(+) memory B cells, CGD patients maintain an intact humoral immunologic memory, with potential contribution from CD27(-) B cells.
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Comparative study of laparoscopy-assisted versus open subtotal gastrectomy for pT2 gastric cancer.
Yonsei Med. J.
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Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) is a widely accepted surgery for early gastric cancer. However, its use in advanced gastric cancer has rarely been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and survival outcomes of LADG for pT2 gastric cancer.
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Towards an HIV cure: a global scientific strategy.
Nat. Rev. Immunol.
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Given the limitations of antiretroviral therapy and recent advances in our understanding of HIV persistence during effective treatment, there is a growing recognition that a cure for HIV infection is both needed and feasible. The International AIDS Society convened a group of international experts to develop a scientific strategy for research towards an HIV cure. Several priorities for basic, translational and clinical research were identified. This Opinion article summarizes the groups recommended key goals for the international community.
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Short communication: HIV type 1 accumulates in influenza-specific T cells in subjects receiving seasonal vaccination in the context of effective antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
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Whether or not HIV-1 continues to infect cells in individuals treated with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains controversial. Here, we determined whether the redistribution of the HIV-1 proviral burden with respect to antigen specificity of CD4(+) cells would provide evidence for ongoing infection cycles in vivo. HIV-1 preferentially infects antigen-stimulated CD4(+) T cells. In the setting of prolonged effective ART, we postulated that if infection cycles were occurring, influenza-specific CD4(+) T cells, activated by influenza vaccination, would preferentially accumulate proviral burden. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from HIV-1-infected subjects who had been treated with effective ART for >5 years, before and after influenza vaccination. CD4(+) T cells were sorted by antigen specificity and HIV-1 proviral burdens were determined. Levels of HIV-1 production upon in vitro antigenic stimulation were also measured. At baseline, influenza-specific CD4(+) T cells carried higher HIV-1 proviral loads than HIV-1-p55-specific CD4(+) T cells. Upon influenza vaccination we observed trends toward elevated levels of HIV-1 proviral DNA in influenza and HIV-1-p55-specific, but not tetanus toxoid or cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD4(+) T cells. Higher levels of HIV-1 virions were produced upon influenza stimulation in postvaccination as compared to baseline samples. While the trends toward increased proviral burdens in influenza-specific cells failed to reach statistical significance, our observation of disproportionately high levels of provirus in influenza-specific cells at baseline indicates that this may represent a real increase that is cumulative over multiple annual vaccinations. This has implications for the eradication of HIV-1 by adding to the evidence that the resting CD4(+) T cell viral reservoir is continually replenished in ART-treated subjects.
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Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors on HIV production in latently infected, resting CD4(+) T cells from infected individuals receiving effective antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Persistence of the latent viral reservoir has been recognized as a major obstacle to eradicating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. It has been suggested that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) may purge HIV in the latent viral reservoir. However, the effect of HDACis on the degree and extent of HIV expression in the latent viral reservoir has not been fully delineated. Here we demonstrate that HDACis do not induce HIV production in the latent viral reservoir of aviremic individuals. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies may be necessary to eliminate HIV in the latent viral reservoir.
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Comprehensive analysis of unique cases with extraordinary control over HIV replication.
Blood
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True long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs)/elite controllers (ECs) maintain durable control over HIV replication without antiretroviral therapy. Herein we describe 4 unique persons who were distinct from conventional LTNPs/ECs in that they had extraordinarily low HIV burdens and comparatively weak immune responses. As a group, typical LTNPs/ECs have unequivocally reactive HIV-1 Western blots, viral loads below the lower threshold of clinical assays, low levels of persistent viral reservoirs, an over-representation of protective HLA alleles, and robust HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. The 4 unique cases were distinguished from typical LTNPs/ECs based on weakly reactive Western blots, undetectable plasma viremia by a single copy assay, extremely low to undetectable HIV DNA levels, and difficult to isolate replication-competent virus. All 4 had at least one protective HLA allele and CD8(+) T-cell responses that were disproportionately high for the low antigen levels but comparatively lower than those of typical LTNPs/ECs. These unique persons exhibit extraordinary suppression over HIV replication, therefore, higher-level control than has been demonstrated in previous studies of LTNPs/ECs. Additional insight into the full spectrum of immune-mediated suppression over HIV replication may enhance our understanding of the associated mechanisms, which should inform the design of efficacious HIV vaccines and immunotherapies.
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HIV reservoirs: pathogenesis and obstacles to viral eradication and cure.
AIDS
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Plasma HIV viremia can be suppressed and maintained below the limits of detection for prolonged periods of time in the vast majority of HIV-infected individuals who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thus, the clinical outcome for HIV-infected individuals who have access to these drugs is dramatically improved. However, ART alone cannot eradicate HIV in infected individuals and this impediment is likely in part due to the persistence of viral reservoirs in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues of infected individuals despite the suppression of plasma viremia. In recent years, major research efforts have been dedicated to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of persistent HIV infection and to the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating virus in infected individuals receiving ART. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of CD4 T-cell HIV reservoirs, including recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of persistent viral infection and perspectives for eradication of HIV in infected individuals.
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Paucity of HIV DNA methylation in latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells from infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy.
J. Virol.
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Maintenance of HIV latency in vitro has been linked to methylation of HIV DNA. However, examinations of the degree of methylation of HIV DNA in the latently infected, resting CD4(+) T cells of infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy have been limited. Here, we show that methylation of the HIV 5 long terminal repeat (LTR) in the latent viral reservoir of HIV-infected aviremic individuals receiving therapy is rare, suggesting that other mechanisms are likely involved in the persistence of viral latency.
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