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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Outcome methods used in clinical studies of Chiari malformation Type I: a systematic review.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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OBJECT Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is a common and often debilitating neurological disease. Efforts to improve treatment of CM-I are impeded by inconsistent and limited methods of evaluating clinical outcomes. To understand current approaches and lay a foundation for future research, the authors conducted a systematic review of the methods used in original published research articles to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients treated for CM-I. METHODS The authors searched PubMed, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ClinicalTrials.gov , and Cochrane databases to identify publications between January 2003 and August 2013 that met the following criteria: 1) reported clinical outcomes in patients treated for CM-I; 2) were original research articles; 3) included at least 10 patients or, if a comparative study, at least 5 patients per group; and 4) were restricted to patients with CM-I. RESULTS Among the 74 papers meeting inclusion criteria, there was wide variation in the outcome methods used. However, all approaches were broadly grouped into 3 categories: 1) "gestalt" impression of overall symptomatic improvement (n = 45 papers); 2) postoperative change in specific signs or symptoms (n = 20); or 3) results of various standardized assessment scales (n = 22). Among standardized scales, 11 general function measures were used, compared with 6 disease-specific tools. Only 3 papers used scales validated in patients with CM-I. To facilitate a uniform comparison of these heterogeneous approaches, the authors appraised articles in multiple domains defined a priori as integral to reporting clinical outcomes in CM-I. Notably, only 7 articles incorporated patient-response instruments when reporting outcome, and only 22 articles explicitly assessed quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The methods used to evaluate clinical outcomes in CM-I are inconsistent and frequently not comparable, complicating efforts to analyze results across studies. Development, validation, and incorporation of a small number of disease-specific patient-based instruments will improve the quality of research and care of CM-I patients.
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Factors affecting plastic lamina cribrosa displacement in glaucoma patients.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Purpose: To investigate factors associated with irreversible components of anterior lamina cribrosa depth in glaucoma patients. Methods: A total of 141 glaucoma patients and 51 normal control subjects were enrolled. The optic nerve head (ONH) was imaged using the enhanced depth imaging (EDI) modes of Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT). The depth of the lamina cribrosa (LC) was measured at the mid-horizontal, superior and inferior mid-peripheral regions of the ONH of each eye. Analyzed factors associated LC depth included age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP), disc size, central corneal thickness, average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and mean deviation. Results: In glaucoma patients, the LC was more deeply located compared to the control group at the mid-horizontal and superior and inferior mid peripheral B-scans (All P<0.001). Age, initial IOP, treated IOP was correlated with mean LC depth (All P<0.001), and those correlations remained after adjusting for mean deviation and RNFL thickness (All P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, younger age, high untreated IOP, and thinner RNFL thickness was significantly associated with a deeper LC (P= 0.015, <0.001, and 0.042). There was an interaction between age and MD as predictors for LC depth (P=0.007). Conclusions: The anterior LC surface is more deeply located in glaucoma patients compared to normal controls. In glaucoma patients, age, initial IOP, and RNFL thickness were influential factors related to LC depth. These factors should be considered in clinical application of plastic LC displacement in glaucoma patients.
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Oligomerization of FtsZ converts the FtsZ tail motif (CCTP) into a multivalent ligand with high avidity for partners ZipA and SlmA.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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A short conserved motif located at the carboxy terminus of FtsZ, referred to here as the CCTP (conserved C-terminal peptide), is required for the interaction of FtsZ with many of its partners. In E. coli interaction of FtsZ with its membrane anchors, ZipA and FtsA, as well as the spatial regulators of Z-ring formation, MinC and SlmA, requires the CCTP. ZipA interacts with FtsZ with high affinity and interacts with the CCTP with low affinity, but the reason for this difference is not clear. In this study we show that this difference is due to the oligomerization of FtsZ converting the CCTP to a multivalent ligand that binds multiple ZipAs bound to a surface with high avidity. Artificial dimerization of the CCTP is sufficient to increase the affinity for ZipA in vitro. Similar principles apply to the interaction of FtsZ with SlmA. Although done in vitro these results have implications for the recruitment of FtsZ to the membrane in vivo, the interaction of FtsZ with spatial regulators and the reconstitution of FtsZ systems in vitro.
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Left Atrial Function Assessed by Left Atrial Strain in Patients with Left Circumflex Branch Culprit Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Although left atrium (LA) has played an important role in diastole, ischemic insult of atrium in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been clearly evaluated.
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Comparison of pharmacodynamics between low dose ticagrelor and clopidogrel after loading and maintenance doses in healthy Korean subjects.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Abstract The novel antiplatelet agent ticagrelor has been demonstrated to exert a faster and more powerful inhibition of platelet aggregation in comparison to clopidogrel in coronary artery disease patients. However, a ticagrelor dose of 90?mg twice daily might not be suitable for patients of East Asian ethnicity, and has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low loading doses (LD, 90?mg) and maintenance doses (MD, 90?mg daily) of ticagrelor in comparison to clopidogrel (600?mg LD, 75?mg daily MD) in healthy Korean volunteers. Twelve subjects were randomized into two groups, receiving either clopidogrel (600?mg LD, followed by 75?mg MD daily for 5 days) or ticagrelor (90?mg LD, followed by 90?mg MD daily for 5 days). Following a 2-week washout period, the treatments were switched between the groups. Three platelet function assessment methods which included light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the VerifyNow assay and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEA) were then used to serially measure platelet function at various time points (baseline, 0.5, 2, 6, 24, 26, 120 and 122?h). The mean IPA to 10?µM ADP in the ticagrelor group was significantly higher than that for the clopidogrel group at the 0.5, 2, 6, 26 and 122?h time points (p???0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the 24- and 120-hour time points (p?>?0.05). The assay results produced by the other two platelet function tests (VerifyNow and MEA) were similar to those obtained by LTA. The low loading and maintenance doses of ticagrelor (90?mg LD, 90?mg daily MD) cause a more rapid and potent inhibition of platelet function when compared to clopidogrel (600?mg LD and 75?mg MD). Additionally, at the lowest value of platelet inhibition strength, oral once-daily administration of ticagrelor was no less efficacious than clopidogrel at the 24- and 120-hour time points. Due to a large diurnal variation occurring with a single daily dose, a lower dose twice-daily could be a better option for patients of East Asian ethnicity.
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Superior Ion-Conducting Hybrid Solid Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Batteries.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Herein, we developed a high-performance lithium ion conducting hybrid solid electrolyte, consisted of LiTFSI salt, Py14 TFSI ionic liquid, and TiO2 nanoparticles. The hybrid solid electrolyte prepared by a facile method had high room temperature ionic conductivity, excellent thermal stability and low interface resistance with good contact. In addition, the lithium transference number was highly increased by the scavenger effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. With the hybrid solid electrolyte, the pouch-type solid-state battery exhibited high initial discharge capacity of 150?mA?h?g(-1) at room temperature, and even at 1?C, the reversible capacity was as high as 106?mA?h?g(-1) .
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Radial to axillary nerve neurotization for brachial plexus injury in children: a combined case series.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Object Axillary nerve palsy, isolated or as part of a more complex brachial plexus injury, can have profound effects on upper-extremity function. Radial to axillary nerve neurotization is a useful technique for regaining shoulder abduction with little compromise of other neurological function. A combined experience of this procedure used in children is reviewed. Methods A retrospective review of the authors' experience across 3 tertiary care centers with brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury in children (younger than 18 years) revealed 7 cases involving patients with axillary nerve injury as part of an overall brachial plexus injury with persistent shoulder abduction deficits. Two surgical approaches to the region were used. Results Four infants (ages 0.6, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.6 years) and 3 older children (ages 8, 15, and 17 years) underwent surgical intervention. No patient had significant shoulder abduction past 15° preoperatively. In 3 cases, additional neurotization was performed in conjunction with the procedure of interest. Two surgical approaches were used: posterior and transaxillary. All patients displayed improvement in shoulder abduction. All were able to activate their deltoid muscle to raise their arm against gravity and 4 of 7 were able to abduct against resistance. The median duration of follow-up was 15 months (range 8 months to 5.9 years). Conclusions Radial to axillary nerve neurotization improved shoulder abduction in this series of patients treated at 3 institutions. While rarely used in children, this neurotization procedure is an excellent option to restore deltoid function in children with brachial plexus injury due to birth or accidental trauma.
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B-RafV600E inhibits sodium iodide symporter expression via regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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B-RafV600E mutant is found in 40-70% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and has an important role in the pathogenesis of PTC. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and B-RafV600E has been known to be associated with the loss of NIS expression. In this study, we found that B-RafV600E inhibited NIS expression by the upregulation of its promoter methylation, and that specific regions of CpG islands of NIS promoter in B-RafV600E harboring PTC were highly methylated compared with surrounding normal tissue. Although DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b (DNMT3a,3b) were not increased by B-RafV600E, DNMT1 expression was markedly upregulated in PTC and B-RafV600E expressing thyrocytes. Furthermore, DNMT1 expression was upregulated by B-RafV600E induced NF-?B activation. These results led us to conclude that NIS promoter methylation, which was induced by B-RafV600E, is one of the possible mechanisms involved in NIS downregulation in PTC.
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Pleiotrophin inhibits melanogenesis via Erk1/2-MITF signaling in normal human melanocytes.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted heparin-binding protein that is involved in various biological functions of cell growth and differentiation. Little is known about the effects of PTN on the melanocyte function and skin pigmentation. In this study, we investigated whether PTN would affect melanogenesis. PTN was expressed in melanocytes and fibroblasts of human skin. Transfection studies revealed that PTN decreased melanogenesis, probably through MITF degradation via Erk1/2 activation in melanocytes. The inhibitory action of PTN in pigmentation was further confirmed in ex vivo cultured skin and in the melanocytes cocultured with fibroblasts. These findings suggest that PTN is a crucial factor for the regulation of melanogenesis in the skin.
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Free light chain levels in pediatric patients with inflammatory conditions.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Because free light chain assays measure polyclonal as well as monoclonal free light chain components, some previous studies focused on the potential utility of the free light chain assay for detecting chronic immune stimulation, which occurs in autoimmune diseases and allergies. However, most of these trials have been limited to adult patients. In this study, we evaluated the paired serum and urinary free light chain levels of pediatric patients with various inflammatory conditions to investigate the clinical significance of free light chain measurement in pediatrics.
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Masked monoclonal gammopathy in capillary electrophoresis.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Although the method of choice to detect M-protein is electrophoresis on an agarose gel, such gel electrophoresis (GE) is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and not standardized. In contrast to GE, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has some merits because it is automated, fast, and highly reproducible. However, CE results occasionally make the interpretation difficult and require additional confirmatory tests like GE.
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Origin of myofibroblasts in the fibrotic liver in mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Hepatic myofibroblasts are activated in response to chronic liver injury of any etiology to produce a fibrous scar. Despite extensive studies, the origin of myofibroblasts in different types of fibrotic liver diseases is unresolved. To identify distinct populations of myofibroblasts and quantify their contribution to hepatic fibrosis of two different etiologies, collagen-?1(I)-GFP mice were subjected to hepatotoxic (carbon tetrachloride; CCl4) or cholestatic (bile duct ligation; BDL) liver injury. All myofibroblasts were purified by flow cytometry of GFP(+) cells and then different subsets identified by phenotyping. Liver resident activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) and activated portal fibroblasts (aPFs) are the major source (>95%) of fibrogenic myofibroblasts in these models of liver fibrosis in mice. As previously reported using other methodologies, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major source of myofibroblasts (>87%) in CCl4 liver injury. However, aPFs are a major source of myofibroblasts in cholestatic liver injury, contributing >70% of myofibroblasts at the onset of injury (5 d BDL). The relative contribution of aPFs decreases with progressive injury, as HSCs become activated and contribute to the myofibroblast population (14 and 20 d BDL). Unlike aHSCs, aPFs respond to stimulation with taurocholic acid and IL-25 by induction of collagen-?1(I) and IL-13, respectively. Furthermore, BDL-activated PFs express high levels of collagen type I and provide stimulatory signals to HSCs. Gene expression analysis identified several novel markers of aPFs, including a mesothelial-specific marker mesothelin. PFs may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver fibrosis and, therefore, serve as an attractive target for antifibrotic therapy.
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External validation of the Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Historically, assessment of clinical outcomes following surgical management of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) has been challenging due to the lack of a validated instrument for widespread use. The Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale (CCOS) is a novel system intended to provide a less subjective evaluation of outcomes for patients with CM-I. The goal of this study was to externally validate the performance of the CCOS.
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Comparison of two molecular methods for detecting toxigenic clostridium difficile.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of nosocomial diarrhea, and diagnostic methods for detecting C. difficile infection have shifted from conventional to more recent molecular techniques. This study aimed to compare the performance of two molecular assays (Meridian Illumigene™ and AdvanSure CD real-time PCR) in detecting C. difficile using a toxigenic culture as a reference standard.
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Improved severe hepatopulmonary syndrome after liver transplantation in an adolescent with end-stage liver disease secondary to biliary atresia.
Clin Mol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a serious complication of end-stage liver disease, which is characterized by hypoxia, intrapulmonary vascular dilatation, and liver cirrhosis. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative treatment modality for patients with HPS. However, morbidity and mortality after LT, especially in cases of severe HPS, remain high. This case report describes a patient with typical findings of an extracardiac pulmonary arteriovenous shunt on contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and clubbing fingers, who had complete correction of HPS by deceased donor LT. The patient was a 16-year-old female who was born with biliary atresia and underwent porto-enterostomy on the 55th day after birth. She had been suffered from progressive liver failure with dyspnea, clubbing fingers, and cyanosis. Preoperative arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe hypoxia (arterial O2 tension of 54.5 mmHg and O2 saturation of 84.2%). Contrast-enhanced TEE revealed an extracardiac right-to-left shunt, which suggested an intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt. The patient recovered successfully after LT, not only with respect to physical parameters but also for pychosocial activity, including school performance, during the 30-month follow-up period.
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Management of children with mild traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem affecting tens of thousands of children each year, and an important subset of these patients sustains intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that we could identify a subset of children with traumatic ICH who could be monitored on a general neurosurgery ward with a low risk of clinical deterioration.
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A case of venlafaxine-induced interstitial lung disease.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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A patient treated with venlafaxine for major depression developed an interstitial lung disease (ILD) with the characteristic clinical, radiological and pathological features of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A high resolution computed tomography scan demonstrated ground glass opacity, mosaic perfusion with air-trapping and traction bronchiectasis in both lungs. The pathological findings were consistent with a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern. Clinical and radiological improvements were noted after the discontinuation of venlafaxine and the administration of a corticosteroid. This report provides further evidence that the anti-depressant venlafaxine can cause ILD.
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Relationship of syrinx size and tonsillar descent to spinal deformity in Chiari malformation Type I with associated syringomyelia.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is a developmental abnormality often associated with a spinal syrinx. Patients with syringomyelia are known to have an increased risk of scoliosis, yet the influence of specific radiographically demonstrated features on the prevalence of scoliosis remains unclear. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship of maximum syrinx diameter and tonsillar descent to the presence of scoliosis in patients with CM-I-associated syringomyelia. A secondary objective was to explore the role of craniovertebral junction (CVJ) characteristics as additional risk factors for scoliosis.
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Mean platelet volume in patients with increased ?-glutamyl transferase.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Abstract Mean platelet volume (MPV) is the commonly measured platelet index for platelet size and surrogate marker of platelet activation. Changes of MPV in hepatic disease have been evaluated in inflammatory conditions, fibrosis and malignancy. We also had reported previous studies to analyze clinical meaning of MPV in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic hepatitis B. However, data about investigation of MPV in cholestatic conditions are not sufficient so far. Recently, it has been reported that MPV was increased in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. In this study, we planned to investigate the relationship between MPV and glutamyltransferase which is well-established laboratory marker for cholestasis, in various disease conditions.
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De novo hairy cell leukemia with a major BCR/ABL1 rearrangement: a case report with a literature review.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a very rare mature B-cell neoplasm and its simultaneous occurrence with chronic myeloid leukemia has been reported in only three cases. The pathogenesis and relationship of the two diseases are not clear. Here we report a case of HCL expressing a BCR/ABL1 clone, which showed molecular remission of the fusion clones and achieved partial remission over nine months of cladribine therapy. After a thorough analysis of previous studies and the results of this patient, we speculate that a subclone evolved to have an additional genetic BCR/ABL1 rearrangement. We also review all published literature on HCL with BCR/ABL1 rearrangement and discuss the pathophysiology of these unusual cases.
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A case series of autoimmune diseases accompanied by incidentally diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy: Is there a link between the two diseases?
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Although the etiology of plasma cell dyscrasia is poorly understood, there is evidence for immune dysregulation or sustained immune stimulation playing a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, including chronic infection and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we report four autoimmune disease cases where monoclonal gammopathy (MG) was incidentally found during follow-up.
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The oncoprotein, gankyrin, is up-regulated in middle ear cholesteatoma.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Gankyrin seems to be a better biomarker for cholesteatoma compared with Ki-67.
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Novel EGFR mutation-specific antibodies for lung adenocarcinoma: highly specific but not sensitive detection of an E746_A750 deletion in exon 19 and an L858R mutation in exon 21 by immunohistochemistry.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain are correlated with dramatic clinical responses in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The two most common EGFR mutations, representing 85-90% of EGFR mutations, are the E746_A750 deletion in exon 19 and the L858R point mutation in exon 21. We conducted this study to evaluate the suitability of mutation-specific antibodies that can detect E746_A750 deletion and L858R mutant EGFR proteins by immunohistochemistry (IHC).
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Clinical significance of nuclear factor ?B and chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received rituximab-based therapy.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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This study investigated the expression of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and the chemokine receptor (CXCR4) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who received rituximab-based therapy.
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Mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio in infective endocarditis.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE), an infection of the endocardial surface, frequently leads to life-threatening complications, such as thromboembolism due to platelet activation. We investigated the mean platelet volume (MPV) in Korean patients with IE and the serial changes thereof, in comparison with other laboratory parameters. We analyzed 248?MPV results from 22 patients diagnosed with IE in our hospital between January 2011 and April 2012. MPV was measured with an Advia 2120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY) using EDTA-containing tubes. The mean MPV differed significantly between the patient and control groups, 8.74 vs. 7.96?fl, respectively. In addition, the platelet count and MPV/platelet count ratio were significantly decreased in the patient group. The total platelet mass and platelet size in IE might be increased. Further studies should examine more patients to verify the changes in the MPV and MPV/platelet count ratio in IE and assess in greater detail the relationship between MPV and thrombotic complications caused by platelet activation.
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Interpretation and clinical significance of small monoclonal peaks in capillary electrophoresis.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Although the testing mechanism and interpretation criteria for capillary electrophoresis differ from those for gel-based electrophoresis, there are not that many reports on the efficacy of capillary electrophoresis.
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TIS21(/BTG2/PC3) inhibits interleukin-6 expression via downregulation of STAT3 pathway.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Cancer cell growth was increased when co-cultured with fibroblasts, however, no effect was observed when co-cultured with TIS21-overexpressed fibroblast. Therefore, the role of TIS21 played in cancer microenvironment was investigated. TIS21 decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in human dermal fibroblast (HDF). Adenoviral transduction of TIS21 gene to HDF decreased the secretion of IL-6, whereas knockdown of the gene increased IL-6 expression. Furthermore, TIS21 overexpression inhibited STAT3 binding to IL-6 promoter region as well as JAK2-STAT3 signaling by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by being localized in mitochondria. Mitochondria-target TIS21 (MT-TIS21) also inhibited IL-6 expression by downregulating STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas NF-?B pathway was not influenced by TIS21 expression. These results indicate that TIS21 negatively regulated cancer cell growth by inhibiting IL-6 expression through downregulation of STAT3 activation.
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Laboratory tools for oligo-secretory myeloma diagnosis: capillary electrophoresis versus free light chain assay.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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To investigate how capillary electrophoresis (CE) works in oligo-secretory myeloma (OSM), we report a case here of OSM using multiple diagnostic methods including gel electrophoresis (GE), CE, and free light chain assay (sFLC). Also, we provide a brief review of laboratory methods to compare their diagnostic utilities in OSM.
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Factors influencing discordant results of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube test in patients with active TB.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Indeterminate or negative results from the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube test (QFT-GIT) for TB-confirmed patients indicate the lower sensitivity of this method. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with indeterminate and negative QFT-GIT results in active TB patients.
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Dual reporter gene imaging for tracking macrophage migration using the human sodium iodide symporter and an enhanced firefly luciferase in a murine inflammation model.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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The purpose of this study is to visualize the migration of reporter macrophages expressing both the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc) gene in mice with chemically induced inflammation.
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C-terminus-deleted FoxM1 is expressed in cancer cell lines and induces chromosome instability.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1) protein is a transcription factor and regulates cell cycle. It is commonly upregulated in human cancer tissue and correlated with poor prognosis, suggesting that the overexpression of FoxM1 plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a new variant of FoxM1, which was first isolated from our laboratory in hepatoma cell lines. Compared with wild-type FoxM1, the new variant lacks of C-terminus of FoxM1 (FoxM1?C), which is a transactivation domain. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis demonstrated that FoxM1?C was highly expressed in a variety of cancer cell lines such as HepG2, HeLa, A549, MB231, EJ, U2OS, Hep3B and MCF7, but not expressed in normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF). Immunoprecipitation assay revealed that FoxM1?C interacted with wild-type FoxM1. Furthermore, FoxM1?C bound to FoxM1 targeted gene promoter region and correlated with dysregulation of wild-type FoxM1. FoxM1?C delayed G2/M to G1 progression of cell cycle, decreased Aurora B(T232) phosphorylation and increased chromosome centromere interspace. Finally, FoxM1?C induced instability of chromosome and formation of aneuploid cells within 1 month when expressed in HDF. In conclusion, FoxM1?C is expressed in cancer cells and dysregulates normal cell cycle and induces chromosome instability.
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Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF)-1 promotes melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Wnt signaling plays a role in the differentiation as well as the development of melanocytes. Using a microarray analysis, hyperpigmentary skin of melasma expressed high levels of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) compared with perilesional normal skin. In this study, the expression and functional roles of WIF-1 on melanocytes were investigated. WIF-1 was expressed both in the melanocytes of normal human skin and in cultured melanocytes. The upregulation of WIF-1 on cultured normal human melanocytes significantly induced expressions of MITF and tyrosinase, which were associated with increased melanin content and tyrosinase activity. Consistent with the stimulatory effect of WIF-1, WIF-1 siRNA reduced melanogenesis in the cells. Moreover, WIF-1 increases pigmentation in melanocytes co-cultured with WIF-1-overexpressed fibroblasts and of organ-cultured human skin. These findings suggest that melanocytes express WIF-1 constitutively in vivo and in vitro and that WIF-1 promotes melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes.
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Signals regulating necrosis of cardiomyoblast by BTG2(/TIS21/PC3) via activation of GSK3? and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore in response to H2O2.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To investigate signal transduction pathway of cell death regulated by a tumor suppressor after oxidative stress, cardiomyoblasts were virally transfected with BTG2(/TIS21/PC3) (BTG2) and subsequently treated with H2O2. Heart muscle rarely expresses BTG2 unless oxidative stress occurs, however, ischemia induced BTG2 expression and necrosis, not apoptosis, of cardiomyoblasts. BTG2-expressioning cardiomyblasts showed impaired recoveries of survival kinases, Akt and Erk, thus sustaining GSK-3? activity in 30 min of H2O2 exposure, in contrast to their rapid recoveries in LacZ control. The phenomenon was accompanied by the failure of ATP regeneration and the sustained activation of AMPK in the BTG2 expresser. Furthermore, H2O2 treatment markedly induced BTG2 translocation from nuclei to mitochondria along with cell death by cyclophilin D activation and mPTP opening. Exogenous and endogenous effect of BTG2 was confirmed by chemical inhibitors and BTG2-KO-MEF, respectively. Here, we suggest tumor suppressor, BTG2, as one of the regulators of necrosis in myocardium via inhibiting Akt/Erk, but activating GSK3? and cyclophilin D, which resulted in mPTP opening in response to H2O2.
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Benefit of systematic segmentectomy of the hepatocellular carcinoma: revisiting the dye injection method for various portal vein branches.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Systematic segmentectomy is useful in treating small hepatocellular carcinoma in the cirrhotic liver. However, accomplishment of an exact systematic segmentectomy still remains a challenging procedure because of the variable anatomy of portal branches. We evaluated the usefulness of the dye injection method for systematic segmentectomy, which focuses on the various patterns of portal vein (PV) branches feeding the tumor.
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A case of right sinus of valsalva rupture with dissection into interventricular septum causing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) is an uncommon anomaly of the aorta. Rupture of SVA often precipitates dramatic clinical complications, including heart failures. Right SVAs are the most common type, and when they rupture, they usually rupture into the right ventricle or right atrium. Rupture into left ventricle or interventricular septum is rare. Herein, we report a case of right SVA rupture with dissection into interventricular septum, which produced significant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and aortic regurgitation. The case was successfully treated by surgical operation.
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Controlling work function and damaging effects of sputtered RuO? gate electrodes by changing oxygen gas ratio during sputtering.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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RuO? metal gates were fabricated by a reactive sputtering method under different O? gas ratios. For the given sputtering power of 60 W, a ?13% O? ratio was the critical level below or over which RuO? film has hyperstoichiometric and stoichiometric compositions, which resulted in a difference in the effective work function by ?0.2 eV. The stoichiometric RuO? film imposes almost no damaging effect to the underlying SiO? and HfO? gate dielectrics. The RuO? gate decreased the equivalent oxide thickness by ?0.5 nm and leakage current by around two orders of magnitude compared to the Pt-gated samples.
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Amplification refractory mutation system-PCR is essential for the detection of chimaeras with a minor allele population: a case report.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Blood chimaera is a rare but important issue for immunohaematology laboratories. Several molecular approaches, such as ABO genotyping, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing and DNA short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, have been used to identify chimaerism. Unfortunately, the minor allele population can be overlooked by PCR-based methods, which preferentially amplify the major allele population. A case with AweakB (AwB), demonstrating a mixed-field pattern, was sent to our laboratory for further evaluation. Direct sequencing of ABO exons 6 and 7 revealed a B101/O02 genotype. Analysis of the 12 STR loci and HLA typing did not provide any evidence of chimaerism. However, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR identified the minor A102 allele in addition to B101/O02. Three alleles of the chimaera were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Thus, ARMS-PCR is essential, especially in the case of a chimaera with a minor allele population.
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Current routine practice and clinico-pathological characteristics associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia in Korea.
Blood Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) can be life threatening, necessitating emergency therapy with prompt diagnosis by morphologic findings, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, or molecular studies. This study aimed to assess the current routine practices in APL and the clinico-pathologic features of APL.
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Expression of Id-1 and VEGF in non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Angiogenesis is essential for invasive tumor growth and metastasis. Bevacizumab has been widely used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Various studies clearly demonstrate the relevance of Id-1 and VEGF in angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to establish the role of Id-1 expression in tumor progression and angiogenesis in relation to VEGF in NSCLC. Seventy five patients underwent surgery for lung cancers. The expressions of Id-1 and VEGF in NSCLC samples were determined by immunohistochemistry. Expression of Id-1 and VEGF showed a close correlation in NSCLC (p < 0.001). In addition, Id-1 strong expression group showed high incidence of metastasis in multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Id-1 strong expression group had short metastasis-free survival (p = 0.008) and short recurrence-free survival (p = 0.027). Strong Id-1 expression in NSCLC had a poor prognosis in association with VEGF expression. Id-1 may function in tumor growth and progression via angiogenesis. Therefore, Id-1 is considered to be a candidate for new therapeutic target and a prognostic factor in NSCLC.
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Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia Associated with t(6;14)(p21;q32) and IGH Rearrangement: A Case Study and Review of the Literature.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Because plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and distinct variant among plasma cell dyscrasias, recent clinical and cytogenetic studies have been performed in different ethnic groups to define the characteristics of these PCL patients. As far as we know, IGH rearrangements involving t(11;14) and (14;16) are significantly more frequent in PCL than in myeloma patients. However, PCL cases associated with t(6;14)(p21;q32) or IGH-CCND3 rearrangement are extremely rare in the literature; only one PCL case with t(6;14) has been documented. A 61-year-old female was admitted due to fatigue, weight loss, and exertional dyspnea. Plasmacytoid cells were counted up to 76% at a peripheral blood film, but bone marrow aspiration failed because of dry-tapping. Flow cytometric analysis showed positive for CD138 and cytoplasmic kappa light chain. Chromosome analysis revealed t(6;14)(p21;q32), which was confirmed by an IGH split-out probe in FISH analysis. Immunofixation electrophoresis also presented monoclonal bands identified as IgG and kappa light chain. Finally, she was diagnosed as primary PCL associated with t(6;14) and IGH rearrangement. Although considerable advances have been made in the understanding of the biology and molecular pathogenesis of PCL, further clinical, laboratory, and genetic studies of PCL associated with such a rare IGH rearrangement would be necessary in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PCL associated with t(6;14) as a sole chromosomal abnormality.
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A novel homozygous missense ADAMTS13 mutation Y658C in a patient with recurrent thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a devastating systemic disorder that is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurological dysfunction, and renal failure. In the hereditary form of TTP, severe deficiency of ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor, is associated with the development of this disorder. A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed with TTP due to severely reduced ADAMTS13 activity; clinical manifestations resolved only by repeated total plasma exchanges or transfusion. Homozygous and heterozygous Y658C (c.1973A>G) alleles were detected in the patient and her child with severe and mild ADAMTS13 deficiencies, respectively. Herein, we report a novel missense mutation Y658C (c.1973A>G) on exon 17 of ADAMTS13 and discuss its clinical implications.
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T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with complex karyotype and SET-NUP214 rearrangement: a case study and review of the literature.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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SET-NUP214 rearrangements have been rarely reported in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), acute undifferentiated leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia, and most documented cases have been associated with normal karyotypes in conventional cytogenetic analyses. Here, we describe a novel case of T-ALL associated with a mediastinal mass and a SET-NUP214 rearrangement, which was masked by a complex karyotype at the time of initial diagnosis. Using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we detected a cryptic SET-NUP214 rearrangement in our patient. As only 11 cases (including the present study) of T-ALL with SET-NUP214 rearrangement have been reported, the clinical features and treatment outcomes have not been fully determined. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of SET-NUP214 rearrangement in T-ALL patients and the treatment responses as well as prognosis of these patients.
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RFX2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis during vertebrate development.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RFX (Daf19) transcription factor is a major regulator of ciliogenesis, controlling the expression of the many essential genes required for making cilia. In vertebrates, however, seven RFX genes have been identified. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that Rfx2 is among the closest homologues of Daf19. We therefore hypothesize that Rfx2 broadly controls ciliogenesis during vertebrate development. Indeed, here we show that Rfx2 in Xenopus is expressed preferentially in ciliated tissues, including neural tube, gastrocoel roof plate, epidermal multi-ciliated cells, otic vesicles, and kidneys. Knockdown of Rfx2 results in cilia-defective embryonic phenotypes and fewer or truncated cilia are observed in Rfx2 morphants. These results indicate that Rfx2 is broadly required for ciliogenesis in vertebrates. Furthermore, we show that Rfx2 is essential for expression of several ciliogenic genes, including TTC25, which we show here is required for ciliogenesis, HH signaling, and left-right patterning.
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The Min oscillator uses MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE to spatially regulate cytokinesis.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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In E. coli, MinD recruits MinE to the membrane, leading to a coupled oscillation required for spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring. How these proteins interact, however, is not clear because the MinD-binding regions of MinE are sequestered within a six-stranded ? sheet and masked by N-terminal helices. minE mutations that restore interaction between some MinD and MinE mutants were isolated. These mutations alter the MinE structure leading to release of the MinD-binding regions and the N-terminal helices that bind the membrane. Crystallization of MinD-MinE complexes revealed a four-stranded ? sheet MinE dimer with the released ? strands (MinD-binding regions) converted to ? helices bound to MinD dimers. These results identify the MinD-dependent conformational changes in MinE that convert it from a latent to an active form and lead to a model of how MinE persists at the MinD-membrane surface.
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The impact of dose of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan on the post-myocardial infarction ventricular remodeling: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan ameliorate ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Based on previous clinical trials, a maximum clinical dose is recommended in practical guidelines. Yet, has not been clearly demonstrated whether the recommended dose is more efficacious compared to the lower dose that is commonly used in clinical practice.
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Oligodendrogliomas in children.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Oligodendrogliomas are rare central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children. The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors for progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in pediatric patients with oligodendrogliomas. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on 37 pediatric patients with oligodendroglial tumors treated at Washington University. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates. Log-rank was used to detect the difference between survival curves. The median age was 11.1 years (range 10 months-18 years), and median follow-up was 4.5 years (range 2 months-30.5 years). The 5-year PFS and OS were 66.4 and 93.4%, respectively. Mixed histology was associated with worse OS compared to patients with pure oligodendroglioma, 5-year OS 77.6 versus 100% (P < 0.01). Patients who underwent gross total resection (GTR) experienced an improved 5-year PFS of 100% compared to 28.8% (P = 0.03) in patients treated with subtotal resection (STR) or biopsy alone. Age >3 years at diagnosis correlated with improved 5-year PFS, 33.3 versus 69.8% (P = 0.01). Neither post-operative chemotherapy nor radiation therapy correlated with improved outcome. GTR and age >3 years at diagnosis remained significant for improved PFS on multivariate analysis. There were no factors correlated with improved overall survival on multivariate analysis. Pediatric oligodendroglial tumors are associated with excellent OS; however, a third of patients developed progressive disease. Our data demonstrate that patients with less than GTR and <3 years at diagnosis are at increased risk for progression and may benefit from more aggressive therapy.
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Clinical outcomes after selective dorsal rhizotomy in an adult population.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a highly effective and well-established surgical tool for correction of lower-extremity spasticity in children with spastic diplegia caused by cerebral palsy (CP). Although the literature demonstrates considerable immediate and long-term functional benefits in children treated with SDR, the effects of SDR on adults with spastic diplegia have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the objective and subjective clinical outcomes of SDR on an adult population.
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A rare case of microgranular acute promyelocytic leukemia associated with ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) in an old-age patient.
Korean J Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
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We present a rare case of microgranular variant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) associated with ider(17)(q10)t(15;17)(q22;q12) of an old-age patient. The initial chromosome study showed a 46,XX,del(6)(?q21q25),der(15)t(15;17)(q22;q12),ider(17)(q10)t(15;17)[10]/47,sl,+ider(17)(q10)t(15;17)[3]/46,XX[16]. FISH signals from a dual color dual fusion translocation PML-RARA probe were consistent with the results of conventional cytogenetics. Because of the rarity of ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) in microgranular APL, further studies on both gene dosage effect of this chromosomal abnormality and the influence of ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) on clinical features such as prognosis, survival, and treatment response of APL cases are recommended.
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Subclinical Myocardial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Patients without Hypertension.
J Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial function in patients with non-hypertensive metabolic syndrome.
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Patients with Chiari malformation Type I presenting with acute neurological deficits: case series.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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A subset of patients with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) presented with acute onset of a neurological deficit. In this study the authors summarize their experience with these patients clinical presentation, imaging results, timing of surgery, and outcome following decompression.
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Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with del(7)(q22) in a patient with de novo AML.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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A 55-year-old Korean woman was initially diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML). After induction chemotherapy was performed using cytarabine, idarubicin, and G-CSF, complete remission (CR) was subsequently achieved following reinduction chemotherapy using the same chemotherapeutic agents. Thirty-six months after the initial CR, an increase in immature cells (up to 12.0%) was observed in the patients bone marrow. Because chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(7)(q22) in all of the analyzed cells, the patient was diagnosed with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS). Although the patient subsequently received chemotherapy and G-CSF for neutropenia, t-MDS rapidly progressed after 3 months to therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although very rare, de novo AML can progress to a secondary MDS/AML with del(7q) after chemotherapy with cytarabine, idarubicin, and G-CSF. Further investigation into the role of genes located in 7q22 may provide more information about the mechanisms of leukemogenesis.
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A novel three-way Ph variant t(8;9;22) in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Although three-way Philadelphia (Ph) variant translocation has been uncommonly (3~8%) reported in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), it has been even more rarely described in acute leukemias (ALs). When we reviewed the Mitelman database and the literature, we found about 595 three-way Ph variant cases; among these, only 39 three-way Ph variant translocations in AL were documented. Here, we report a novel three-way Ph variant case of t(8;9;22) in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Based on bone marrow morphology, chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and flow cytometrry, this patient was diagnosed with B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma associated with both t(8;9;22) (q21;q34;q11.2) and BCR/ABL1 rearrangement (e1a2 type). Because of the rarity of reported AL patients with three-way Ph variant, further studies on their prognosis and treatment response to imatinib mesylate are necessary.
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Determination of the structure of the MinD-ATP complex reveals the orientation of MinD on the membrane and the relative location of the binding sites for MinE and MinC.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The three Min proteins spatially regulate Z ring positioning in Escherichia coli and are dynamically associated with the membrane. MinD binds to vesicles in the presence of ATP and can recruit MinC or MinE. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicate the binding sites for these two proteins on MinD overlap. Here we solved the structure of a hydrolytic-deficient mutant of MinD truncated for the C-terminal amphipathic helix involved in binding to the membrane. The structure solved in the presence of ATP is a dimer and reveals the face of MinD abutting the membrane. Using a combination of random and extensive site-directed mutagenesis additional residues important for MinE and MinC binding were identified. The location of these residues on the MinD structure confirms that the binding sites overlap and reveals that the binding sites are at the dimer interface and exposed to the cytosol. The location of the binding sites at the dimer interface offers a simple explanation for the ATP dependence of MinC and MinE binding to MinD.
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Reduction of exportin 6 activity leads to actin accumulation via failure of RanGTP restoration and NTF2 sequestration in the nuclei of senescent cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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We have previously reported that G-actin accumulation in nuclei is a universal phenomenon of cellular senescence. By employing primary culture of human diploid fibroblast (HDF) and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), we explored whether the failure of actin export to cytoplasm is responsible for actin accumulation in nuclei of senescent cells. Expression of exportin 6 (Exp6) and small G-protein, Ran, was significantly reduced in the replicative senescence, but not yet in SIPS, whereas nuclear import of actin by cofilin was already increased in SIPS. After treatment of young HDF cells with H(2)O(2), rapid reduction of nuclear RanGTP was observed along with cytoplasmic increase of RanGDP. Furthermore, significantly reduced interaction of Exp6 with RanGTP was found by GST-Exp6 pull-down analysis. Failure of RanGTP restoration was accompanied with inhibition of ATP synthesis and NTF2 sequestration in the nuclei along with accordant change of senescence morphology. Indeed, knockdown of Exp6 expression significantly increased actin molecule in the nuclei of young HDF cells. Therefore, actin accumulation in nuclei of senescent cells is most likely due to the failure of RanGTP restoration with ATP deficiency and NTF2 accumulation in nuclei, which result in the decrease of actin export via Exp6 inactivation, in addition to actin import by cofilin activation.
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Somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway genes in non-small cell lung cancers.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the development and progression of lung cancer. We searched for mutations of EGFR pathway genes in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and analyzed their relationship with clinicopathologic features.
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Characterization of a new bacteriocin, Carocin D, from Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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Two different bacteriocins, carotovoricin and carocin S1, had been found in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, which causes soft-rot disease in diverse plants. Previously, we reported that the particular strain Pcc21, producing only one high-molecular-weight bacteriocin, carried a new antibacterial activity against the indicator strain Pcc3. Here, we report that this new antibacterial activity is due to a new bacteriocin produced by strain Pcc21 and named carocin D. Carocin D is encoded by the caroDK gene located in the genomic DNA together with the caroDI gene, which seems to encode an immunity protein. N-terminal amino acid sequences of purified carocin D were determined by Edman degradation. In comparison with the primary translation product of caroDK, it was found that 8 amino acids are missing at the N terminus. This finding proved that carocin D is synthesized as a precursor peptide and that 8 amino acids are removed from its N terminus during maturation. Carocin D has two putative translocation domains; the N-terminal and C-terminal domains are homologous to those of Escherichia coli colicin E3 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa S-type pyocin, respectively. When caroDK and caroDI genes were transformed into carocin D-sensitive bacteria such as Pcc3, the bacteria became resistant to this bacteriocin. Carocin D has one putative DNase domain at the extreme C terminus and showed DNase activity in vitro. This bacteriocin had slight tolerance to heat but not to proteases. The caroDK gene was present in only 5 of 54 strains of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. These results indicate that carocin D is a third bacteriocin found in P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and this bacteriocin can be readily expressed in carocin D-sensitive nonpathogenic bacteria, which may have high potential as a biological control agent in the field.
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Neurosurgical treatment of progressive posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation in preterm infants: a 10-year single-institution study.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and progressive posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PPHVD) may result in significant neurological morbidity in preterm infants. At present, there is no consensus regarding the optimal timing or type of neurosurgical procedure to best treat PPHVD. Conflicting data exist regarding the relative risks and benefits of two commonly used temporizing neurosurgical procedures (TNPs), ventricular access devices ([VADs] or ventricular reservoirs) versus ventriculosubgaleal (VSG) shunts. This study was designed to address this issue.
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[A case of pseudoisodicentric chromosome 18q detected at prenatal diagnosis].
Korean J Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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Although trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) or the terminal deletion syndromes of 18p and 18q have been occasionally detected, pseudoisodicentric chromosome 18 is a very rare constitutional chromosomal abnormality. We describe a case of pseudoisodicentric chromosome 18q without mosaicism, which was confirmed from fetal cells in the amniotic fluid used for prenatal diagnosis of multiple congenital anomalies. A 23-yr-old pregnant woman was suspected of having a fetal anomaly at 18(+3) weeks gestation. In sonography, the fetus showed multiple anomalies: bilateral overt ventriculomegaly in the brain, ventricular septal defect and valve anomaly in the heart, bilateral club foot, polydactyly, meningocele, and a single umbilical artery. The pregnancy was terminated and a conventional G-banded chromosome study was performed using amniotic fluid. Twenty metaphase cells among the cultured amniocytes showed a 46,XX,psu idic(18)(q22). Consequently, the fetus had partial trisomy (18pter-->q22) and partial monosomy (18q22-->qter). Both parents were confirmed to have a normal karyotype.
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Superwarfarin intoxication of unknown etiology accompanying hemoperitoneum in a patient on fluconazole therapy.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2010
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We report a case of brodifacoum (superwarfarin) intoxication of unknown etiology presenting as hemoperitoneum after fluconazole administration for one week before the onset of symptoms. The initial prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were markedly prolonged, although a mixing study with normal plasma showed that the corrected PT and PTT were in the normal range. Vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (Factors II (5%), VII (8%), IX (4%), and X (6%)), and Protein C (16%) and Protein S (19%) activities were reduced. Although the patient denied ingesting rodenticides or medications other than an antifungal drug, fluconazole, superwarfarin toxicity was suspected; subsequently, his serum brodifacoum level was found to be positive. After administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and oral vitamin K(1) for five days and following drainage of the hemoperitoneum, the patients bleeding tendency stopped, with slow decreases in PT and PTT. Compared to previous reports of superwarfarin intoxication of unknown exposure, this case is distinct in that the severe bleeding tendency needed surgical management and involved a suspected drug interaction with fluconazole. Therefore, superwarfarin intoxication should be suspected in subjects with markedly prolonged PT and PTT of unknown etiology, since a drug interaction could amplify the toxicity from a small exposure to superwarfarin.
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Constitutional pericentric inversion 9 and hematological disorders: a Korean tertiary institutions experience over eight years.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2010
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Constitutional pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 [inv(9)] occurs in 0.8 to 2% of the normal population and has long been considered a normal variant. It is controversial whether inv(9) is a predisposing factor for acute leukemia (AL). The effect of inv(9) on bone marrow (BM) recovery after stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy is undetermined. Between March 2001 and December 2008, the cytogenetics of 3,809 patients with suspected hematological diseases were reviewed. Of them, 586 patients were diagnosed with AL. Constitutional inv(9) was found in 55 patients with various hematological disorders, including AL and solid tumors. The proportion of inv(9) was similar in patients with AL (8/586, 1.37%) and those without (47/3223, 1.46%; p = 1.0). Of the eight patients with AL and inv(9), one refused treatment and seven had induction chemotherapy. Four of the seven patients achieved prompt hematological recovery, but the other three failed to achieve complete hematological remission. Thus constitutional inv(9) seems not to be related independently to delayed hematological recovery. One recipient of an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, from an unrelated donor with constitutional inv(9), also achieved prompt hematological reconstruction, further suggesting that constitutional inv(9) has no effect on hematopoietic cells. In summary, our data suggest that constitutional inv(9) is a truly random chromosomal aberration with no apparent functional effect on hematological disorders.
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FISH-negative cryptic PML-RARA rearrangement detected by long-distance polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analyses: a case study and review of the literature.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
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Although a normal karyotype according to conventional cytogenetic analysis in association with cryptic t(15;17) has been infrequently reported in cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-negative cryptic PML-RARA rearrangement is even more rare, with only 12 such APL cases of FISH-negative cryptic PML-RARA rearrangements in the literature. Reported here is an additional clinical APL case with a FISH-negative cryptic PML-RARA rearrangement, confirmed by long-distance DNA polymerase chain reaction method. Discussion includes a relevant literature review of similar cases. DNA-PCR can be a useful tool for the analysis of complex and cryptic rearrangements.
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Planar cell polarity acts through septins to control collective cell movement and ciliogenesis.
Science
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway governs collective cell movements during vertebrate embryogenesis, and certain PCP proteins are also implicated in the assembly of cilia. The septins are cytoskeletal proteins controlling behaviors such as cell division and migration. Here, we identified control of septin localization by the PCP protein Fritz as a crucial control point for both collective cell movement and ciliogenesis in Xenopus embryos. We also linked mutations in human Fritz to Bardet-Biedl and Meckel-Gruber syndromes, a notable link given that other genes mutated in these syndromes also influence collective cell movement and ciliogenesis. These findings shed light on the mechanisms by which fundamental cellular machinery, such as the cytoskeleton, is regulated during embryonic development and human disease.
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[Comparison of R-mix virus culture and multiplex reverse transcriptase-PCR for the rapid detection of respiratory viruses].
Korean J Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Respiratory viral infections can become epidemic due to high contagiosity. Since there was no rapid diagnostic method for complete diagnosis in the past, diagnosis was solely made on the basis of clinical symptoms or the time of infection. With recent developments in rapid diagnostic methods like multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, R-mix virus culture, etc., early detection and effective treatment of respiratory viral infections is possible. Herein, we compared the efficiency of multiplex RT-PCR and the R-mix virus culture for the rapid detection of respiratory viruses.
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Constitutional pericentric inversion 9 in Korean patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Korean J Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Although the pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, inv(9)(p11q13), is generally considered a normal variation, it is also associated with solid tumors and several hematologic malignancies such as biphenotypic acute leukemia, ALL, AML, and myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports that suggest an association between CML and constitutional pericentric inversion of chromosome 9. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency and clinical features of CML patients with concomitant inv(9) and t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) variation at our institution.
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Sequence and structure of Brassica rapa chromosome A3.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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The species Brassica rapa includes important vegetable and oil crops. It also serves as an excellent model system to study polyploidy-related genome evolution because of its paleohexaploid ancestry and its close evolutionary relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassica species with larger genomes. Therefore, its genome sequence will be used to accelerate both basic research on genome evolution and applied research across the cultivated Brassica species.
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Acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(1;3)(p36;q21) and extreme thrombocytosis: a clinical study with literature review.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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We present an unusual case study on acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(1;3) and extreme thrombocytosis, along with a thorough review on relevant literature of t(1;3) cases (58 patients). On the basis of this study and literature review, thrombocytosis (>400,000/?L) is a relatively common finding in one third of patients with t(1;3), whereas increase of platelet count by more than 1,000,000/?L is an extremely rare phenomenon, even among patients with t(1;3). To our knowledge, this study is the only documented case that recorded more than 2,000,000/?L of extreme thrombocytosis in a de novo acute myeloid leukemia patient with t(1;3) at initial diagnosis. Because only a few patients with t(1;3) responded to conventional chemotherapy, more aggressive therapy such as stem-cell transplantation should be considered to improve patient survival in t(1;3) cases.
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High-magnification in vivo imaging of Xenopus embryos for cell and developmental biology.
Cold Spring Harb Protoc
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis are an ideal model system for in vivo imaging of dynamic biological processes, from the inner workings of individual cells to the reshaping of tissues during embryogenesis. Their externally developing embryos are more amenable to in vivo analysis than internally developing mammalian embryos, and the large size of the embryos make them particularly suitable for time-lapse analysis of tissue-level morphogenetic events. In addition, individual cells in Xenopus embryos are larger than those in other vertebrate models, making them ideal for imaging cell behavior and subcellular processes (e.g., following the dynamics of fluorescent fusion proteins in living or fixed cells and tissues). Xenopus embryos are amenable to simple manipulations of gene function, including knockdown and misexpression, and the large number of embryos available allows even an inexperienced researcher to perform hundreds of such manipulations per day. Transgenesis is quite effective as well. Finally, because the fate map of Xenopus embryos is stereotypical, simple targeted microinjections can reliably deliver reagents into specific tissues and cell types for gene manipulation or for imaging. Although yolk opacity can hinder deep imaging in intact embryos, almost any cell in the early embryo can be placed into organotypic culture, such that the cells of interest are directly apposed to the cover glass. Furthermore, live imaging techniques can be complemented with immunostaining and in situ hybridization approaches in fixed tissues. This protocol describes methods for labeling and high-magnification time-lapse imaging of cell biological and developmental processes in Xenopus embryos by confocal microscopy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.