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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Development of covalent inhibitors that can overcome resistance to first-generation FGFR kinase inhibitors.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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The human FGF receptors (FGFRs) play critical roles in various human cancers, and several FGFR inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. Resistance usually results from selection for mutant kinases that are impervious to the action of the drug or from up-regulation of compensatory signaling pathways. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that resistance to FGFR inhibitors can be acquired through mutations in the FGFR gatekeeper residue, as clinically observed for FGFR4 in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroendocrine breast carcinomas. Here we report on the use of a structure-based drug design to develop two selective, next-generation covalent FGFR inhibitors, the FGFR irreversible inhibitors 2 (FIIN-2) and 3 (FIIN-3). To our knowledge, FIIN-2 and FIIN-3 are the first inhibitors that can potently inhibit the proliferation of cells dependent upon the gatekeeper mutants of FGFR1 or FGFR2, which confer resistance to first-generation clinical FGFR inhibitors such as NVP-BGJ398 and AZD4547. Because of the conformational flexibility of the reactive acrylamide substituent, FIIN-3 has the unprecedented ability to inhibit both the EGF receptor (EGFR) and FGFR covalently by targeting two distinct cysteine residues. We report the cocrystal structure of FGFR4 with FIIN-2, which unexpectedly exhibits a "DFG-out" covalent binding mode. The structural basis for dual FGFR and EGFR targeting by FIIN3 also is illustrated by crystal structures of FIIN-3 bound with FGFR4 V550L and EGFR L858R. These results have important implications for the design of covalent FGFR inhibitors that can overcome clinical resistance and provide the first example, to our knowledge, of a kinase inhibitor that covalently targets cysteines located in different positions within the ATP-binding pocket.
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Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGF?-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2).
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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We developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38? (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16 and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. A 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.
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Structure-based optimization and biological evaluation of trisubstituted pyrazole as a core structure of potent ROS1 kinase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Recently inhibition of ROS1 kinase has proven to be a promising strategy for several indications such as glioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and cholangiocarcinoma. Our team reported trisubstituted pyrazole-based ROS1 inhibitors by which two inhibitors showed good IC?? values in enzyme-based screening. To develop more advanced ROS1 inhibitors through SAR this trisubstituted pyrazole-based scaffold has been built. Consequently, 16 compounds have been designed, synthesized and shown potent IC?? values in the enzymatic assay, which are from 13.6 to 283 nM. Molecular modeling studies explain how these ROS1 kinase inhibitors revealed effectively the key interactions with ROS1 ATP binding site. Among these compounds, compound 9a (IC??=13.6 nM) has exerted 5 fold potency than crizotinib and exhibited high degree of selectivity (selectivity score value=0.028) representing the number of non-mutant kinases with biological activity over 90% at 10 ?M.
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Targeting transcription regulation in cancer with a covalent CDK7 inhibitor.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Tumour oncogenes include transcription factors that co-opt the general transcriptional machinery to sustain the oncogenic state, but direct pharmacological inhibition of transcription factors has so far proven difficult. However, the transcriptional machinery contains various enzymatic cofactors that can be targeted for the development of new therapeutic candidates, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Here we present the discovery and characterization of a covalent CDK7 inhibitor, THZ1, which has the unprecedented ability to target a remote cysteine residue located outside of the canonical kinase domain, providing an unanticipated means of achieving selectivity for CDK7. Cancer cell-line profiling indicates that a subset of cancer cell lines, including human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), have exceptional sensitivity to THZ1. Genome-wide analysis in Jurkat T-ALL cells shows that THZ1 disproportionally affects transcription of RUNX1 and suggests that sensitivity to THZ1 may be due to vulnerability conferred by the RUNX1 super-enhancer and the key role of RUNX1 in the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of these tumour cells. Pharmacological modulation of CDK7 kinase activity may thus provide an approach to identify and treat tumour types that are dependent on transcription for maintenance of the oncogenic state.
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Pharmacological targeting of the pseudokinase Her3.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Her3 (also known as ErbB3) belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases and is well credentialed as an anti-cancer target but is thought to be 'undruggable' using ATP-competitive small molecules because it lacks appreciable kinase activity. Here we report what is to our knowledge the first selective Her3 ligand, TX1-85-1, that forms a covalent bond with Cys721 located in the ATP-binding site of Her3. We demonstrate that covalent modification of Her3 inhibits Her3 signaling but not proliferation in some Her3-dependent cancer cell lines. Subsequent derivatization with a hydrophobic adamantane moiety demonstrates that the resultant bivalent ligand (TX2-121-1) enhances inhibition of Her3-dependent signaling. Treatment of cells with TX2-121-1 results in partial degradation of Her3 and serendipitously interferes with productive heterodimerization between Her3 with either Her2 or c-Met. These results suggest that small molecules will be capable of perturbing the biological function of Her3 and ?60 other pseudokinases found in human cells.
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Therapeutic targeting of oncogenic k-ras by a covalent catalytic site inhibitor.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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We report the synthesis of a GDP analogue, SML-8-73-1, and a prodrug derivative, SML-10-70-1, which are selective, direct-acting covalent inhibitors of the K-Ras G12C mutant relative to wild-type Ras. Biochemical and biophysical measurements suggest that modification of K-Ras with SML-8-73-1 renders the protein in an inactive state. These first-in-class covalent K-Ras inhibitors demonstrate that irreversible targeting of the K-Ras guanine-nucleotide binding site is potentially a viable therapeutic strategy for inhibition of Ras signaling.
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Structural determinants for ERK5 (MAPK7) and leucine rich repeat kinase 2 activities of benzo[e]pyrimido-[5,4-b]diazepine-6(11H)-ones.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The benzo[e]pyrimido-[5,4-b]diazepine-6(11H)-one core was discovered as a novel ERK5 (also known as MAPK7 and BMK1) inhibitor scaffold, previously. Further structure-activity relationship studies of this scaffold led to the discovery of ERK5-IN-1 (26) as the most selective and potent ERK5 inhibitor reported to date. 26 potently inhibits ERK5 biochemically with an IC50 of 0.162 ± 0.006 ?M and in cells with a cellular EC50 for inhibiting epidermal growth factor induced ERK5 autophosphorylation of 0.09 ± 0.03 ?M. Furthermore, 26 displays excellent selectivity over other kinases with a KINOMEscan selectivity score (S10) of 0.007, and exhibits exceptional bioavailability (F%) of 90% in mice. 26 will serve as a valuable tool compound to investigate the ERK5 signaling pathway and as a starting point for developing an ERK5 directed therapeutic agent.
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Novel quinolinylaminoisoquinoline bioisosteres of sorafenib as selective RAF1 kinase inhibitors: design, synthesis, and antiproliferative activity against melanoma cell line.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Design and synthesis of a new series of quinolinylaminoisoquinoline derivatives as conformationally restricted bioisosteres of Sorafenib are described. Their in vitro antiproliferative activity against A375P melanoma cell line was tested. Compounds 1b, 1d, 1g, and 1j showed the highest potency against A375P cell line with IC50 values in sub-micromolar scale. In addition, compound 1d exerted high selectivity towards RAF1 serine/threonine kinase with 96.47% inhibition at 10?µM, and IC50 of 0.96?µM. This compound can possess antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells through inhibition of RAF1 kinase.
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Identification of methyl violet 2B as a novel blocker of focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway in cancer cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling cascade in cancer cells was profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B identified with the structure-based virtual screening. Methyl violet 2B was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of full-length FAK enzyme vs. ATP. It turned out that methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity in biochemical kinase profiling using a large panel of kinases. Anti-proliferative activity measurement against several different cancer cells and Western blot analysis showed that this substance is capable of suppressing significantly the proliferation of cancer cells and is able to strongly block FAK/AKT/MAPK signaling pathways in a dose dependent manner at low nanomolar concentration. Especially, phosphorylation of Tyr925-FAK that is required for full activation of FAK was nearly completely suppressed even with 1nM of methyl violet 2B in A375P cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, it has never been reported that methyl violet possesses anti-cancer effects. Moreover, methyl violet 2B significantly inhibited FER kinase phosphorylation that activates FAK in cell. In addition, methyl violet 2B was found to induce cell apoptosis and to exhibit strong inhibitory effects on the focal adhesion, invasion, and migration of A375P cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Taken together, these results show that methyl violet 2B is a novel, potent and selective blocker of FAK signaling cascade, which displays strong anti-proliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cells and suppresses adhesion/migration/invasion of tumor cells.
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Inverse agonist of nuclear receptor ERR? mediates antidiabetic effect through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive metabolic disorder with diverse pathological manifestations and is often associated with abnormal regulation of hepatic glucose production. Many nuclear receptors known to control the hepatic gluconeogenic program are potential targets for the treatment of T2DM and its complications. Nevertheless, the therapeutic potential of the estrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?) in T2DM remains unknown. In this study, we show that the nuclear receptor ERR? is a major contributor to hyperglycemia under diabetic conditions by controlling hepatic glucose production. Hepatic ERR? expression induced by fasting and diabetic conditions resulted in elevated levels of gluconeogenic gene expression and blood glucose in wild-type mice. Conversely, ablation of hepatic ERR? gene expression reduced the expression of gluconeogenic genes and normalized blood glucose levels in mouse models of T2DM: db/db and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. In addition, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study and long-term studies of the antidiabetic effects of GSK5182, the ERR?-specific inverse agonist, in db/db and DIO mice demonstrated that GSK5182 normalizes hyperglycemia mainly through inhibition of hepatic glucose production. Our findings suggest that the ability of GSK5182 to control hepatic glucose production can be used as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of T2DM.
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A new quantum dot-platinum conjugate for self-assembled nanoconjugates by coordination bonding mediated recognition.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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A new binding strategy of linking quantum dots (QDs) to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using DNA interaction with metal coordination bonding was developed. Platinum was selected for binding QDs to DNA. This novel self-assembled nanoconjugate would be a new probe for diagnosing a specific disease more accurately with its double modalities, fluorescence and magnetic property.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3,4-diaryl lactam derivatives as triple reuptake inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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A series of 3,4-diarylpyrrolidin-2-one was designed, prepared and evaluated as triple reuptake inhibitors for antidepressant. Most compounds exhibited comparable in vitro efficacy as norepinephrine and dopamine transporter reuptake inhibitors. Especially, 2i showed better potency than GBR-12909 (IC50=14 nM) which was used as reference compound for dopamine transporter. In addition, 2a and 2b showed inhibition (5.17 ?M-85.6 nM) for three transporters.
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New diarylamides and diarylureas possessing 8-amino(acetamido)quinoline scaffold: Synthesis, antiproliferative activities against melanoma cell lines, kinase inhibition, and in silico studies.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Synthesis of a new series of diarylureas and diarylamides possessing 4-aryl-8-amino(acetamido)quinoline scaffold is described. Their in vitro antiproliferative activities against ten melanoma cell lines were tested. Compounds 1l, 2l, 3c, and 4c showed the highest potency against A375P cell line with IC50 values in sub-micromolar scale. Compound 4c was equipotent to Vemurafenib against A375P. In addition, compounds 1l, 2a, and 2l showed high potency over the NCI-9 tested melanoma cell line panel. The IC50 values of compounds 1l and 2l were in 2-digit nanomolar scale over four and five cell lines, respectively. Compound 2l showed high, dose-dependent inhibition of ERK kinase. ADME profiling showed that compounds 1l, 2l, 3c, 4c, and 5b are estimated to be orally bioavailable.
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Discovery and optimization of potent and selective benzonaphthyridinone analogs as small molecule mTOR inhibitors with improved mouse microsome stability.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Starting from small molecule mTOR inhibitor Torin1, replacement of the piperazine ring with a phenyl ring resulted in a new series of mTOR inhibitors (as exemplified by 10) that showed superior potency and selectivity for mTOR, along with significantly improved mouse liver microsome stability and a longer in vivo half-life.
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Design, synthesis, and antiproliferative activity of new 1H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine derivatives against melanoma cell lines.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Synthesis of a new series of diarylureas and diarylamides having 1H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine scaffold is described. Their in vitro antiproliferative activity against A375P human melanoma cell line was tested and the effect of substituents on pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine nucleus was investigated. The newly synthesized compounds, except three N-tolyl derivatives (8f, 9f, and 9h), generally showed superior activity against A375P to Sorafenib. Among all of these derivatives, compounds 8b, 8g, and 9a-e showed the highest potency against A375P with IC(50) in nanomolar range. In addition, compounds 8d, 8e, 8h, 9g, 9i, and 9j were more potent than Sorafenib but with IC(50) in micromolar range. Compounds 8b, 8g, 9b-d, and 9i demonstrated higher selectivity towards A375P compared with NIH3T3 fibroblasts. The most potent diarylurea 8g and diarylamide 9d were further tested and showed high potency over nine melanoma cell lines at the NCI.
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Discovery of a benzo[e]pyrimido-[5,4-b][1,4]diazepin-6(11H)-one as a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Big MAP Kinase 1.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of a collection of 2-amino-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines followed by cellular structure-activity relationship-guided optimization resulted in the identification of moderately potent and selective inhibitors of BMK1/ERK5 exemplified by 11, 18, and 21. For example, 11 possesses a dissociation constant (K(d)) for BMK1 of 19 nM, a cellular IC(50) for inhibiting epidermal growth factor induced BMK1 autophosphorylation of 0.19 ± 0.04 ?M, and an Ambit KINOMEscan selectivity score (S(5)) of 0.035. Inhibitors 18 and 21 are also potent BMK1 inhibitors and possess favorable pharmacokinetic properties which enable their use as pharmacological probes of BMK1-dependent phenomena as well as starting points for further optimization efforts.
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Discovery of 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole Ureas as Potent Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibitors.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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A series of novel 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole benzyl ureas was identified as having potent anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibition exemplified by 15a, 20a, and 23a, which exhibited antiproliferative IC(50) values of 70, 40, and 20 nM in Tel-ALK transformed Ba/F3 cells, respectively. Moreover, 15a and 23a potently inhibited the growth and survival of NPM-ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell (SU-DHL-1) and neuroblastoma cell lines (KELLY, SH-SY5Y) containing the F1174L ALK mutation. These compounds provide novel leads for the development of small-molecule ALK inhibitors for cancer therapy.
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Structure based design and syntheses of amino-1H-pyrazole amide derivatives as selective Raf kinase inhibitors in melanoma cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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The synthesis of a novel series of N-(5-amino-1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl amide derivatives 6a-o, 7a-s and their antiproliferative activities against A375P melanoma cell line were described. Most compounds showed competitive antiproliferative activities to sorafenib, the reference standard. Among them, N-(5-amino-1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-(3-(4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) ureido)-2-methylbenzamide 7c exhibited potent activities (GI(50)=0.27 ?M). Especially, 7c was found to be a potent and selective B-Raf V600E and C-Raf inhibitor (IC(50)=0.26 ?M, IC(50)=0.11 ?M, respectively), showing a possibility as melanoma therapeutics.
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Chemical kinomics: a powerful strategy for target deconvolution.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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Kinomics is an emerging and promising approach for deciphering kinomes. Chemical kinomics is a discipline of chemical genomics that is also referred to as "chemogenomics", which is derived from chemistry and biology. Chemical kinomics has become a powerful approach to decipher complicated phosphorylation-based cellular signaling networks with the aid of small molecules that modulate kinase functions. Moreover, chemical kinomics has played a pivotal role in the field of kinase drug discovery as it enables identification of new molecular targets of small molecule kinase modulators and/or exploitation of novel functions of known kinases and has also provided novel chemical entities as hit/lead compounds. In this short review, contemporary chemical kinomics technologies such as activity-based protein profiling, T7 kinasetagged phages, kinobeads, three-hybrid systems, fluorescenttagged kinase binding assays, and chemical genomic profiling are discussed along with a novel allosteric Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor (GNF-2/GNF-5) as a successful application of chemical kinomics approaches.
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Discovery of 1-(4-(4-propionylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-9-(quinolin-3-yl)benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridin-2(1H)-one as a highly potent, selective mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor for the treatment of cancer.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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The mTOR protein is a master regulator of cell growth and proliferation, and inhibitors of its kinase activity have the potential to become new class of anticancer drugs. Starting from quinoline 1, which was identified in a biochemical mTOR assay, we developed a tricyclic benzonaphthyridinone inhibitor 37 (Torin1), which inhibited phosphorylation of mTORC1 and mTORC2 substrates in cells at concentrations of 2 and 10 nM, respectively. Moreover, Torin1 exhibits 1000-fold selectivity for mTOR over PI3K (EC(50) = 1800 nM) and exhibits 100-fold binding selectivity relative to 450 other protein kinases. Torin1 was efficacious at a dose of 20 mg/kg in a U87MG xenograft model and demonstrated good pharmacodynamic inhibition of downstream effectors of mTOR in tumor and peripheral tissues. These results demonstrate that Torin1 is a useful probe of mTOR-dependent phenomena and that benzonaphthridinones represent a promising scaffold for the further development of mTOR-specific inhibitors with the potential for clinical utility.
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Expanding the diversity of allosteric bcr-abl inhibitors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2010
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Inhibition of Bcr-Abl kinase activity by imatinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) currently serves as the paradigm for targeting dominant oncogenes with small molecules. We recently reported the discovery of GNF-2 (1) and GNF-5 (2) as selective non-ATP competitive inhibitors of cellular Bcr-Abl kinase activity that target the myristate binding site. Here, we used cell-based structure-activity relationships to guide the optimization and diversification of ligands that are capable of binding to the myristate binding site and rationalize the findings based upon an Abl-compound 1 cocrystal. We elucidate the structure-activity relationships required to obtain potent antiproliferative activity against Bcr-Abl transformed cells and report the discovery of new compounds (5g, 5h, 6a, 14d, and 21j-I) that display improved potency or pharmacological properties. This work demonstrates that a variety of structures can effectively target the Bcr-Abl myristate binding site and provides new leads for developing drugs that can target this binding site.
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A type-II kinase inhibitor capable of inhibiting the T315I "gatekeeper" mutant of Bcr-Abl.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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The second generation of Bcr-Abl inhibitors nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib developed to override imatinib resistance are not active against the T315I "gatekeeper" mutation. Here we describe a type-II T315I inhibitor 2 (GNF-7), based upon a 3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one scaffold which is capable of potently inhibiting wild-type and T315I Bcr-Abl as well as other clinically relevant Bcr-Abl mutants such as G250E, Q252H, Y253H, E255K, E255V, F317L, and M351T in biochemical and cellular assays. In addition, compound 2 displayed significant in vivo efficacy against T315I-Bcr-Abl without appreciable toxicity in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model using a transformed T315I-Bcr-Abl-Ba/F3 cell line that has a stable luciferase expression. Compound 2 is among the first type-II inhibitors capable of inhibiting T315I to be described and will serve as a valuable lead to design the third generation Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitors.
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Discovery of a small-molecule type II inhibitor of wild-type and gatekeeper mutants of BCR-ABL, PDGFRalpha, Kit, and Src kinases: novel type II inhibitor of gatekeeper mutants.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Many clinically validated kinases, such as BCR-ABL, c-Kit, PDGFR, and EGFR, become resistant to adenosine triphosphate-competitive inhibitors through mutation of the so-called gatekeeper amino acid from a threonine to a large hydrophobic amino acid, such as an isoleucine or methionine. We have developed a new class of adenosine triphosphate competitive inhibitors, exemplified by HG-7-85-01, which is capable of inhibiting T315I- BCR-ABL (clinically observed in chronic myeloid leukemia), T670I-c-Kit (clinically observed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors), and T674I/M-PDGFRalpha (clinically observed in hypereosinophilic syndrome). HG-7-85-01 is unique among all currently reported kinase inhibitors in having the ability to accommodate either a gatekeeper threonine, present in the wild-type forms of these kinases, or a large hydrophobic amino acid without becoming a promiscuous kinase inhibitor. The distinctive ability of HG-7-85-01 to simultaneously inhibit both wild-type and mutant forms of several kinases of clinical relevance is an important step in the development of the next generation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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Small-molecule kinase inhibitors provide insight into Mps1 cell cycle function.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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Mps1, a dual-specificity kinase, is required for the proper functioning of the spindle assembly checkpoint and for the maintenance of chromosomal stability. As Mps1 function has been implicated in numerous phases of the cell cycle, the development of a potent, selective small-molecule inhibitor of Mps1 should facilitate dissection of Mps1-related biology. We describe the cellular effects and Mps1 cocrystal structures of new, selective small-molecule inhibitors of Mps1. Consistent with RNAi studies, chemical inhibition of Mps1 leads to defects in Mad1 and Mad2 establishment at unattached kinetochores, decreased Aurora B kinase activity, premature mitotic exit and gross aneuploidy, without any evidence of centrosome duplication defects. However, in U2OS cells having extra centrosomes (an abnormality found in some cancers), Mps1 inhibition increases the frequency of multipolar mitoses. Lastly, Mps1 inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease in cancer cell viability.
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1,4-dihydropyrazolo[4,3-d]imidazole phenyl derivatives: a novel type II Raf kinase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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The synthesis of a novel series of 1,4-dihydropyrazolo[4,3-d]imidazole phenyl derivatives 1a-b, 2a-v and their antiproliferative activities against A375P and WM3629 human melanoma cell line were described. Most compounds showed competitive antiproliferative activities to sorafenib, the reference standard. Among them, pyrazoloimidazole phenyl urea compounds 2a, 2d, 2g, 2i, 2t exhibited potent activities on WM3629 cell lines (IC(50)=0.56-0.86 microM). Especially, 2t was found to be a potent and selective C-Raf inhibitor, showing a possibility as melanoma therapeutics.
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Targeting Bcr-Abl by combining allosteric with ATP-binding-site inhibitors.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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In an effort to find new pharmacological modalities to overcome resistance to ATP-binding-site inhibitors of Bcr-Abl, we recently reported the discovery of GNF-2, a selective allosteric Bcr-Abl inhibitor. Here, using solution NMR, X-ray crystallography, mutagenesis and hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry, we show that GNF-2 binds to the myristate-binding site of Abl, leading to changes in the structural dynamics of the ATP-binding site. GNF-5, an analogue of GNF-2 with improved pharmacokinetic properties, when used in combination with the ATP-competitive inhibitors imatinib or nilotinib, suppressed the emergence of resistance mutations in vitro, displayed additive inhibitory activity in biochemical and cellular assays against T315I mutant human Bcr-Abl and displayed in vivo efficacy against this recalcitrant mutant in a murine bone-marrow transplantation model. These results show that therapeutically relevant inhibition of Bcr-Abl activity can be achieved with inhibitors that bind to the myristate-binding site and that combining allosteric and ATP-competitive inhibitors can overcome resistance to either agent alone.
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Discovery and initial SAR of pyrimidin-4-yl-1H-imidazole derivatives with antiproliferative activity against melanoma cell lines.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The synthesis of a novel series of pyrimidin-4-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl derivatives 7, 8, 9 and their antiproliferative activities against A375P human melanoma cell line and WM3629 cell line were described. Most compounds showed superior antiproliferative activities compared to Sorafenib, the well-known RAF inhibitor. Among them, 7a exhibited potent activities on both cell lines (IC(50)=0.62 and 4.49muM, respectively) and turned out to be a selective and potent CRAF inhibitor.
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Discovery of pyrimidine benzimidazoles as Src-family selective Lck inhibitors. Part II.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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A series of 4-amino-6-benzimidazole-pyrimidines was designed to target lymphocyte-specific tyrosine kinase (Lck), a member of the Src-family kinases (SFKs). These type II inhibitors were optimized using a cellular Lck-dependent proliferation assay and are capable of inhibiting Lck at single-digit nanomolar concentrations. This scaffold is likely to serve a valuable template for developing potent inhibitors of a number of SFKs.
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N-myristoylated c-Abl tyrosine kinase localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum upon binding to an allosteric inhibitor.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Allosteric kinase inhibitors hold promise for revealing unique features of kinases that may not be apparent using conventional ATP-competitive inhibitors. Here we explore the activity of a previously reported allosteric inhibitor of BCR-Abl kinase, GNF-2, against two cellular isoforms of Abl tyrosine kinase: one that carries a myristate in the N terminus and the other that is deficient in N-myristoylation. Our results show that GNF-2 inhibits the kinase activity of non-myristoylated c-Abl more potently than that of myristoylated c-Abl by binding to the myristate-binding pocket in the C-lobe of the kinase domain. Unexpectedly, indirect immunofluorescence reveals a translocation of myristoylated c-Abl to the endoplasmic reticulum in GNF-2-treated cells, whereas GNF-2 has no detectable effect on the localization of non-myristoylated c-Abl. These results indicate that GNF-2 competes with the NH(2)-terminal myristate for binding to the c-Abl kinase myristate-binding pocket and that the exposed myristoyl group accounts for the localization to the endoplasmic reticulum. We also demonstrate that GNF-2 can inhibit enzymatic and cellular kinase activity of Arg, a kinase highly homologous to c-Abl, which is also likely to be regulated through intramolecular binding of an NH(2)-terminal myristate lipid. These results suggest that non-ATP-competitive inhibitors, such as GNF-2, can serve as chemical tools that can discriminate between c-Abl isoform-specific behaviors.
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An ATP-competitive mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor reveals rapamycin-resistant functions of mTORC1.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is the catalytic subunit of two functionally distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that coordinately promote cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Rapamycin is a potent allosteric mTORC1 inhibitor with clinical applications as an immunosuppressant and anti-cancer agent. Here we find that Torin1, a highly potent and selective ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor that directly inhibits both complexes, impairs cell growth and proliferation to a far greater degree than rapamycin. Surprisingly, these effects are independent of mTORC2 inhibition and are instead because of suppression of rapamycin-resistant functions of mTORC1 that are necessary for cap-dependent translation and suppression of autophagy. These effects are at least partly mediated by mTORC1-dependent and rapamycin-resistant phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. Our findings challenge the assumption that rapamycin completely inhibits mTORC1 and indicate that direct inhibitors of mTORC1 kinase activity may be more successful than rapamycin at inhibiting tumors that depend on mTORC1.
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Structure assignment of lucentamycin E and revision of the olefin geometries of the marine-derived lucentamycins.
J. Nat. Prod.
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A new lucentamycin analogue, lucentamycin E (5), was isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Nocardiopsis lucentensis, strain CNR-712. The absolute stereostructure of 5 was assigned by comprehensive analyses of NMR data and by application of the advanced Marfeys method. The planar structure of 5 was analogous to lucentamycins A-D, whereas the olefin geometry of the 3-methyl-4-ethylideneproline moiety was found to be E, opposite of that previously reported. Consequently, a reinvestigation of the olefin geometries of the 3-methyl-4-ethylideneproline residues of lucentamycins A-D showed that the olefin geometries of the substituted proline functionalities must be revised to (2S,3R,E)-3-methyl-4-ethylideneproline.
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Development of DFG-out inhibitors of gatekeeper mutant kinases.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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HG-7-85-01(22) and HG-7-86-01(26) are thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine containing type II tyrosine kinase inhibitors with potent cellular activity against both wild-type and gatekeeper mutant T315I- Bcr-Abl. Here we report on the hybrid design concept and subsequent structure activity guided optimization efforts that resulted in the development of these inhibitors.
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Design, synthesis, and antiproliferative activity of new 1H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine derivatives against melanoma cell lines. Part 2.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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A new series of diarylureas and diarylamides possessing 1H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine scaffold was designed and synthesized. Their in vitro antiproliferative activities against A375P human melanoma cell line and NCI-9 human melanoma cell line panel were tested. All the target compounds, except three amino derivatives 8g, h and 9h, demonstrated superior potencies against A375P to Sorafenib. In addition, compounds 8a and 9b-f demonstrated higher potencies than Vemurafenib against A375P. Compounds 8c and 9b were 7.50 and 454.90 times, respectively, more selective towards A375P melanoma cells over NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Furthermore, compounds 8d, e and 9a-d, f demonstrated very high potencies against the nine tested melanoma cell lines at the NCI. The bisamide derivatives 9a-c, f showed 2-digit nanomolar IC(50) values over different cell lines of the NCI-9 melanoma cell lines.
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Novel small molecule Raf kinase inhibitors for targeted cancer therapeutics.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
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Aberrant activation of Raf signaling pathway is frequently found in various human tumors, it has been considered as distinct and promising molecular target for cancer therapeutics. B-Raf is most attractive drug target out of three Raf isoforms (A-Raf, B-Raf and C-Raf) because it exhibits high kinase activity due to frequent mutations in human tumors. However, most recently, it has been reported that Raf isoforms show the cross-activation in the presence of specific B-Raf inhibitors, which brings about the paradoxical p-ERK activation as well as tumor promoting effect. According to these findings, it remains controversy whether pan-Raf kinase inhibitor is more valuable and promising rather than specific B-Raf inhibitor under certain conditions in terms of cancer therapeutics. In this short review, novel Raf kinase inhibitors undergoing clinical investigation are introduced. Moreover, the paradoxical p-ERK activation is discussed with specific B-Raf inhibitors, PLX4032/4720 compounds.
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New diarylureas and diarylamides possessing acet(benz)amidophenyl scaffold: design, synthesis, and antiproliferative activity against melanoma cell line.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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A series of new diarylurea and diarylamide derivatives possessing acet(benz)amidophenyl scaffold was synthesized. Their in vitro antiproliferative activity was tested against A375P human melanoma cell line. Compounds 1c,d and 2c,d showed the highest potencies with IC(50) values in sub-micromolar scale. In addition, compounds 1b,e,l and 2e,l were more potent than Sorafenib but with IC(50) values in micromolar range. Moreover, compound 2c was equipotent to Vemurafenib, and 2d showed higher potency than Vemurafenib against A375P. Molar refractometry calculation and ADME profiling of the highest potent four derivatives 1c,d and 2c,d are also reported.
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Discovery of potent and selective covalent inhibitors of JNK.
Chem. Biol.
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The mitogen-activated kinases JNK1/2/3 are key enzymes in signaling modules that transduce and integrate extracellular stimuli into coordinated cellular response. Here, we report the discovery of irreversible inhibitors of JNK1/2/3. We describe two JNK3 cocrystal structures at 2.60 and 2.97 Å resolution that show the compounds form covalent bonds with a conserved cysteine residue. JNK-IN-8 is a selective JNK inhibitor that inhibits phosphorylation of c-Jun, a direct substrate of JNK, in cells exposed to submicromolar drug in a manner that depends on covalent modification of the conserved cysteine residue. Extensive biochemical, cellular, and pathway-based profiling establish the selectivity of JNK-IN-8 for JNK and suggests that the compound will be broadly useful as a pharmacological probe of JNK-dependent signal transduction. Potential lead compounds have also been identified for kinases, including IRAK1, PIK3C3, PIP4K2C, and PIP5K3.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.