The aim of this study was to estimate the serum levels of surfactant protein D (SP-D), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to assess the correlation of these indices with COPD severity.
In developed countries, prostate cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer in men. Unfortunately, whilst accumulating clinical data have suggested that taxanes may prolong the survival in a subset of men with prostate carcinoma, the dose and duration of administration of these drugs are limited by their significant systemic toxicities due to a lack of tumour selectivity. In an attempt to improve both the water solubility and tumour-targeting properties of paclitaxel (Taxol®), we set out to develop a water soluble paclitaxel prodrug that is activated specifically by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which is almost exclusively expressed in prostate tissue and prostate carcinoma making it an ideal molecular target for prodrug strategies. Using albumin as a drug carrier, we describe a novel albumin-binding prodrug of paclitaxel, EMC-Arg-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Ser-Leu-PABC-paclitaxel [EMC: ?-maleimidocaproyl; PABC: p-aminobenzyloxycarbonyl] that was synthesised by reacting EMC-Arg-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Ser-OH with H-Leu-PABC-paclitaxel. This prodrug was water soluble and was bound to endogenous and exogenous albumin. Moreover, incubation studies with PSA demonstrated that the albumin-bound form of the prodrug was cleaved rapidly at the P1-P1 scissile bond releasing the paclitaxel-dipeptide H-Ser-Leu-PABC-paclitaxel. Last but not least, due to the incorporation of a PABC self-eliminating linker, this dipeptide was rapidly degraded to liberate paclitaxel as a final cleavage product within a few hours in prostate tumour tissue homogenates. Of note was that the albumin-bound form of the prodrug was approximately three-fold more active in killing PSA-positive LNCaP cells than paclitaxel. In addition, orientating toxicity studies in mice showed that the maximum tolerated dose of the novel paclitaxel prodrug was twice that of conventional paclitaxel. When tested in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of human prostate cancer using luciferase-transduced LNCaP LLN cells, both paclitaxel and the new paclitaxel prodrug showed distinct antitumour efficacy on the primary tumour and metastases that was significantly better than the effect of doxorubicin which was used as a comparison and showed no antitumour efficacy. The new paclitaxel prodrug (3 × 24 mg paclitaxel equivalents) showed comparable antitumour activity on the primary tumour to paclitaxel at its maximum-tolerated dose (3 × 12mg/kg), reduced circulating PSA levels and demonstrated a better antitumour effect on lung metastases but not on bone metastases.
Central adiposity is a significant determinant of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the pathogenic inflammatory nature of the abdominal fat depot. However, the influence of pro-inflammatory adipokines on blood pressure in the obese hypertensive phenotype has not been well established in Saudi subjects. As such, our study investigated whether inflammatory factors may represent useful biomarkers to delineate hypertension risk in a Saudi cohort with and without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). Subjects were subdivided into four groups: healthy lean controls (age: 47.9±5.1 yr; BMI: 22.9±2.1 Kg/m(2)), non-hypertensive obese (age: 46.1±5.0 yr; BMI: 33.7±4.2 Kg/m(2)), hypertensive obese (age: 48.6±6.1 yr; BMI: 36.5±7.7 Kg/m(2)) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (age: 50.8±6.0 yr; BMI: 35.3±6.7 Kg/m(2)). Anthropometric data were collected from all subjects and fasting blood samples were utilized for biochemical analysis. Serum angiotensin II (ANG II) levels were elevated in hypertensive obese (p<0.05) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (p<0.001) compared with normotensive controls. Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with BMI (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.05), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), leptin (p<0.01), TNF-? (p<0.001) and ANG II (p<0.05). Associations between ANG II and TNF-? with systolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for BMI. Additionally CRP (p<0.05), leptin (p<0.001) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) were also significantly associated with the hypertension phenotype. In conclusion our data suggests that circulating pro-inflammatory adipokines, particularly ANG II and, TNF-?, represent important factors associated with a hypertension phenotype and may directly contribute to predicting and exacerbating hypertension risk.
Thermal tissue injury is partly mediated by reactive oxygen metabolites. Oxygen free radicals are contributory to local tissue damage following thermal injury and accordingly an interventional therapy using antioxidants may be beneficial. Copper nicotinate complex can scavenge reactive oxygen species (i.e., has antioxidant activity).
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