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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Trends in Unintentional Fall Related Traumatic Brain Injury Death Rates in Older Adults in the United States, 1980-2010: A Joinpoint Analysis.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Abstract Fall-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) death rate is high in older adults in the United States, but little is known regarding trends of these death rates. We sought to examine fall-related TBI death rates by age and sex in older adults from 1980 through 2010 in the United States. We used multiple-cause mortality data from 1980 through 2010 (31 years of data) to identify fall-related TBI deaths. Using a joinpoint regression program, we determined the joinpoints (years at which trends change significantly) and annual percentage changes (APCs) in mortality trends. The fall-related TBI death rates (deaths per 100,000 population) in older adults aged 65-74, 75-84, and 85 years and above were 2.7, 9.2 and 21.5 for women; and 8.5, 18.2 and 40.8 for men, respectively, in 1980. The rate was about the same in 1992 yet increased markedly to 5.9, 23.4 and 68.9 for women; and 11.6, 41.2 and 112.4 for men, respectively, in 2010. For men all aged 65 years old and above, we found the first joinpoint in 1992, when the APC for 1980 through 1992, -0.8%, changed to 6.2% for 1992 to 2005. The second joinpoint occurred in 2005, when the APC decreased to 3.7% for 2005 to 2010. For all women aged 65 years old and above, the first joinpoint was in 1993 when the APC for 1980 through 1993, -0.2%, changed to 7.6% from 1993 to 2005. The second joinpoint occurred in 2005 when the APC decreased to 3.8% for 2005 to 2010. This descriptive epidemiological study suggests increasing fall-related TBI death rates from 1992 to 2005 and then a slowdown of increasing trends between 2005 and 2010. Continued monitoring of fall-related TBI death rate trends is needed to determine the burden of this public health problem among older adults in the United States.
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Trends in reporting injury as a cause of death among people with epilepsy in the U.S., 1981-2010.
Seizure
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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To examine trends in reporting injury as a cause of death among people with epilepsy in the U.S. during the past three decades.
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Selective cerebral hypothermia induced via hypothermic retrograde jugular vein saline flush in a porcine model.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Multiple methods of selective brain cooling have been used to prevent cerebral ischemia secondary to trauma and pathological or iatrogenic cerebral blood flow restriction. In this study, we tested the efficacy of hypothermic retrograde jugular vein flush (HRJVF) in eliciting selective brain hypothermia in a porcine model.
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Differential anti-diabetic effects and mechanism of action of charantin-rich extract of Taiwanese Momordica charantia between type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), also called bitter melon, has traditionally been used as a natural anti-diabetic agent for anti-hyperglycemic activity in several animal models and clinical trials. We investigated the differences in the anti-diabetic properties and mechanism of action of Taiwanese M. charantia (MC) between type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. To clarify the beneficial effects of MC, we measured non-fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin levels in KK/HIJ mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes (200 mg/kg/day of charantin-rich extract of MC [CEMC]) and in ICR mice with STZ-induced diabetes. After 8 weeks, all the mice were exsanguinated, and the expression of the insulin-signaling-associated proteins in their tissue was evaluated, in coordination with the protective effects of CEMC against pancreatic ?-cell toxicity (in vitro). Eight weeks of data indicated that CEMC caused a significant decline in non-fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in the KK/HIJ mice, but not in the ICR mice. Furthermore, CEMC decreased plasma insulin and promoted the sensitivity of insulin by increasing the expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle and of IRS-1 in the liver of KK/HIJ mice; however, CEMC extract had no effect on the insulin sensitivity of ICR mice. In vitro study showed that CEMC prevented pancreatic ? cells from high-glucose-induced cytotoxicity after 24 h of incubation, but the protective effect was not detectable after 72 h. Collectively, the hypoglycemic effects of CEMC suggest that it has potential for increasing insulin sensitivity in patients with T2D rather than for protecting patients with T1D against ?-cell dysfunction.
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Possible effect of implementing a national query program on site-specific cancer mortality rates in Taiwan.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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This study aimed to examine possible effects of implementing a national query program on site-specific cancer mortality rates.
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Epidemiology of treated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We used insurance claims of a nationally representative population-based cohort to assess the longitudinal treated prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults.
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Reporting of aspiration pneumonia or choking as a cause of death in patients who died with stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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It is not known how many stroke patients die from fatal pulmonary complications such as aspiration pneumonia (AP) and choking each year in the United States. This study aimed to determine the frequency of reporting of AP or choking as a cause of death on death certificates with mention of stroke in the United States as a proxy measure of the incidence of dying from AP or choking among patients with stroke.
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Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with atherosclerotic stroke: a prospective cohort study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on initial stroke severity and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke.
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Atherosclerosis induced by arsenic in drinking water in rats through altering lipid metabolism.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure is still unclear. To study the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure and explore the role of high cholesterol diet (HCD) in this process, we fed spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats with basal diet or HCD and provided with them drinking water containing arsenic at different ages and orders for 20 consecutive weeks. We measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at predetermined intervals and determined expressions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-1 (CETP-1) and liver X receptor ? (LXR?) in the liver. Atherosclerosis was determined by examining the aorta with hematoxylin and eosin stain. After 20 weeks, we found arsenic, alone or combined with HCD, may promote atherosclerosis formation with transient increases in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. Early combination exposure decreased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio without changing the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride until 30 weeks old. Both CETP-1 and LXR? activities were suppressed, most significantly in early combination exposure. In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism and suppressing LXR? and CEPT-1 expressions. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element.
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Macrophage mediated anti-proliferation effects of Anthodia camphorata non-polysaccharide based extracts on human hepatoma cells.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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It has been reported that medicinal mushrooms might induce different types of immune responses. Anthodia camphorata (A. camphorata) has attracted much attention for its therapeutic effects in treating hepatoma. We tested this anti-tumor effects using immunomodulation of macrophages and extracts of A. camphorata. We evaluated the anti-proliferation effects of various extracts of A. camphorata from fruiting bodies (AC-FB), mycelium of solid-state cultures (AC-SS), liquid-state cultures (AC-LS) and polyaccharide extracts from liquid-state cultures (AC-PS), and extracts of A. camphorata stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cell-conditioned mediums (MC-CMs). We measured cell proliferation and, did migration assays by cell cycle analysis and by observing apoptosis-related proteins (AKT, PARP-1, and NF-?B) and the mRNA expression of cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) of macrophages in human hepatoma cell lines. Our results revealed that two of the extracts (AC-FB and AC-SS) had better anti-proliferation effects, implying an immunomodulatory role the macrophages might play. This outcome is consistent with findings that AC-FB and AC-SS increase mRNA expression of TNF-? and the corresponding expression of apoptosis-related proteins on activation of MC-CMs, while A. camphorata polysaccharides induce macrophage-derived anti-tumor activities in human hepatoma cells via IL-1? and Akt activation. These results indicate that anti-tumor effects exerted by modulation of macrophage activation of A. camphorate may be influenced by the other constituents which (contained little or no polysaccharide) of A. camphorata.
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Lateral medullary infarction presenting as Brown-Séquard syndrome-like manifestation: a case report and literature review.
Acta Neurol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Lateral medullary infarction is not uncommon in clinical practice of neurology. This report describes a patient who initially presented with Brown-Séquard syndrome-like manifestation but was later diagnosed with acute infarction in the left lower lateral medulla.
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The association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and cerebrovascular disease mortality in Taiwan.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
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Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetes. However, its association with cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) has not yet been resolved. The aim of this study is to explore this association in Taiwan using nation-wide data.
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A potential role for Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 in gastric tumorigenesis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Helicobacter pylori has been found to promote the malignant process leading to gastric cancer. Heat shock protein 60 of H. pylori (HpHSP60) was previously been identified as a potent immunogene. This study investigates the role of HpHSP60 in gastric cancer carcinogenesis. The effect of HpHSP60 on cell proliferation, anti-death activity, angiogenesis and cell migration were explored. The results showed that HpHSP60 enhanced migration by gastric cancer cells and promoted tube formation by umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); however, HpHSP60 did not increase cell proliferation nor was this protein able to rescue gastric cancer cells from death. Moreover, the results also indicated HpHSP60 had different effects on AGS gastric cancer cells or THP-1 monocytic cells in terms of their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important to cancer development. We propose that HpHSP60 may trigger the initiation of carcinogenesis by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine release and by promoting angiogenesis and metastasis. Thus, this extracellular pathogen-derived HSP60 is potentially a vigorous virulence factor that can act as a carcinogen during gastric tumorigenesis.
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Using laser-induced acoustic desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to characterize small organic and large biological compounds in the solid state and in solution under ambient conditions.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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We have coupled laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (LIAD/ESI/MS) to characterize molecules in the solid state and in solution under ambient conditions. To perform an LIAD/ESI analysis, the sample droplet is deposited on the surface of a thin aluminum foil by a micropipette; the rear side of the foil with the sample spot is then irradiated with a pulse from a Nd:YAG IR laser. The resulting shockwave and heat cause the sample on the rear side to change from the condensed phase to the gas phase. The desorbed species then move upward to enter an ESI plume to react with charged solvent species (methanol- and water-related ions and droplets), forming singly or multiply charged analyte ions. A quadrupole/time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass analyzer attached to the LIAD/ESI source detects the analyte ions to obtain an ESI-like mass spectrum. Both small organic and large biological compounds (including amino acids, peptides, and proteins) were successfully ionized and detected by the LIAD/ESI/MS system. Although native and denatured myoglobin ions were both detected from a liquid sample solution, only the denatured myoglobin ions were detected from a dried sample.
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Risk of carotid atherosclerosis is associated with low serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity among arsenic exposed residents in Southwestern Taiwan.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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To understand whether human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) would modulate the risk for arsenic-related atherosclerosis, we studied 196 residents from an arseniasis-endemic area in Southwestern Taiwan and 291 age- and sex-matched residents from a nearby control area where arsenic exposure was found low. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by a carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT) of >1.0 mm. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was increased in the arseniasis-endemic area as compared to the control area after adjustment for conventional risk factors (OR=2.20, p<0.01). The prevalence was positively associated with cumulative arsenic exposure (mg/L-year) in a dose-dependent manner. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in the endemic group, low serum PON1 activity was an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (OR=4.18 low vs. high, p<0.05). For those of low PON1 activity and high cumulative arsenic exposure, the odds ratio for the prevalence of atherosclerosis was further increased up to 5.68 (p<0.05). No significant association was found between atherosclerosis and four polymorphisms of the PON gene cluster (PON1 -108C/T, PON1 Q192R, PON2 A148G, PON2 C311S). However, genetic frequencies of certain alleles including PON1 Q192, PON2 G148 and PON2 C311 were found increased in the endemic group as compared to the controls and a general Chinese population, indicating a possible survival selection in the endemic group after a long arsenic exposure history. Our results showed a significant joint effect between arsenic exposure and serum PON1 activity on carotid atherosclerosis, suggesting that subjects of low PON1 activity may be more susceptible to arsenic-related cardiovascular disease.
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[Guideline of neuropathic pain treatment and dilemma from neurological point of view].
Acta Neurol Taiwan
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Neuropathic pain is a complicated symptomatic disease as migraine in recent years. Not because the pain character differed from the nociceptive inflammatory symptoms but because of its complexity of mechanisms. Though peripheral sensitization, ectopic discharge, central sensitization, central re-organization and loss of inhibition play part of roles in mechanisms, however, based on this mechanistic treatment, the outcome still disappointed physicians and patients, exampled as central post-stroke central pain (CPSP). The pain reduction is far less than the expectation from patients and physicians under-treatment frequently occur due to the fear of adverse effects or off-label use of these anti-neuropathic pain drugs. Therefore, a multidisciplinary procedure including non-pharmacological management, rehabilitation program, careful explanation, stepwise pain reduction, daily diary record, and tailored individual planning for medications are helpful in treating this kind of sufferers. Pharmacological treatment is the mainstream in post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP), central post-stroke pain (CPSP), trigeminal neuralgia (TN), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), cancer pain, failed back syndrome etc, while polypharmacy is still the major prescriptions facing such kind of miserable patients. The tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA), voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers, selective non-epinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), opioid or morphine etc, are still evidence-based medicines (EBM) but with different outcome for individuals. Acupuncture is to some extend effective in Taiwanese people with perceived evidence or placebo. The Taiwan guidance for total pain management and review of EBM in treating neuropathic pain from neurological point of view will be introduced in this manuscript.
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State differences in the reporting of unspecified stroke on death certificates: implications for improvement.
Stroke
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Little is known about the comparability of stroke subtype mortality across states. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to examine state differences in the reporting of "unspecified stroke" on death certificates in the United States.
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Reporting of incorrect cause-of-death causal sequence on death certificates in the USA: using hypertension and diabetes as an educational illustration.
Postgrad Med J
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Little is known about the extent of reporting an incorrect cause-of-death (COD) causal sequence on death certificates.
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Improper cause-of-death statements by specialty of certifying physician: a cross-sectional study in two medical centres in Taiwan.
BMJ Open
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To determine the frequency of various types of improper cause-of-death (COD) statements reported on death certificates and whether the frequency differed by specialty of the certifying physician.
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State differences in the reporting of diabetes-related incorrect cause-of-death causal sequences on death certificates.
Diabetes Care
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To examine state differences in the reporting of diabetes-related incorrect cause-of-death (COD) causal sequences on death certificates in the U.S.
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