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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Low serum bilirubin concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. It is very important to identify the factors that affect CKD. Previous studies have reported that serum bilirubin concentration was positively correlated with renal function in a cross-sectional study. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and the progression of CKD.
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Effect of repaglinide versus glimepiride on daily blood glucose variability and changes in blood inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hemoglobin A1c is the main treatment target for patients with type 2 diabetes. It has also been shown recently that postprandial glucose and daily glucose fluctuations affect the progression of diabetic complications and atherosclerotic damages.
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Morning pulse pressure is associated more strongly with elevated albuminuria than systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Recently, focus has been directed toward pulse pressure as a potentially independent risk factor for micro- and macrovascular disease. This study was designed to examine the relationship between pulse pressure taken at home and elevated albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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LOX-1 is a novel marker for peripheral artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1), which mediates initiation and progression of atherosclerosis in endothelial cells, could be a novel marker for peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Testosterone deficiency induces markedly decreased serum triglycerides, increased small dense LDL, and hepatic steatosis mediated by dysregulation of lipid assembly and secretion in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Although low serum testosterone (T) is associated with metabolic disorders, the mechanism of this association is unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of T deficiency and a high-fat diet (HFD) on hepatic lipid homeostasis in mice.
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Lepr(db/db) Mice with senescence marker protein-30 knockout (Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-)) exhibit increases in small dense-LDL and severe fatty liver despite being fed a standard diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is a 34 kDa protein originally identified in rat liver that shows decreased levels with age. Several functional studies using SMP30 knockout (Smp30(Y/-) ) mice established that SMP30 functions as an antioxidant and protects against apoptosis. To address the potential role of SMP30 in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis, we established Smp30(Y/-) mice on a Lepr(db/db) background (Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice). RESEARCH DESIGN/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice were fed a standard diet (340 kcal/100 g, fat 5.6%) for 16 weeks whereupon the lipid/lipoprotein profiles, hepatic expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were analyzed by HPLC, quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Changes in the liver at a histological level were also investigated. The amount of SMP30 mRNA and protein in livers was decreased in Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/+) mice compared with Lepr(db/+)Smp30(Y/+) mice. Compared with Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/+) mice, 24 week old Lepr(db/db)Smp30(Y/-) mice showed: i) increased small dense LDL-cho and decreased HDL-cho levels; ii) fatty liver accompanied by numerous inflammatory cells and increased oxidative stress; iii) decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (PPAR?) and lipoprotein uptake (LDLR and VLDLR) but increased CD36 levels; and iv) increased endoplasmic reticulum stress.
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17?-Estradiol attenuates saturated fatty acid diet-induced liver injury in ovariectomized mice by up-regulating hepatic senescence marker protein-30.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) plays an important role in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of estrogens on liver apoptotic damage and changes in SMP30 expression induced by a high saturated fatty acid diet (HSFD). Ovariectomized mice (OVX) and sham-operated mice (SHAM) were randomly divided into five groups: SHAM fed a normal diet (SHAM/ND), SHAM fed HSFD (SHAM/HSFD), OVX fed ND (OVX/ND), OVX fed HSFD (OVX/HSFD) and OVX fed HSFD with 17?-estradiol (E2) supplementation using an implanted slow-release pellet (OVX/HSFD+E2). After 8 weeks, markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF? and SMP30 expression were investigated. Compared with SHAM/ND, OVX/HSFD mice showed significantly increased spliced X-box protein-1 (s-XBP1), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2? (p-eIF2?), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GPR78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cytosolic cytochrome c, caspase-3 activity, and TNF?, and significantly decreased SMP30. These differences in OVX/HSFD mice were restored to the levels of SHAM/ND mice by E2 supplementation. These results suggest that E2 supplementation attenuates HSFD-induced liver apoptotic death in ovariectomized mice by up-regulating SMP30.
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The coefficient variation of home blood pressure is a novel factor associated with macroalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between day-by-day variability in home blood pressure (HBP) on 14 consecutive days and macroalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the coefficient of variation (CV) of HBP in 858 Japanese patients with and without macroalbuminuria. Next, we analyzed the relationship between the logarithm of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and the CV of HBP using linear regression analysis. Then, we evaluated the association between the CV of HBP and macroalbuminuria, defined as UAE ?300?mg?g(-1) creatinine, using logistic regression analysis. The CVs of morning and evening systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly greater in patients with macroalbuminuria than in those without (8.08±3.35 vs. 7.19±2.25%, P<0.05 and 9.01±3.58 vs. 7.98±2.57%, P<0.05, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that the CVs of morning SBP (P<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P<0.05), and those of evening SBP (P<0.05) were the independent explanatory variables for the logarithm of UAE. Multivariate logistic regression analyses also demonstrated that the odds ratio for the CVs of morning SBP, morning DBP and evening SBP for macroalbuminuria were 1.35 (P<0.05), 1.29 (P<0.05) and 1.44 (P<0.05), respectively. We conclude that the CV of HBP is correlated with macroalbuminuria, independent of the known risk factors, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Five-item version of the international index of erectile function correlated with albuminuria and subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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There is increasing evidence of a strong link between erectile dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score and albuminuria as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes.
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Visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure is correlated with diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Recent studies make remarks on the effect of variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the variability in SBP and the degree of diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Risk factors for development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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We investigated the risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia simultaneously in a community-based observational cohort study (n=4304). When hypertension or dyslipidemia was present at baseline, hazard ratio (95% CI) of developing diabetes mellitus at year 5 is 3.014 (2.131-4.264) or 2.112 (1.520-2.936), respectively.
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Pancreatic insulin release in vitamin C-deficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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We recently identified senescence marker protein-30 as the lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme gluconolactonase, which is involved in vitamin C biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C on insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells using senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, vitamin C-deficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance with significantly lower blood insulin levels at 30 and 120 min post-challenge than in wild type mice (p<0.01-0.05). In contrast, vitamin C-sufficient senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice demonstrated significantly higher blood glucose and lower insulin only at the 30 min post-challenge time point (p<0.05). Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice showed enhanced insulin sensitivity regardless of vitamin C status. Static incubation of islets revealed that 20 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet ATP production were significantly decreased at 60 min only in vitamin C-deficient SMP30/GNL knockout mice relative to wild type mice (p<0.05). These results indicate that the site of vitamin C action lies between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, while SMP30 deficiency itself impairs the distal portion of insulin secretion pathway.
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Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase deletion worsens glucose tolerance through impairment of acute insulin secretion.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is an androgen-independent factor that decreases with age. We recently identified SMP30 as the lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme gluconolactonase (GNL), which is involved in vitamin C biosynthesis in animal species. To examine whether the age-related decrease in SMP30/GNL has effects on glucose homeostasis, we used SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice treated with L-ascorbic acid. In an ip glucose tolerance test at 15 wk of age, blood glucose levels in SMP30/GNL KO mice were significantly increased by 25% at 30 min after glucose administration compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Insulin levels in SMP30/GNL KO mice were significantly decreased by 37% at 30 min after glucose compared with WT mice. Interestingly, an insulin tolerance test showed a greater glucose-lowering effect in SMP30/GNL KO mice. High-fat diet feeding severely worsened glucose tolerance in both WT and SMP30/GNL KO mice. Morphometric analysis revealed no differences in the degree of high-fat diet-induced compensatory increase in beta-cell mass and proliferation. In the static incubation study of islets, insulin secretion in response to 20 mm glucose or KCl was significantly decreased in SMP30/GNL KO mice. On the other hand, islet ATP content at 20 mm in SMP30/GNL KO mice was similar to that in WT mice. Collectively, these data indicate that impairment of the early phase of insulin secretion due to dysfunction of the distal portion of the secretion pathway underlies glucose intolerance in SMP30/GNL KO mice. Decreased SMP30/GNL may contribute to the worsening of glucose tolerance that occurs in normal aging.
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Eosinophil count is positively correlated with albumin excretion rate in men with type 2 diabetes.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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Patients with allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis or asthma have been reported to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated the relationships between peripheral eosinophil count and degree of albumin excretion rate, which is a useful marker of cardiovascular mortality as well as diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Hemoglobin concentration in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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Anemia is a common but often overlooked complication of diabetes. We investigated the relationship between hemoglobin concentration and various factors as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hemoglobin concentration was measured in 319 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the relationship between hemoglobin concentration and various factors including age, body mass index, and glycemic control, as well as between hemoglobin concentration and pulse wave velocity or ankle-brachial index (n = 209) and between hemoglobin concentration and carotid intima-media thickness or plaque score (n = 125). Mean hemoglobin concentration was 14.2 +/- 0.80 g/dL. Body mass index (r = 0.340, P < .0001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.219, P = .0011) were positively associated with hemoglobin concentration, whereas age (r = -0.388, P < .0001), glycated albumin (r = -0.148, P = .0121), serum creatinine concentration (r = -0.206, P = .0019), and log (urinary albumin excretion) (r = -0.188, P = .0010) were negatively associated with hemoglobin concentration. Multiple regression analysis identified age (beta = -0.222, P = .0019), body mass index (beta = 0.145, P = .0432), systolic blood pressure (beta = 0.214, P = .0015), total cholesterol concentration (beta = 0.170, P = .0077), and serum creatinine concentration (beta = -0.181, P = .0045) as independent determinants of hemoglobin concentration. No significant association was observed between hemoglobin concentration and serum erythropoietin concentration (r = -0.079, P = .2980). Negative correlations were found between hemoglobin concentration and pulse wave velocity (r = -0.289, P < .0001) and between hemoglobin concentration and plaque score (r = -0.275, P = .0024). In conclusion, hemoglobin concentration was associated with various factors; and decreased hemoglobin concentration was associated with subclinical markers of atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Plasma serotonin is a predictor for deterioration of urinary albumin excretion in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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We performed an observational study to investigate if plasma 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), a derivative end product of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), concentration could be a predictor for deterioration of urinary albumin excretion. The relationship between baseline plasma 5-HIAA concentration and changes in urinary albumin excretion for 24 months was investigated in 162 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were divided into tertiles according to plasma 5-HIAA concentration. Greater changes in urinary albumin excretion were seen in patients with high plasma 5-HIAA concentration (112.8 +/- 36.2 mg/g creatinine) than in patients with low plasma 5-HIAA concentration (7.6 +/- 8.0 mg/g creatinine, P = .0011) or in patients with intermediate plasma 5-HIAA concentration (25.6 +/- 15.0 mg/g creatinine, P = .0070) after adjustment for baseline values of urinary albumin excretion. A positive correlation was observed between log (plasma 5-HIAA concentration) and changes in urinary albumin excretion (r = 0.314, P < .0001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that log (plasma 5-HIAA concentration) (beta = .284, P = .0013) was an independent determinant of changes in urinary albumin excretion. In conclusion, plasma 5-HIAA concentration was positively correlated with changes in urinary albumin excretion, which may indicate causality in diabetic nephropathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high plasma 5-HIAA concentration.
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Serum pepsinogen I/II ratio is correlated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Endocr. J.
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Helicobacter pylori infection, which is a common cause of atrophic gastritis, has been reported to represent a causal factor increasing the vascular damage and consequent albuminuria. On the other hand, decreased serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio can be used to assess gastric mucosal atrophy. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the correlation between PG I/II ratio and diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we investigated a relationship between PG I/II ratio and degree of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated relationships between PG I/II ratio and degree of UAE or estimated glomerular filtration rate as well as various factors, including age, body mass index, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, serum lipid concentrations, uric acid or C-reactive protein in 333 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes. PG I/II ratio correlated positively with logarithm of UAE in all patients (r = 0.174, P = 0.0016) and in patients without Helicobacter pylori infection (r = 0.352, P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis identified that PG I/II ratio correlated independently with logarithm of UAE in all patients (? = 0.264, P = 0.0005) and in patients without Helicobacter pylori infection (? = 0.295, P = 0.0022). These data suggest that serum PG I/II ratio is correlated with diabetic nephropathy.
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Low daily salt intake is correlated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
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Both high and low salt intakes have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between daily salt intake and albuminuria, a marker of diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease, in patients with type 2 diabetes. We classified 270 patients with type 2 diabetes, who were not receiving antihypertensive medication into four groups according to their daily salt intake (<8, 8-10, 10-12 and >12?g per day). We investigated the relationship between daily salt intake and the logarithm of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). A multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate whether daily salt intake independently correlated with the logarithm of UAE. In addition, we assessed the contribution of the variables, including age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A(1C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, serum creatinine, alcohol intake, smoking status and square of (daily salt intake-10) on albuminuria, defined as a UAE>30?mg?g(-1) of creatinine, using a multiple logistic regression analysis. The logarithm of the UAE was lowest in the third quartile of daily salt intake. The multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the logarithm of the UAE was significantly correlated with the quadratic term of daily salt intake centered at 10?g per day (?=0.170, P=0.008). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of albuminuria was 3.996 (1.295-12.327; P=0.016) in patients whose daily salt intake was less than 8?g per day compared with patients whose daily salt intake was 10-12?g per day. In conclusion, low daily salt intake was correlated with albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, who were not receiving antihypertensive medication.
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Atrophic gastritis is associated with coronary artery disease.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
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Atrophic gastritis is characterized by chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori infection and other factors. Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to coronary artery disease. To our knowledge, however, no reports are available on the relationship between atrophic gastritis and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the relationship between atrophic gastritis, which is diagnosed based on serum pepsinogen levels (pepsinogen I ? 70 ng/mL and pepsinogen I/II ratio ? 3.0), and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in general Japanese population. Among 2,633 study subjects, 531 subjects (20.2%) were diagnosed as atrophic gastritis. The prevalence of coronary artery disease was higher in the atrophic gastritis-positive group than that in the atrophic gastritis-negative group (5.8% vs 2.8%, p = 0.0005). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that atrophic gastritis was independently associated with coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.72), after adjustment for age, sex, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and habits of smoking and drinking. These results suggest that atrophic gastritis is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa may be associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease.
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Toe-brachial index is associated more strongly with albuminuria or glomerular filtration rate than ankle-brachial index in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Hypertens. Res.
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether toe-brachial index (TBI) is more strongly associated with albuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) than ankle-brachial index (ABI), and thus is a more suitable tool for evaluating the association between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetic nephropathy than ABI in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the relationships between ABI or TBI and the degree of urinary albumin excretion or eGFR, as well as the major cardiovascular risk factors, in 390 patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we compared the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of TBI or ABI for albuminuria or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was negatively associated with ABI. Age and duration of diabetes were negatively associated with TBI, and diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were positively associated with TBI. Log (urinary albumin excretion) was associated more strongly with TBI (r=-0.265, P<0.0001) than with ABI (r=-0.132, P=0.0111), and eGFR was positively associated with TBI (r=0.195, P=0.0002) but not with ABI (r=0.023, P=0.6571). The AUCs of TBI for albuminuria (P=0.0002) and CKD (P=0.0322) were significantly greater than those of ABI. In conclusion, TBI is associated more strongly with albuminuria and eGFR than ABI in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study suggests that TBI may be a more suitable tool for evaluating the association between PAD and diabetic nephropathy than ABI in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide could be a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Heart Vessels
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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which is a useful biomarker of chronic heart failure, has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between NT-proBNP and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Relationships of NT-proBNP to pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) as well as to various parameters, including body mass index, blood pressure, serum lipid concentration, serum uric acid concentration, and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c), age, hemoglobin, serum creatinine concentration, severity of diabetic nephropathy or retinopathy, current treatment of diabetes, cardiothoracic ratio on chest radiograph, presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and/or ST-T changes evaluated by electrocardiograph, smoking status and presence of cardiovascular disease were investigated in 323 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes. Log (NT-proBNP) correlated positively with PWV (r = 0.283, p < 0.0001) and correlated negatively with ABI (r = -0.144, p = 0.0094). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that age (? = 0.200, p = 0.0033), systolic blood pressure (? = 0.246, p < 0.0001), total cholesterol (? = -0.135, p = 0.0326), uric acid (? = 0.133, p = 0.0462), creatinine (? = -0.184, p = 0.0122), smoking status (? = -0.129, p = 0.0499) and log (NT-proBNP) (? = 0.177, p = 0.0149) were independently correlated with PWV and that systolic blood pressure (? = -0.145, p = 0.0310), log triglyceride (? = -0.151, p = 0.0397) and log (NT-proBNP) (? = -0.207, p = 0.0094) were independently correlated with ABI. In conclusion, NT-proBNP could be a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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