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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with anti-angiogenesis therapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) and cell line mouse models.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R treatment following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer. A pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) that was VEGF-positive and an orthotopic VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaPaCa-2-GFP) as well as a VEGF-negative cell line (Panc-1) were tested. Nude mice with these tumors were treated with gemcitabine (GEM), bevacizumab (BEV), and S. typhimurium A1-R. BEV/GEM followed by S. typhimurium A1-R significantly reduced tumor weight compared to BEV/GEM treatment alone in the PDOX and MiaPaCa-2 models. Neither treatment was as effective in the VEGF-negative model as in the VEGF-positive models. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium A1-R following anti-angiogenic therapy is effective on pancreatic cancer including the PDOX model, suggesting its clinical potential.
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The tumor-educated-macrophage increase of malignancy of human pancreatic cancer is prevented by zoledronic acid.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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We previously defined macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity of nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic tumors as "tumor-educated-macrophages" (Edu) and macrophages harvested from mice without tumors as "naïve-macrophages" (Naïve), and demonstrated that Edu-macrophages promoted tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, Edu- and Naïve-macrophages were compared for their ability to enhance pancreatic cancer malignancy at the cellular level in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory efficacy of Zoledronic acid (ZA) on Edu-macrophage-enhanced metastasis was also determined. XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cells in Gelfoam co-cultured with Edu-macrophages proliferated to a greater extent compared to XPA1 cells cultured with Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.014). XPA1 cells exposed to conditioned medium harvested from Edu culture significantly increased proliferation (P = 0.016) and had more migration stimulation capability (P<0.001) compared to cultured cancer cells treated with the conditioned medium from Naïve. The mitotic index of the XPA1 cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, significantly increased in vivo in the presence of Edu- compared to Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.001). Zoledronic acid (ZA) killed both Edu and Naïve in vitro. Edu promoted tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of the XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. ZA reduced primary tumor growth (P = 0.006) and prevented metastasis (P = 0.025) promoted by Edu-macrophages. These results indicate that ZA inhibits enhanced primary tumor growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer induced by Edu-macrophages.
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Serum p53 antibody in breast cancer.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The significance of the measurement of anti-p53 antibodies in serum remains undisclosed. The aim of this study was to assess anti-p53 antibodies in the serum of patients with breast cancer, and correlate these results with various clinicopathologic parameters.
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Nodular fasciitis of the breast mimicking breast cancer.
Case Rep Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative lesion that is usually found in the soft tissue of the upper extremity and trunk in young to middle-aged persons. It has rarely been described in the breast. A 35-year-old woman had noticed a mass in her left breast. It was elastic-hard, 13?mm in size, and located mainly in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Mammography did not detect the mass. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with an irregular margin. Neither fine-needle aspiration cytology nor core needle biopsy established a definitive diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was therefore performed. Histologically, the excised tumor tissue results were consistent with a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast, a rare histological type of breast tumor.
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Successful fluorescence-guided surgery on human colon cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft mouse models using a fluorophore-conjugated anti-CEA antibody and a portable imaging system.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can enable successful cancer surgery where bright-light surgery often cannot. There are three important issues for FGS going forward toward the clinic: (a) proper tumor labeling, (b) a simple portable imaging system for the operating room, and (c) patient-like mouse models in which to develop the technology. The present report addresses all three.
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Establishment of successively transplantable rabbit VX2 cancer cells that express enhanced green fluorescent protein.
Med Mol Morphol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Morphological detection of cancer cells in the rabbit VX2 allograft transplantation model is often difficult in a certain region such as serosal cavity where reactive mesothelial cells mimic cancer cells and both cells share common markers such as cytokeratins. Therefore, tagging VX2 cells with a specific and sensitive marker that easily distinguishes them from other cells would be advantageous. Thus, we tried to establish a successively transplantable, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing VX2 model. Cancer cells obtained from a conventional VX2-bearing rabbit were cultured in vitro and transfected with an EGFP-encoding vector, and then successively transplanted in Healthy Japanese White rabbits (HJWRs) (n = 8). Besides, conventional VX2 cells were transplanted in other HJWRs (n = 8). Clinicopathological comparison analyses were performed between the two groups. The success rate of transplantation was 100 % for both groups. The sensitivity and specificity of EGFP for immunohistochemical detection of VX2 cells were 84.3 and 100 %, respectively. No significant differences in cancer cell morphology, tumor size (P = 0.742), Ki-67 labeling index (P = 0.878), or survival rate (P = 0.592) were observed between the two. VX2 cells can be genetically altered, visualized by EGFP, and successively transplanted without significant alteration of morphological and biological properties compared to those of the conventional model.
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Efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R versus chemotherapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX).
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) on pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX). The PDOX model was originally established from a pancreatic cancer patient in SCID-NOD mice. The pancreatic cancer PDOX was subsequently transplanted by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) in transgenic nude red fluorescent protein (RFP) mice in order that the PDOX stably acquired red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing stroma for the purpose of imaging the tumor after passage to non-transgenic nude mice in order to visualize tumor growth and drug efficacy. The nude mice with human pancreatic PDOX were treated with A1-R or standard chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (GEM), which is first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer, for comparison of efficacy. A1-R treatment significantly reduced tumor weight, as well as tumor fluorescence area, compared to untreated control (P?=?0.011), with comparable efficacy of GEM, CDDP, and 5-FU. Histopathological response to treatment was defined according to Evans's criteria and A1-R had increased efficacy compared to standard chemotherapy. The present report is the first to show that A1-R is effective against a very low-passage patient tumor, in this case, pancreatic cancer. The data of the present report suggest A1-1 will have clinical activity in pancreatic cancer, a highly lethal and treatment-resistant disease and may be most effectively used in combination with other agents.
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Fluorescence-guided surgery in combination with UVC irradiation cures metastatic human pancreatic cancer in orthotopic mouse models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study is to determine if ultraviolet light (UVC) irradiation in combination with fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can eradicate metastatic human pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude-mouse models. Two weeks after orthotopic implantation of human MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), in nude mice, bright-light surgery (BLS) was performed on all tumor-bearing mice (n?=?24). After BLS, mice were randomized into 3 treatment groups; BLS-only (n?=?8) or FGS (n?=?8) or FGS-UVC (n?=?8). The residual tumors were resected using a hand-held portable imaging system under fluorescence navigation in mice treated with FGS and FGS-UVC. The surgical resection bed was irradiated with 2700 J/m2 UVC (254 nm) in the mice treated with FGS-UVC. The average residual tumor area after FGS (n?=?16) was significantly smaller than after BLS only (n?=?24) (0.135±0.137 mm2 and 3.338±2.929 mm2, respectively; p?=?0.007). The BLS treated mice had significantly reduced survival compared to FGS- and FGS-UVC-treated mice for both relapse-free survival (RFS) (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively) and overall survival (OS) (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). FGS-UVC-treated mice had increased RFS and OS compared to FGS-only treated mice (p?=?0.008 and p?=?0.025, respectively); with RFS lasting at least 150 days indicating the animals were cured. The results of the present study suggest that UVC irradiation in combination with FGS has clinical potential to increase survival.
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Early-onset brain metastases in a breast cancer patient after pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Breast cancer patients who achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) usually have a favourable prognosis. We report on a patient with early metastases to the brain after achieving pCR. The primary tumour was 7.0 cm in diameter with axillary lymph node metastases, hormone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive (3+), and histological grade 2 with 60% of cells positive for Ki-67. The patient underwent NAC followed by surgery, and achieved pCR. Five months after surgery, during adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab, she developed headache and dizziness. Brain imaging revealed multiple metastatic brain tumours. She received whole-brain radiotherapy followed by lapatinib and capecitabine therapy. At 7 months after surgery, she remains alive with a persistent mild headache. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of early brain metastases, and consider new treatment strategies to prevent brain metastases in high-risk patients who achieve pCR.
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Hand-held high-resolution fluorescence imaging system for fluorescence-guided surgery of patient and cell-line pancreatic tumors growing orthotopically in nude mice.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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In this study, we investigated the advantages of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in mice of a portable hand-sized imaging system compared with a large fluorescence imaging system or a long-working-distance fluorescence microscope.
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Comparison of efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and chemotherapy on stem-like and non-stem human pancreatic cancer cells.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line is dimorphic, with spindle stem-like cells and round non-stem cells. We report here the in vitro IC 50 values of stem-like and non-stem XPA1 human pancreatic cells cells for: (1) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), (2) cisplatinum (CDDP), (3) gemcitabine (GEM), and (4) tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). IC 50 values of stem-like XPA1 cells were significantly higher than those of non-stem XPA1 cells for 5-FU (P = 0.007) and CDDP (P = 0.012). In contrast, there was no difference between the efficacy of A1-R on stem-like and non-stem XPA1 cells. In vivo, 5-FU and A1-R significantly reduced the tumor weight of non-stem XPA1 cells (5-FU; P = 0.028; A1-R; P = 0.011). In contrast, only A1-R significantly reduced tumor weight of stem-like XPA1 cells (P = 0.012). The combination A1-R with 5-FU improved the antitumor efficacy compared with 5-FU monotherapy on the stem-like cells (P = 0.004). The results of the present report indicate A1-R is a promising therapy for chemo-resistant pancreatic cancer stem-like cells.
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Imaging the efficacy of UVC irradiation on superficial brain tumors and metastasis in live mice at the subcellular level.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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The effect of UVC irradiation was investigated on a model of brain cancer and a model of experimental brain metastasis. For the brain cancer model, brain cancer cells were injected stereotactically into the brain. For the brain metastasis model, lung cancer cells were injected intra-carotidally or stereotactically. The U87 human glioma cell line was used for the brain cancer model, and the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was used for the experimental brain metastasis model. Both cancer cell types were labeled with GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm. A craniotomy open window was used to image single cancer cells in the brain. This double labeling of the cancer cells with GFP and RFP enabled apoptosis of single cells to be imaged at the subcellular level through the craniotomy open window. UVC irradiation, beamed through the craniotomy open window, induced apoptosis in the cancer cells. UVC irradiation was effective on LLC and significantly extended survival of the mice with experimental brain metastasis. In contrast, the U87 glioma was relatively resistant to UVC irradiation. The results of this study suggest the use of UVC for treatment of superficial brain cancer or metastasis.
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Enhanced resection of orthotopic red-fluorescent-protein-expressing human glioma by fluorescence-guided surgery in nude mice.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Malignant glioma is the most common type of primary central nervous system cancer. Gliomas are very difficult to completely resect due to their invasiveness. In the present study, we compared fluorescence-guided and standard bright-light resection of a human glioma orthotopically implanted in nude mice. U87 human glioma cells, expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP), were injected stereotactically into the nude mouse brain through a craniotomy open window. Two weeks after cancer-cell implantation, gliomas were resected under fluorescence guidance or under bright light. U87-RFP tumors were clearly visualized with a long-working distance fluorescence microscope. Almost all cancer cells were removed using fluorescence-guided navigation without damage to the brain tissue. In contrast, brain tumors were difficult to visualize under bright light and many residual cancer cells remained in the brain after bright-light surgery. Fluorescence-guided surgery significantly extended the survival of the mice compared to those who underwent bright-light surgery. These results suggest that fluorescence-guided surgery has significant potential for brain cancer treatment.
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Subcellular real-time imaging of the efficacy of temozolomide on cancer cells in the brain of live mice.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Novel subcellular imaging technology has been developed in order to visualize drug efficacy on single cancer cells in the brain of mice in real time. The efficacy of temozolomide on cancer cells in the brain was determined by observation of subcellular cancer-cell dynamics over time through a craniotomy open window. Dual-color U87 human glioma and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm, were imaged through the craniotomy open window 10 days after treatment with temozolomide (100 mg/kg i.p. for five consecutive days). After treatment, dual-color cancer cells with fragmented nuclei were visualized, indicating apoptosis. GFP-expressing apoptotic bodies and the destruction of RFP-expressing cytoplasm were also visualized. In addition, the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to confirm apoptosis visualized by imaging of the behavior of GFP-labeled cancer-cell nuclei. Tumor volume in the treated group was significantly smaller than in the control group (at day 19, p<0.001). The present study demonstrates technology capable of subcellular real-time imaging in the brain that reports induction of cancer-cell apoptosis by therapeutic treatment. More effective drugs for brain cancer and brain metastasis can be screened and can be identified with this technology.
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Dynamic subcellular imaging of cancer cell mitosis in the brain of live mice.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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The ability to visualize cancer cell mitosis and apoptosis in the brain in real time would be of great utility in testing novel therapies. In order to achieve this goal, the cancer cells were labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm, such that mitosis and apoptosis could be clearly imaged. A craniotomy open window was made in athymic nude mice for real-time fluorescence imaging of implanted cancer cells growing in the brain. The craniotomy window was reversibly closed with a skin flap. Mitosis of the individual cancer cells were imaged dynamically in real time through the craniotomy-open window. This model can be used to evaluate brain metastasis and brain cancer at the subcellular level.
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Randomized controlled trial of toremifene 120 mg compared with exemestane 25 mg after prior treatment with a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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BACKGROUND: After the failure of a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (nsAI) for postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer (mBC), it is unclear which of various kinds of endocrine therapy is the most appropriate. A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of daily toremifene 120 mg (TOR120), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, and exemestane 25 mg (EXE), a steroidal aromatase inhibitor. The primary end point was the clinical benefit rate (CBR). The secondary end points were objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. METHODS: Initially, a total of 91 women was registered in the study and randomly assigned to either TOR120 (n = 46) or EXE (n = 45) from October 2008 to November 2011. Three of the 46 patients in the TOR120 arm were not received treatment, 2 patients having withdrawn from the trial by their preference and one having been dropped due to administration of another SERM. RESULTS: When analyzed after a median observation period of 16.9 months, the intention-to-treat analysis showed that there were no statistical difference between TOR120 (N = 46) and EXE (n = 45) in terms of CBR (41.3% vs. 26.7%; P = 0.14), ORR (10.8% vs. 2.2%; P = 0.083), and OS (Hazard ratio, 0.60; P = 0.22). The PFS of TOR120 was longer than that of EXE, the difference being statistically significant (Hazard ratio, 0.61, P = 0.045). The results in treatment-received cohort (N = 88) were similar to those in ITT cohort. Both treatments were well-tolerated with no severe adverse events, although the treatment of 3 of 43 women administered TOR120 was stopped after a few days because of nausea, general fatigue, hot flush and night sweating. CONCLUSIONS: TOR120, as a subsequent endocrine therapy for mBC patients who failed non-steroidal AI treatment, could potentially be more beneficial than EXE.Trial registration number: UMIN000001841 URL: https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000001797&language=J.
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Collapsin response mediator protein 2 is involved in regulating breast cancer progression.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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BACKGROUND: Altered expression of collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) has been reported in several malignant tumors, including downregulation of CRMP1 in lung cancer and upregulation of CRMP2 in colorectal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CRMP expression and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: Twenty-two breast cancer and four normal breast tissues were used to assess CRMP mRNA expression. The average expression level of each CRMP (CRMP1-5) mRNA was analyzed in a subset of breast cancer specimens and compared with that in normal breast tissue by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, 173 breast cancer specimens and matching normal breast controls were used for immunohistochemistry based on the tissue microarray technique. Levels of CRMP2 and phosphorylated CRMP2 protein were assessed, and possible correlations between the clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. RESULTS: The expression of CRMP2 mRNA was significantly decreased in breast cancer tissues, while that of the other CRMPs was similar between normal and breast cancer tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CRMP2 protein expression was also decreased in breast cancer tissues (P < 0.001). Phosphorylated CRMP2 was observed in the nuclei of breast cancer cells but not in normal mammary cells (P < 0.001). Furthermore, nuclear phosphorylated CRMP2 expression was increased in proportion to the histological grade and triple-negative subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CRMP2 expression and elevated expression of nuclear phosphorylated CRMP2 may be associated with breast cancer progression.
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High expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCC11 in breast tumors is associated with aggressive subtypes and low disease-free survival.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that efflux various compounds from cells, including chemotherapeutic agents, and are known to affect multidrug resistance. Recent reports disagree on whether ABCC11 is a risk factor for breast tumorigenesis, but its expression in breast cancer is poorly investigated. We hypothesized that both frequency and expression levels of ABC transporters in breast tumors would vary by cancer subtype, and be associated with prognosis. Here, we constructed a tissue microarray breast tumor samples from 281 patients, and analyzed expressions of ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC11, and ABCG2 immunohistochemically. Breast cancer subtypes were determined by immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Protein expression was correlated to clinicopathological characteristics, clinical follow-up, and pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The tissue microarray comprised 191 luminal A (68.0 %), 17 luminal B (6.0 %), 27 HER2 (9.6 %), and 46 triple-negative (16.4 %) samples. ABCC1 and ABCC11 expressions were associated with significantly shorter disease-free survival (P = 0.027 and P = 0.003, respectively). ABCC1, ABCC11, and ABCG2, but not ABCB1, were expressed significantly more, and more frequently, in aggressive subtypes. Patients with HER2+ and triple-negative tumor subtypes that expressed high levels of ABCC11 had significantly worse disease-free survival (P = 0.017 and P < 0.001, respectively). We have shown, for the first time, that ABCC1, ABCC11, and ABCG2 are highly expressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes, and that tumor ABCC11 expression is associated with poor prognosis.
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Association between breast cancer risk and the wild-type allele of human ABC transporter ABCC11.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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International mortality and frequency rates for breast cancer have been associated with the wet type of human earwax. It was recently found that earwax type is determined by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 538G>A (Gly180Arg), in ABCC11. The G allele determines the wet type of earwax as a Mendelian trait with a dominant phenotype. The present study examined the association between the frequency rate of breast cancer and the frequency of the G allele of ABCC11.
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[Long-term survival of a breast cancer patient with liver metastasis treated with trastuzumab and Paclitaxel].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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We report a long-term survival case of metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab and paclitaxel. The patient was a 64-year-old female. She underwent right quadrantectomy with axillary lymphadenectomy for advanced breast cancer. Histological examination showed papillotubular carcinoma, f, t2, n1(6/14), ER(-), PgR(-), HER2(3+). CMF and radiation were performed as adjuvant therapy. One year after the operation she was diagnosed to have liver metastasis and initiated trastuzumab treatment. Paclitaxel was also intermittently administered when the tumor marker was elevated. Four years after the operation, she experienced obstructive jaundice and was diagnosed as hepatic portal region metastasis. Obstructive jaundice was promptly alleviated after receiving trastuzumab and vinorelbin. No adverse events were reported over sixty-eight months of trastuzumab treatment. Long-term trastuzumab and intermittent chemotherapy would be one of the optimal treatments for HER2-positive breast cancer.
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[A case of recurrent breast cancer with life-threatening liver metastasis remarkably responding to classical CMF].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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A 35-year-old woman with recurrent breast cancer with liver metastasis was treated with classical CMF because they had been resistant to anthracycline, taxane and vinorelbine. A remarkable response was achieved, FDG-PET demonstrated that FDG accumulation disappeared in the liver metastasis. Toxicities were tolerable and classical CMF could be continued on an outpatient basis without compromising quality of life. Our experience suggested that classical CMF was a useful regimen for recurrent metastatic breast cancer refractory to treatment with new agents.
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A human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression-based approach to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast cancer.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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We investigated the pathological effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in operable breast cancer.
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Allergic reactions to oxaliplatin in a single institute in Japan.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Allergic reactions to oxaliplatin can be severe and are an important cause of discontinuation of treatment. A retrospective review was performed for 105 patients who received FOLFOX regimens between May 2005 and June 2007. Twenty-five cases (23.8%) of allergic reactions were identified, including 9 late onset reactions (8.6%) and 16 immediate reactions (15.2%). Severe allergy (Grades 3 and 4) occurred in seven patients (6.7%). Re-introduction of FOLFOX was attempted for seven immediate onset patients with a severity grade of 1 or 2, and three of these patients (42.9%) showed relapse of allergy. In approximately 10% of the patients, FOLFOX had to be discontinued due to allergy before the disease became refractory to the regimen. Our experience indicates that allergy to oxaliplatin may be a significant concern and that methods are required for suppression of this allergy.
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Feasibility of AC/EC followed by weekly paclitaxel in node-positive breast cancer in Japan.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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The feasibility and efficacy of adriamycin or epirubicin in combination with cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel (AC/EC-weekly PAC) as adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer was investigated.
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Breast cancer manifested by hematologic disorders.
J Thorac Dis
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Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. However, it is very rarely manifested as hematologic disorders. A 35-year-old woman was admitted because of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Examinations revealed the presence of breast cancer in her left breast; therefore, paclitaxel was administered weekly. Although disseminated intravascular coagulation was controlled, pulmonary dysfunction due to lymphangitis carcinomatosa suddenly occurred 10 weeks after treatment. Pulmonary dysfunction was effectively treated with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide. Twenty-three weeks after treatment, the patient developed liver dysfunction accompanied with jaundice due to progressive metastatic lesions in the liver; liver dysfunction improved after the administration of vinorelbine. Subsequently, because of the recurrence of pulmonary dysfunction, rechallenge with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide was performed and was effective; however, this therapy was discontinued because of its adverse effects. She expired of liver failure 33 weeks after the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Metastatic tumors in the bone marrow, lung, and liver showed different sensitivities to different anti-cancer agents. We report a case of breast cancer manifested by hematologic disorders which was treated by a sequential chemotherapy.
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Impacts and predictors of cytotoxic anticancer agents in different breast cancer subtypes.
Oncol. Res.
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Breast cancer is not a single entity. This study therefore aimed to identify differences in the impacts of anticancer agents and predictive factors between different breast cancer subtypes. A total of 234 patients with luminal (n = 109), luminal-HER2 (L-H, n = 29), HER-2 (n = 35), or triple negative (TN, n = 61) breast cancer subtypes were treated with standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of an anthracycline and/or taxane. Pathological response and prognosis were examined in each subtype. Expression levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, nuclear grade, MIB-1, p53, topoisomerase IIalpha (topoIIalpha), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were examined in association with quasipathological complete response (QpCR). QpCR rates were 9.1% (10/109) in luminal, 45% (13/29) in L-H, 37% (13/35) in HER2, and 54.1% (33/61) in TN. Non-QpCR patients showed significantly poorer 3-year disease-free survival than QpCR patients in TN, but not in patients with other subtypes. No factors were associated with QpCR in luminal patients. Patients with higher nuclear grade were more likely to achieve QpCR in L-H. The proliferative markers MIB-1 and topoIlalpha had opposite impacts on pathological response in HER-2 and TN. The QpCR rate was significantly higher in TN lacking CK5/6 and/or EGFR expression, defined as nonbasal subtype, compared with basal subtype (p = 0.049). Cytotoxic anticancer agents were associated with different responses in different breast cancer subtypes. Identifying basal-type cancer and further subdivision of nonbasal types is important for treating TN patients.
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Preoperative endocrine therapy with goserelin acetate and tamoxifen in hormone receptor-positive premenopausal breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer
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BACKGROUND: The use of preoperative endocrine therapy for breast cancer has increased during the last decade. Although several studies have reported favorable response rates in postmenopausal women, its effectiveness in premenopausal women remains unknown. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of preoperative endocrine therapy in premenopausal women. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative invasive breast cancer were included in this study. Preoperative endocrine therapy with goserelin acetate and tamoxifen was administered for 3 months. Clinical evaluations were performed by ultrasonography before and after endocrine therapy. Pathological evaluations were performed using core biopsy and surgical specimens. Immunohistochemical evaluations of ER, progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2, and Ki-67 were performed before and after endocrine therapy. RESULTS: Partial response (PR) was observed in 23 % (12/53) and progressive disease (PD) in 2 % (2/53) of patients. Significant suppression of Ki-67 was observed following endocrine therapy in 90 % (47/52) of patients (P < 0.0001). Significant downregulation of PgR was observed after endocrine therapy (P = 0.0002), which tended to be correlated with clinical response (P = 0.058). CONCLUSIONS: Three months of preoperative endocrine therapy with goserelin acetate and tamoxifen was safe and effective in premenopausal patients with invasive breast cancer, with a 23 % PR rate. Changes in PgR and Ki-67 expression might be promising markers for endocrine responsiveness.
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Fluorescent proteins enhance UVC PDT of cancer cells.
Anticancer Res.
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Cancer cells, with and without fluorescent protein expression, were irradiated with various doses of UVC (100, 400, and 600 J/m(2)). Dual-color Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC) and U87 human glioma cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm and non-colored LLC and U87 cells were cultured in 96-well plates. Eight hours after seeding, the cells were irradiated with the various doses of UVC. The resulting cell number was determined after 24 hours. Compared to non-colored LLC cells, the number of dual-color LLC cells decreased significantly due to UVC irradiation with 100 J/m(2) (p=0.003). Although there was no significant difference in the number of dual-color and non-colored U87 cells after 100 J/m(2) UVC irradiation (p=0.852), the number of dual-color U87 cells decreased significantly with respect to non-colored cells due to UVC irradiation with 400 J/m(2) and 600 J/m(2) (p=0.011 and p=0.009, respectively). Thus, both dual-color LLC and dual-color U87 cells were more sensitive to UVC light than non-colored LLC and U87 cells. These results suggest that the expression of fluorescent proteins in cancer cells can enhance photodynamic therapy (PDT) using UVC and possibly with other wavelengths of light as well.
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Inhibition and eradication of human glioma with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium in an orthotopic nude-mouse model.
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Malignant glioma tumors are the most common primary central nervous system tumors. Despite the multidisciplinary approach to treatment, prognosis remains poor. In this study, we demonstrated that the Salmonella typhimurium A1-R tumor-targeting strain can inhibit and eradicate human glioma in an orthotopic nude-mouse model. S. typhimurium A1-R was administered by injection through a craniotomy open-window or intravenously in nude mice. To establish the model, 2x10(5) U87-RFP human glioma cells were injected stereotactically into the mouse brain through the craniotomy open window. Two weeks after glioma-cell implantation, mice were treated with S. typhimurium A1-R [2x10(7) CFU/200 ?l intravenous injection (i.v.) or 1x10(6) CFU/1 ?l intracranial injection (i.c.)] once a week for 3 weeks. Brain tumors were observed by fluorescence imaging through the craniotomy open window over time. S. typhimurium A1-R, administered i.c., inhibited brain tumor growth 7.6-fold compared with untreated mice (p=0.009) and improved survival 73% (p=0.001). Two of ten mice appeared to have their tumors eradicated. Intravenous administration of S. typhimurium A1-R was not effective. The craniotomy open window enabled observation of tumor growth in the brain in real time in both treated and untreated mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that bacterial therapy of brain cancer is a novel, effective and safe treatment strategy in a highly treatment-resistance cancer.
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