Inflammation contributes to hypertension-induced cardiac damage and fibrotic remodeling. Complement activation produces anaphylatoxins, which are major inflammatory effectors. Here, we investigated the role of complement anaphylatoxins in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac remodeling.
The murine cell surface protein Crry (complement receptor 1-related protein/gene y) is a key complement regulator with similar activities to human membrane cofactor protein (MCP) and decay-accelerating factor. MCP has a critical role in preventing complement-mediated tissue injury and its mutation has been implicated in several human kidney diseases. The study of Crry in mice has relevance to understanding MCP activity in human diseases; however, such efforts have been hampered by the embryonic lethality phenotype of Crry gene knockout. Here we used a conditional gene-targeting approach and deleted Crry from the mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells where Crry is prominently expressed. Absence of Crry from proximal tubular epithelial cells resulted in spontaneous C3 deposition on the basolateral surface but no apparent renal disease in unchallenged mice. However, mice deficient in Crry on proximal tubular epithelial cells developed exacerbated renal injury when subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion, showing increased blood urea nitrogen levels, higher tubular injury scores, more tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, and inflammatory infiltrates. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in the Crry conditional knockout mice was prevented by blocking C3 and C5 activation using an anti-properdin or anti-C5 monoclonal antibody (mAb), respectively. Thus, Crry has a critical role in protecting proximal tubular epithelial cells during ischemia-reperfusion challenge. Our results highlight the latent risk for inflammatory kidney injury associated with defects in membrane complement regulators.
Complement is implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The activation pathway(s) and effector(s) of complement in IRI may be organ specific and remain to be fully characterized. We previously developed a renal IRI model in decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and CD59 double-knockout (DAF(-/-)CD59(-/-)) mice. In this study, we used this model to dissect the pathway(s) by which complement is activated in renal IRI and to evaluate whether C3aR- or C5aR-mediated inflammation or the membrane attack complex was pathogenic. We crossed DAF(-/-)CD59(-/-) mice with mice deficient in various complement components or receptors including C3, C4, factor B (fB), factor properdin (fP), mannose-binding lectin, C3aR, C5aR, or Ig and assessed renal IRI in the resulting mutant strains. We found that deletion of C3, fB, fP, C3aR, or C5aR significantly ameliorated renal IRI in DAF(-/-)CD59(-/-) mice, whereas deficiency of C4, Ig, or mannose-binding lectin had no effect. Treatment of DAF(-/-)CD59(-/-) mice with an anti-C5 mAb reduced renal IRI to a greater degree than did C5aR deficiency. We also generated and tested a function-blocking anti-mouse fP mAb and showed it to ameliorate renal IRI when given to DAF(-/-)CD59(-/-) mice 24 h before, but not 4 or 8 h after, ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that complement is activated via the alternative pathway during the early phase of reperfusion, and both anaphylatoxin-mediated inflammation and the membrane attack complex contribute to tissue injury. Further, they demonstrate a critical role for properdin and support its therapeutic targeting in renal IRI.
Complement receptor 1-related gene/protein y (Crry) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF) are two murine membrane C3 complement regulators with overlapping functions. Crry deletion is embryonically lethal whereas DAF-deficient mice are generally healthy. Crry(-/-)DAF(-/-) mice were viable on a C3(-/-) background, but platelets from such mice were rapidly destroyed when transfused into C3-sufficient mice. In this study, we used the cre-lox system to delete platelet Crry in DAF(-/-) mice and studied Crry/DAF-deficient platelet development in vivo. Rather than displaying thrombocytopenia, Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) mice had normal platelet counts and their peripheral platelets were resistant to complement attack. However, chimera mice generated with Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) bone marrows showed platelets from C3(-/-) but not C3(+/+) recipients to be sensitive to complement activation, suggesting that circulating platelets in Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) mice were naturally selected in a complement-sufficient environment. Notably, Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) mouse platelets became complement susceptible when factor H function was blocked. Examination of Pf4-Cre(+)-Crry(flox/flox) mouse bone marrows revealed exceedingly active thrombopoiesis. Thus, under in vivo conditions, Crry/DAF deficiency on platelets led to abnormal platelet turnover, but peripheral platelet count was compensated for by increased thrombopoiesis. Selective survival of Crry/DAF-deficient platelets aided by factor H protection and compensatory thrombopoiesis demonstrates the cooperation between membrane and fluid phase complement inhibitors and the bodys ability to adaptively respond to complement regulator deficiencies.
We assessed the association of neutrophil function with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in a Japanese general population. Participants were 809 males and females who were over 20 years old living in the Iwaki region in Aomori Prefecture located in northern Japan. Lifestyle parameters (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise habits), HbA1c and neutrophil function such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability and phagocytic activity (PA) were measured. ROS production capability was measured before and after phagocytic stimulus to obtain basal ROS production and stimulated ROS production. Level of HbA1c had a positive correlation with basal ROS production (p=0.053), a negative correlation with stimulated ROS production (p=0.072) and PA (p=0.059) only in post-menopausal groups, and not in pre-menopausal groups. However, there were no correlations between levels of HbA1c and neutrophil functions in male. In conclusion, in the present study, despite the presence of diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia was found to cause an increase in daily basal ROS production of neutrophils, and increased susceptibility to infection caused by reduced neutrophilic reaction in females in their menopause. Therefore, from the oxidative point of view, strict glycemic control is necessary to prevent post-menopausal females from developing diabetic complications in spite of the presence of diabetes.
The major causes of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) are neoplastic or infiltrative lesions of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, severe head injuries, or pituitary or hypothalamic surgery. Lymphocytic infundibuloneurophysitis (LINH) is associated with autoimmune inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland, but the exact etiology is unknown. CDI caused by viral infections has been rarely reported. Here, we describe the case of a 22-year-old man who was in good health until 2 months prior to admission, presented with acute development of polyuria and polydipsia, and showed increased urinary volume up to 9000 mL/day. The patient showed elevated serum osmolality and low urine osmolality, with a low level of antidiuretic hormone. Endocrinological findings revealed CDI, but his arterial pituitary function appeared normal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant enlargement of the pituitary stalk. We suspected CDI due to LINH based on non-transsphenoidal biopsy findings. He was diagnosed as type A influenza,and given oral therapeutic agents. However, acute onset of polyuria and polydipsia occurred 10 days after the influenza diagnosis. The available epidemiological information regarding the outbreak of influenza around that time strongly suggested that the patient was infected with the A/H1N1 influenza virus, although this virus had not been detected on polymerase chain reaction testing. In the present case, the autoimmune mechanism of LINH may have been associated with novel influenza A/H1N1 virus infection.
Recent studies have indicated a role of complement in regulating T-cell immunity but the mechanism of action of complement in this process remains to be clarified. Here we studied mice deficient in decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a key membrane complement regulator whose deficiency led to increased complement-dependent T-cell immune responses in vivo. By crossing OT-II and OT-I T-cell receptor transgenic mice with DAF-knockout mice, we found that lack of DAF on T cells did not affect their responses to antigen stimulation. Similarly, lack of DAF on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of naive mice did not alter their T-cell stimulating activity. In contrast, APCs from DAF-knockout mice treated with inflammatory stimuli were found to be more potent T-cell stimulators than cells from similarly treated wild-type mice. Acquisition of higher T-cell stimulating activity by APCs in challenged DAF-knockout mice required C3 and C5aR and was correlated with decreased surface PD-L1 and/or increased CD40 expression. These findings implied that DAF suppressed T-cell immunity as a complement regulator in the context of inflammation but did not play an intrinsic role on T cells or APCs. Collectively, our data suggest a systemic and indirect role of complement in T-cell immunity.
Despite numerous reports that have linked diabetes with cognitive impairment (CI), there are few studies that have attempted to clarify the morbidity of CI among elderly diabetic patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was performed on 240 diabetic patients aged 65 years or older who had no diagnosis of dementia. The MMSE scores were 28-30 (normal range) in 151 patients (63%), 24-27 (suspected CI) in 77 (32%), and ? 23 (definite CI) in 12 (5%). Eight of the 12 patients with MMSE scores ? 23 underwent further detailed examination: the final diagnosis was Alzheimers disease (AD) (N = 5), vascular dementia (N = 2), and mixed dementia (N = 1). Among 24 of the 77 patients with MMSE scores of 24-27 who were referred for further detailed examination, the final diagnosis was early AD (N = 5), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (N = 10), and mild CI (N = 7). Only 2 of the patients were judged as being normal. The percentage of patients with a history of CVD, the rate of diuretic use, and the serum levels of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher, and the percentage of patients with a history of habitual alcohol consumption was lower in the low MMSE score group than in the normal MMSE score group. Among elderly diabetic patients aged 65 years or older, 5% had evident CI and 32% had suspected CI. Medical staff involved in the care of diabetic patients should be highly aware of possible CI in this patient population.
The alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation is constitutively active and must be regulated by host proteins to prevent autologous tissue injury. Dysfunction of AP regulatory proteins has been linked to several human inflammatory disorders. Properdin is a positive regulator of AP complement activation that has been shown to extend the half-life of cell surface–bound C3 convertase C3bBb; it may also initiate AP complement activation. Here, we demonstrate a critical role for properdin in autologous tissue injury mediated by AP complement activation. We identified myeloid lineage cells as the principal source of plasma properdin by generating mice with global and tissue-specific knockout of Cfp (which encodes properdin) and by generating BM chimeric mice. Properdin deficiency rescued mice from AP complement–mediated embryonic lethality caused by deficiency of the membrane complement regulator Crry and markedly reduced disease severity in the K/BxN model of arthritis. Ab neutralization of properdin in WT mice similarly ameliorated arthritis development, whereas reconstitution of properdin-null mice with exogenous properdin restored arthritis sensitivity. These data implicate systemic properdin as a key contributor to AP complement–mediated injury and support its therapeutic targeting in complement-dependent human diseases.
Control of lymphocyte homeostasis is essential to ensure efficient immune responses and to prevent autoimmunity. Splenic marginal zone B cells are important producers of autoantibodies, and are subject to stringent tolerance mechanisms to prevent autoimmunity. In this paper, we explore the role of the Mer tyrosine kinase (Mertk) in regulating autoreactive B cells. This receptor tyrosine kinase serves to bind apoptotic cells, to mediate their phagocytosis, and to regulate subsequent cytokine production. Mice lacking Mertk suffer from impaired apoptotic cell clearance and develop a lupus-like autoimmune syndrome. Here we show that such Mertk-KO mice have expanded numbers of splenic marginal zone B cells. Mertk-KO mice bearing a DNA-specific immunoglobulin heavy-chain transgene (3H9) produced anti-DNA antibodies that appeared to be secreted largely by marginal zone B cells. Finally, Mertk-KO mice developed greater antibody responses after NP-Ficoll immunization than their B6 counterparts. Taken together, our data show that Mertk has a major effect on the development of the marginal zone B-cell compartment. Mertk is also important in establishing DNA-specific B-cell tolerance in 3H9 anti-DNA transgenic mice.
Two types of colorimetric ozone detection paper with high resistance to ultraviolet (UV) light have been developed for outdoor ozone detection. These detection papers incorporate indigo carmine and UV absorbers (UVAs). When exposed to ozone, the papers change color from blue to white, and the ozone concentration can be determined by measuring the reflectance of the papers. However, indigo carmine is strongly affected by UV light, thus making the papers unsuitable for outdoor ozone detection. The authors succeeded in sufficiently improving the resistance of the papers to UV light for them to be used outdoors. This was achieved by using hydrophilic UVAs, namely sodium 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonate and ferulic acid. Without a UVA, the maximum measurement error of the papers derived from UV effect is approximately 290 parts per billion (ppb) x hr when one assumes 8 hr of UV exposure at low- to mid-latitudes (approximately 60 Wh/m2), and this error is too great for accurate ozone measurement. In contrast, the measurement errors of the papers with UVAs are only approximately 60-70 ppb x hr under the same conditions. Ozone measurement accuracies of these detection papers with UVAs are +/- 4.3-4.5% (coefficient of variation [CV]) at 25 degrees C and 60% relative humidity without UV effect. As a result, the improved ozone detection paper with high resistance to UV rays is suitable for outdoor ozone measurements (e.g., for detecting photochemical oxidants).
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and complement are 2 major components of innate immunity that provide a first-line host defense and shape the adaptive immune responses. We show here that coincidental activation of complement and several TLRs in mice led to the synergistic production of serum factors that promoted T-helper cell 17 (Th17) differentiation from anti-CD3/CD28 or antigen-stimulated T cells. Although multiple TLR-triggered cytokines were regulated by complement, Th17 cell-promoting activity in the serum was correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 induction, and antibody neutralization of IL-6 abrogated the complement effect. By using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we examined in more detail the mechanism and physiologic implication of complement/TLR4 interaction on Th17-cell differentiation. We found that the complement effect required C5a receptor, was evident at physiologically relevant levels of C5a, and could be demonstrated in cultured peritoneal macrophages as well as in the setting of antigen immunization. Importantly, despite an inhibitory effect of complement on IL-23 production, complement-promoted Th17 cells were functionally competent in causing autoimmunity in an adoptive transfer model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Collectively, these data establish a link between complement/TLR interaction and Th17-cell differentiation and provide new insight into the mechanism of action of complement in autoimmunity.
Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, not only improves insulin resistance and glycemic control, but may also have additional beneficial vascular effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether pioglitazone had an influence on arterial stiffness, which is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events, in 204 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A prospective, nonrandomized, open-label trial was performed that involved 41 patients treated with pioglitazone, 46 patients receiving sulfonylureas, 67 patients on insulin, and 50 patients on diet/exercise only. The follow-up period was 56 +/- 3 months. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by using the arterial stiffness index (ASI), which was based on analysis of the pulse wave amplitude pattern obtained during automated blood pressure measurement in the upper limb. The 4 groups had a similar baseline ASI, which was greater than the reference range in each group. Although antidiabetic therapies improved hemoglobin A(1c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ASI only decreased significantly in the pioglitazone group. Thus, pioglitazone improved abnormal arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus via a mechanism beyond the metabolic improvement. These findings may have important clinical implications in the use of pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Heritable and acquired diseases of podocytes can result in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We modeled FSGS by passively transferring mouse podocyte-specific sheep Abs into BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice deficient in the key complement regulator, decay-accelerating factor (DAF), but not WT or CD59-deficient BALB/c mice developed histological and ultrastructural features of FSGS, marked albuminuria, periglomerular monocytic and T cell inflammation, and enhanced T cell reactivity to sheep IgG. All of these findings, which are characteristic of FSGS, were substantially reduced by depleting CD4+ T cells from Daf(-/-) mice. Furthermore, WT kidneys transplanted into Daf(-/-) recipients and kidneys of DAF-sufficient but T cell-deficient Balb/(cnu/nu) mice reconstituted with Daf(-/-) T cells developed FSGS. In contrast, DAF-deficient kidneys in WT hosts and Balb/(cnu/nu) mice reconstituted with DAF-sufficient T cells did not develop FSGS. Thus, we have described what we believe to be a novel mouse model of FSGS attributable to DAF-deficient T cell immune responses. These findings add to growing evidence that complement-derived signals shape T cell responses, since T cells that recognize sheep Abs bound to podocytes can lead to cellular injury and development of FSGS.
Although the complement system has been implicated in atherosclerosis, the influence of membrane-bound complement regulators in this process has not been well understood. We studied the role of two membrane complement regulators, decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and CD59, in a murine model of atherosclerosis. DAF(-/-) and CD59(-/-) mice were crossed with apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice to generate DAF(-/-)ApoE(-/-) and CD59(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice. Mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 or 16 weeks. En face analysis showed that CD59 deficiency led to more extensive lesions in female ApoE(-/-) mice both at 8 weeks (2.07+/-0.27% vs.1.34+/-0.21%, P=0.06) and 16 weeks (17.13+/-1.14% vs. 9.72+/-1.14%, P<0.001). Similarly, lesions measured by aortic root sectioning were larger in female CD59(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice than in controls at 8 weeks of HFD feeding (20.74+/-1.33% vs. 13.12+/-1.46%, P<0.005). On the other hand, DAF deficiency did not significantly influence atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed more abundant membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition and more collagen staining in the aortic roots of CD59(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice. Unexpectedly, total plasma cholesterol levels in female CD59(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice were found to be elevated compared with CD59(+/+)ApoE(-/-) mice. We conclude that CD59 but not DAF offered protection in atherosclerosis in the context of ApoE deficiency. The protective role of CD59 was gender-biased and most likely involved prevention of MAC-mediated vascular injury, with possible contribution from an undefined effect on plasma cholesterol homeostasis.
Although complement lysis is frequently used for the purification of lymphocyte subpopulations in vitro, how lymphocytes escape complement attack in vivo has not been clearly delineated. Here, we show that conditional gene targeting of a murine membrane complement regulator Crry on thymocytes led to complement-dependent peripheral T-cell lymphopenia. Notably, despite evidence of hypersensitivity to complement attack, Crry-deficient T cells escaped complement injury and developed normally in the thymus, because of low intrathymic complement activity. Crry-deficient T cells were eliminated in the periphery by a C3- and macrophage-mediated but C5-independent mechanism. Thus, Crry is essential for mature T-cell survival in the periphery but not for lymphogenesis in the thymus. The observation that the thymus is a complement-privileged site may have implications for complement-based antitumor therapies.
Blood flows out of microvessels in the dermis when pressure higher than arterial blood pressure is applied to the fingertip, and subsequently re-flows into the microcirculation when pressure is released. Both the blood outflow and the reflow characteristics of microcirculation under pressurization are associated with microvasculature, blood and blood pressure. This study describes a novel method of measuring blood inflow and outflow characteristics of dermis microcirculation. An optical sensor, which is furnished with a 571 nm wavelength light source and a photodetector, is pressed to the skin surface using a pressure higher than the human subjects systolic arterial pressure. Hemoglobin concentration by change of the blood flow amount is estimated by the Beer-Lambert law. This method is applied to the measurement of blood inflow and outflow characteristics of microcirculation caused by reactive hyperemia after ischemia with duration of 5 min. Among three parameters evaluated, the one relating to the amplitude of pulsation shows a close correlation with conventional plethysmography, while the other two show varying time responses. Our method provides a new and useful insight into pathophysiology in health and disease conditions and may help researchers better understand the underlying mechanisms of numerous microcirculation-influenced diseases and medical conditions.
Human genetics have implicated the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, and an inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) is in clinical development for asthma.
Factor H (fH) and properdin both modulate complement; however, fH inhibits activation, and properdin promotes activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Mutations in fH associate with several human kidney diseases, but whether inhibiting properdin would be beneficial in these diseases is unknown. Here, we found that either genetic or pharmacological blockade of properdin, which we expected to be therapeutic, converted the mild C3 GN of an fH-mutant mouse to a lethal C3 GN with features of human dense deposit disease. We attributed this phenotypic change to a differential effect of properdin on the dynamics of alternative pathway complement activation in the fluid phase and the cell surface in the fH-mutant mice. Thus, in fH mutation-related C3 glomerulopathy, additional factors that impact the activation of the alternative pathway of complement critically determine the nature and severity of kidney pathology. These results show that therapeutic manipulation of the complement system requires rigorous disease-specific target validation.
CD59 is a GPI-anchored membrane regulator of complement expressed on blood cells as well as peripheral tissues. It protects host cells from complement injury by inhibiting formation of the membrane attack complex. Recent studies in mice have suggested also a role of CD59 in T cell immune response that was mechanistically independent of complement. In the present study, we investigated the function of CD59 in the MRL/lpr model of murine lupus. We backcrossed the Cd59a knockout (Cd59a(-/-)) mouse onto the MRL/lpr background and compared Cd59a(+/+)-MRL/lpr and Cd59a(-/-)-MRL/lpr littermates for the development of systemic autoimmunity. We found that CD59a deficiency significantly exacerbated the skin disease and lymphoproliferation characteristic of MRL/lpr mice. It also increased autoantibody titers and caused a higher level of proteinuria in male MRL/lpr mice. Bone marrow transfer experiments indicated that CD59a expression on both bone marrow-derived cells and peripheral tissues played a role in lymphoproliferation, whereas the skin disease phenotype is determined mainly by local CD59a expression. Importantly, C3 gene deletion or C5 neutralization with a blocking mAb in Cd59a(-/-)-MRL/lpr mice did not rescue the proautoimmune phenotype associated with CD59a deficiency. These results together suggest that CD59a inhibits systemic autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice through a complement-independent mechanism.
This study was designed to evaluate two pen needles (PNs) with the same diameter but different lengths (4 mm and 6 mm) and different needle tip shapes (straight and tapered) to compare their effects on glycemic control, perceived pain, safety, patients ease of use and preferences, and visual impression.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a rare disease which causes Cushings syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy has been recommended as the treatment of choice for AIMAH. However, bilaterally adrenalectomized patients require lifelong steroid replacement therapy. Therefore, an increasing number of patients have undergone unilateral adrenalectomy for AIMAH. We report a case of AIMAH due to refractory diabetes in whom unilateral adrenalectomy initially yielded good diabetes control, but in whom poor glycemic control developed after 5 years, requiring eventual additional contralateral adrenalectomy. In elderly patients with AIMAH, one-stage bilateral adrenalectomy may be the treatment of choice.
A 42-year-old female who was a voluntary worker in a school for handicapped children was referred to us for surgery for active infective endocarditis. Trans-esophageal echocardiography showed 2 large mobile vegetations on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Aortic valve replacement was performed to prevent septic embolism and deterioration of congestive heart failure. The empiric therapy with vancomycin, ampicillin, and gentamycin was initiated because a pathogen was not identified. But Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (gram-positive rod) was isolated on the 4th day after surgery. The target therapy with penicillin G and clindamycin was started and continued for 4 weeks after surgery. The inflammatory parameters improved steadily and the patient was discharged on the 36th day after surgery. Infective endocarditis due to gram-positive rods can be easily mistaken for streptococci or dismissed as a skin contamination. But, E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
C5aR is a G protein-coupled receptor for the anaphylatoxin C5a and mediates many proinflammatory reactions. C5aR signaling also has been shown to regulate T cell immunity, but its sites and mechanism of action in this process remain uncertain. In this study, we created a GFP knockin mouse and used GFP as a surrogate marker to examine C5aR expression. GFP was knocked into the 3-untranslated region of C5ar1 by gene targeting. We show that GFP is expressed highly on Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells in the blood, spleen, and bone marrow and moderately on CD11b(+)F4/80(+) circulating leukocytes and elicited peritoneal macrophages. No GFP is detected on resting or activated T lymphocytes or on splenic myeloid or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In contrast, 5-25% cultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells expressed GFP. Interestingly, GFP knockin prevented cell surface but not intracellular C5aR expression. We conclude that C5aR is unlikely to play an intrinsic role on murine T cells and primary dendritic cells. Instead, its effect on T cell immunity in vivo may involve CD11b(+)F4/80(+) or other C5aR-expressing leukocytes. Further, our data reveal a surprising role for the 3-untranslated region of C5aR mRNA in regulating C5aR protein targeting to the plasma membrane.
We prospectively examined the additional effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) particularly on the vascular function of diabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia receiving statin therapy. We enrolled 28 patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by dyslipidemia who had been treated with statins for at least one year. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: administration of statin alone (group S: n = 13) and addition of EPA to the current statin therapy (group SE: n = 15). The highly purified EPA was administered at a dose of 1,800 mg/day for 6 months. To evaluate vascular function, the duration of reactive hyperemia (DRH), which is the time required for forearm blood flow to return to the basal level after inducing reactive hyperemia, was measured using strain gauge plethysmography. There were no significant differences in the clinical background factors between the 2 groups. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly decreased after 6 months only in group SE. Compared with the baseline data, no significant change in DRH was observed after 6 months in group S. By contrast, DRH was significantly prolonged after 6 months in group SE, indicating that the addition of highly purified EPA improved vascular function. Our results showed that in patients with type 2 diabetes and receiving statin therapy whose LDL-C level was less than 100 mg/dL, the addition of highly purified EPA for 6 months significantly improved vascular function.
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