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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Single-incision subxiphoid approach for bilateral metastasectomy.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We report a case of single-incision bilateral partial lung resection using the subxiphoid approach. This approach requires a 3-cm incision in the abdomen, making it aesthetically favorable. In addition, it does not cause postoperative intercostal neuropathy, and postoperative pain is minimal because the intercostal space is bypassed. Moreover, this technique enables exposure to both lungs through a single incision and has potential for widespread use if maneuverability can be increased by improving the instruments used.
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Dual-port thymectomy using subxiphoid approach.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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We have previously reported single-port thymectomy (SPT) through an infrasternal approach, a procedure in which the thymus is removed through a single port. The dual-port thymectomy procedure developed by adding another port to the single-port procedure has eliminated the risk of interference between forceps operated by both hands of the surgeon and has thereby significantly simplified operative procedures. This procedure provides the same operative field as that obtained by median sternotomy and has excellent maneuverability of devices. Therefore, the dual-port procedure can be used by surgeons who have not been sufficiently trained for SPT, as an alternative procedure in the event of experiencing technical difficulty during SPT, or as a new approach for thymectomy.
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Pyroptotic cells externalize eat-me and release find-me signals and are efficiently engulfed by macrophages.
Int. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Pathogenic intracellular bacteria often hijack macrophages for their propagation. The infected macrophages release IL-1? and IL-18 and simultaneously commit suicide, which is called pyroptosis; both responses require caspase-1. Here, we found that pyroptotic cells induced by microbial infection were efficiently engulfed by human monocytic THP-1-cell-derived macrophages or mouse peritoneal macrophages. This engulfment was inhibited by the D89E mutant of milk fat globule (MFG) epidermal growth factor (EGF) factor 8 (MFG-E8; a phosphatidylserine-binding protein) that has been shown previously to inhibit phosphatidylserine-dependent engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages, suggesting that the engulfment of pyroptotic cells by macrophages was also phosphatidylserine dependent. Using a pair of cell lines that respectively exhibited pyroptosis or apoptosis after muramyl dipeptide treatment, we showed that both pyroptotic and apoptotic cells bound to a T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing 4 (Tim4; another phosphatidylserine-binding protein)-coated plate, whereas heat-killed necrotic cells did not, indicating that phosphatidylserine was externalized in pyroptosis and apoptosis but not in accidental necrosis. Macrophages engulfed apoptotic cells most efficiently, followed by pyroptotic and then heat-killed necrotic cells. Pyroptotic cells also released a macrophage attractant(s), find-me signal, whose activity was diminished by apyrase that degrades nucleoside triphosphate to nucleoside monophosphate. Heat-killed necrotic cells and pyroptotic cells released ATP much more efficiently than apoptotic cells. These results suggest that pyroptotic cells, like apoptotic cells, actively induce phagocytosis by macrophages using eat-me and find-me signals. Based on these results, a possible role of coordinated induction of pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine production is discussed.
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Caspase-1 protein induces apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)-mediated necrosis independently of its catalytic activity.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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The adaptor protein, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), connects pathogen/danger sensors such as NLRP3 and NLRC4 with caspases and is involved in inflammation and cell death. We have found that ASC activation induced caspase-8-dependent apoptosis or CA-074Me (cathepsin B inhibitor)-inhibitable necrosis depending on the cell type. Unlike necroptosis, another necrotic cell death, ASC-mediated necrosis, was neither RIP3-dependent nor necrostatin-1-inhibitable. Although acetyl-YVAD-chloromethylketone (Ac-YVAD-CMK) (caspase-1 inhibitor) did not inhibit ASC-mediated necrosis, comprehensive gene expression analyses indicated that caspase-1 expression coincided with the necrosis type. Furthermore, caspase-1 knockdown converted necrosis-type cells to apoptosis-type cells, whereas exogenous expression of either wild-type or catalytically inactive caspase-1 did the opposite. Knockdown of caspase-1, but not Ac-YVAD-CMK, suppressed the monocyte necrosis induced by Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas infection. Thus, the catalytic activity of caspase-1 is dispensable for necrosis induction. Intriguingly, a short period of caspase-1 knockdown inhibited IL-1? production but not necrosis, although longer knockdown suppressed both responses. Possible explanations of this phenomenon are discussed.
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Roles of the PI3K/Akt pathway and autophagy in TLR3 signaling-induced apoptosis and growth arrest of human prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2011
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are widely expressed in immune cells and play a crucial role in many aspects of the immune response. Although some types of TLRs are also expressed in cancer cells, the effects and mechanisms of TLR signaling in cancer cells have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a TLR3 ligand, on three TLR3-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, and DU145). We then further characterized the underlying mechanisms, focusing on the poly(I:C)-sensitive LNCaP cell line. Poly(I:C) significantly reduced the viability of LNCaP cells TLR3 and endosome dependently. One mechanism for the antitumor effect was caspase-dependent apoptosis, and another mechanism was poly(I:C)-induced growth arrest. Cell survival and proliferation of LNCaP cells depended on the PI3K/Akt pathway, and PI3K/Akt inhibitors induced apoptosis and growth arrest similar to poly(I:C) treatment. Additionally, poly(I:C) treatment caused dephosphorylation of Akt in LNCaP cells, but transduction of the constitutively active form of Akt rendered LNCaP cells resistant to poly(I:C). Immunoblot analysis of proliferation- and apoptosis-related molecules in poly(I:C)-treated LNCaP cells revealed participation of cyclinD1, c-Myc, p53, and NOXA. Interestingly, poly(I:C) treatment of LNCaP cells was accompanied by autophagy, which was cytoprotective toward poly(I:C)-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings indicate that TLR3 signaling triggers apoptosis and growth arrest of LNCaP cells partially through inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and that treatment-associated autophagy plays a cytoprotective role.
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Activation of ASC induces apoptosis or necrosis, depending on the cell type, and causes tumor eradication.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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The adaptor protein ASC (also called TMS1) links certain NLR proteins (e.g., NLRC4, NLRP3) and caspases. It is involved in the chemosensitivity of tumor cells and inflammation. Here, we found that ASC activation using NLRC4 mimicry or an autoinflammatory disease-associated NLRP3 mutant induced necrosis in COLO205 colon adenocarcinoma cells, but induced caspase-8-dependent apoptosis in NUGC-4 stomach cancer cells. As the Fas ligand induced caspase-8-dependent apoptosis in COLO205 cells, caspase-8 was intact in this cell line. ASC-mediated necrosis was preceded by lysosomal leakage, and diminished by inhibitors for vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, cathepsins, and calpains but not by inhibitors for caspase-8, or aspartic proteases, suggesting that lysosomes and certain proteases were involved in this process. Finally, growing tumors of transplanted human cancer cells in nude mice were eradicated by the activation of endogenous ASC in the tumor cells, irrespective of the form of cell death. Thus, ASC mediates distinct forms of cell death in different cell types, and is a promising target for cancer therapy.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of PYNOD and its mechanism in humans and mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Many members of the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)- and leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein (NLR) family play important roles in pathogen recognition and inflammation. However, we previously reported that human PYNOD/NLRP10, an NLR-like protein consisting of a pyrin domain and a NOD, inhibits inflammatory signal mediated by caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) in reconstitution experiments using HEK293 cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of PYNODs anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and its expression and function in mice. Human PYNOD inhibited the autoprocessing of caspase-1 and caspase-1-mediated IL-1beta processing and suppressed the aggregation of ASC, a hallmark of ASC activation. Interestingly, the NOD of human PYNOD was sufficient to inhibit caspase-1-mediated IL-1beta secretion, whereas its pyrin domain was sufficient to inhibit ASC-mediated NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis and to reduce ASCs ability to promote caspase-1-mediated IL-1beta production. Mouse PYNOD protein was detected in the skin, tongue, heart, colon, peritoneal macrophages, and several cell lines of hematopoietic and myocytic lineages. Mouse PYNOD colocalized with ASC aggregates in LPS + R837-stimulated macrophages; however, unlike human PYNOD, mouse PYNOD failed to inhibit ASC aggregation. Macrophages and neutrophils from PYNOD-transgenic mice exhibited reduced IL-1beta processing and secretion upon microbial infection, although mouse PYNOD failed to inhibit caspase-1 processing, which was inhibited by caspase-4 inhibitor z-LEED-fluoromethylketone. These results suggest that mouse PYNOD colocalizes with ASC and inhibits caspase-1-mediated IL-1beta processing without inhibiting caspase-4 (mouse caspase-11)-mediated caspase-1 processing. Furthermore, PYNOD-transgenic mice were resistant to lethal endotoxic shock. Thus, PYNOD is the first example of an NLR that possesses an anti-inflammatory function in vivo.
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Mechanism and repertoire of ASC-mediated gene expression.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is an adaptor molecule that mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signals. Although the role of ASC in caspase-1-mediated IL-1beta and IL-18 maturation is well known, ASC also induces NF-kappaB activation and cytokine gene expression in human cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism and repertoire of ASC-induced gene expression in human cells. We found that the specific activation of ASC induced AP-1 activity, which was required for optimal IL8 promoter activity. ASC activation also induced STAT3-, but not STAT1-, IFN-stimulated gene factor 3- or NF-AT-dependent reporter gene expression. The ASC-mediated AP-1 activation was NF-kappaB-independent and primarily cell-autonomous response, whereas the STAT3 activation required NF-kappaB activation and was mediated by a factor that can act in a paracrine manner. ASC-mediated AP-1 activation was inhibited by chemical or protein inhibitors for caspase-8, caspase-8-targeting small-interfering RNA, and p38 and JNK inhibitors, but not by a caspase-1 inhibitor, caspase-9 or Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) dominant-negative mutants, FADD- or RICK-targeting small-interfering RNAs, or a MEK inhibitor, indicating that the ASC-induced AP-1 activation is mediated by caspase-8, p38, and JNK, but does not require caspase-1, caspase-9, FADD, RICK, or ERK. DNA microarray analyses identified 75 genes that were induced by ASC activation. A large proportion of them was related to transcription (23%), inflammation (21%), or cell death (16%), indicating that ASC is a potent inducer of inflammatory and cell death-related genes. This is the first report of ASC-mediated AP-1 activation and the repertoire of genes induced downstream of ASC activation.
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Feasibility of AC/EC followed by weekly paclitaxel in node-positive breast cancer in Japan.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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The feasibility and efficacy of adriamycin or epirubicin in combination with cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel (AC/EC-weekly PAC) as adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer was investigated.
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Fas Ligand Has a Greater Impact than TNF-? on Apoptosis and Inflammation in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury.
Nephron Extra
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Fas ligand (FasL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? are major pro-apoptotic molecules and also induce inflammation through cytokine and chemokine production. Although precise intracellular mechanisms of action have been reported for each molecule, the differential impact of these molecules on kidney injury in vivo still requires clarification.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.