The Mycoses Forum in Japan has developed management bundles for candidaemia to incorporate into bedside practice. The aim of this study was to investigate nationwide compliance with the bundles and their impact on clinical outcomes.
We report a rare case of a 49-year-old man with biventricular thrombi associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The patient was admitted with congestive heart failure and pneumonia. Echocardiography revealed mobile "ball-like" biventricular thrombi associated with significantly impaired left ventricular function and severe mitral/tricuspid valve regurgitation. The biventricular thrombi were removed and subsequently, a mitral annuloplasty, as well as papillary muscle approximation and tricuspid annuloplasty were performed. The postoperative course has been uneventful over a period of 2 years and neither thromboembolic events nor recurrence of congestive heart failure has been observed.
Androgen-independent prostate cancer is known as a hormone-refractory disease. Although the androgen receptor (AR) is considered to be a key regulator of androgen-independent prostate cancer progression, the mechanism through which AR gene expression is regulated is not well understood. In the present study, we showed that the AR gene was upregulated by paired box 2 (PAX2) in androgen-independent prostate cancer. When PAX2 upregulated AR gene expression, a decrease in DNA methylation of the AR gene locus was also observed. PAX2 was highly expressed and promoted cell growth in an androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line (22Rv1). The cell growth inhibition by PAX2 knockdown was rescued by AR overexpression in 22Rv1 cells. In a mouse xenograft model of androgen-independent prostate cancer, PAX2 knockdown inhibited tumor growth and AR gene expression and also increased DNA methylation of the AR gene. Consistent with this, AR and PAX2 expression levels were positively correlated in prostate cancer patients. These findings suggested that PAX2 promoted cancer cell growth in androgen-independent prostate cancer by regulating AR gene expression through an epigenetic mechanism.
RAB GTPases interact with specific effector molecules in a spatiotemporally regulated manner to induce various downstream reactions. To clarify the overall picture of RAB GTPase functions, it is important to elucidate the cellular locale where RAB and its effectors interact. Here, we applied a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to analyze where RAB GTPase interacted with effectors in endosomal trafficking.
To uncover the mechanism by which human prostate cancer progresses, we performed a genetic screen for regulators of human prostate cancer progression using the Drosophila accessory gland, a functional homolog of the mammalian prostate. Cell growth and migration of secondary cells in the adult male accessory gland were found to be regulated by paired, N-cadherin, and E-cadherin, which are Drosophila homologues of regulators of human prostate cancer progression. Using this screening system, we also identified three genes that promoted growth and migration of secondary cells in the accessory gland. The human homologues of these candidate genes - MRGBP, CNPY2, and MEP1A - were found to be expressed in human prostate cancer model cells and to promote replication and invasiveness in these cells. These findings suggest that the development of the Drosophila accessory gland and human prostate cancer cell growth and invasion are partly regulated through a common mechanism. The screening system using the Drosophila accessory gland can be a useful tool for uncovering the mechanisms of human prostate cancer progression.
This preliminary study is the first report to compare photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) with narrow band imaging (NBI) in the same patients with flat urothelial lesions suspicious of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder.
Rab GTPases serve as multifaceted organizers during vesicle trafficking. Rab7, a member of the Rab GTPase family, has been shown to perform various essential functions in endosome trafficking and in endosome-to-lysosome trafficking in mammalian systems. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes eight putative Rab7 homologs; however, the detailed function and activation mechanism of Rab7 in plants remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis RABG3f, a member of the plant Rab7 small GTPase family, localizes to prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) and the tonoplast. The proper activation of Rab7 is essential for both PVC-to-vacuole trafficking and vacuole biogenesis. Expression of a dominant-negative Rab7 mutant (RABG3f(T22N)) induces the formation of enlarged PVCs and affects vacuole morphology in plant cells. We also identify Arabidopsis MON1 (MONENSIN SENSITIVITY1) and CCZ1 (CALCIUM CAFFEINE ZINC SENSITIVITY1) proteins as a dimeric complex that functions as the Rab7 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The MON1-CCZ1 complex also serves as the Rab5 effector to mediate Rab5-to-Rab7 conversion on PVCs. Loss of functional MON1 causes the formation of enlarged Rab5-positive PVCs that are separated from Rab7-positive endosomes. Similar to the dominant-negative Rab7 mutant, the mon1 mutants show pleiotropic growth defects, fragmented vacuoles, and altered vacuolar trafficking. Thus, Rab7 activation by the MON1-CCZ1 complex is critical for vacuolar trafficking, vacuole biogenesis, and plant growth.
A surgical case of a 65-year-old man with aortitis syndrome is presented. The patient had undergone aortic valve replacement for aortic valve regurgitation with a mechanical prosthesis, followed by a re-do operation (valve fixation) for prosthetic valve detachment 6 months after the 1st operation. Three months after the 2nd operation, perivalvular leakage due to valve detachment was detected again. Aorticroot replacement with a Freestyle stentless valve( full root technique) was performed. Prednisolone was given postoperatively, and no valve detachment nor pseudoaneurysm formation has been noted for 8 years.
A 69-year-old man was admitted with progressive congestive heart failure due to ischemic mitral valve regurgitation. He had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting( CABG) using bilateral internal thoracic arteries( ITAs) and saphenous vein grafts( SVG). An angiogram revealed patent bilateral ITAs and stenosis of the SVG affecting the left circumflex (LCX) branch, which persisted despite repeated catheter intervention. Patent ITA grafts were located immediately beneath the sternum. We performed a mitral annuloplasty and CABG( SVG-LCX) simultaneously with on-pump beating via left thoracotomy. Postoperative course was uneventful and mitral valve regurgitation disappeared with patent SVG-LCX.
Male and female, generally defined based on differences in gamete size and motility, likely have multiple independent origins, appearing to have evolved from isogamous organisms in various eukaryotic lineages. Recent studies of the gamete fusogen GCS1/HAP2 indicate that this protein is deeply conserved across eukaryotes, and its exclusive and/or functional expression generally resides in males or in male homologues. However, little is known regarding the conserved or primitive molecular traits of males and females within eukaryotes. Here, using morphologically indistinguishable isogametes of the colonial volvocine Gonium pectorale, we demonstrated that GCS1 is differently regulated between the sexes. G. pectorale GCS1 molecules in one sex (homologous to male) are transported from the gamete cytoplasm to the protruded fusion site, whereas those of the other sex (females) are quickly degraded within the cytoplasm upon gamete activation. This molecular trait difference might be conserved across various eukaryotic lineages and may represent male and female prototypes originating from a common eukaryotic ancestor.
The RAB5 GTPase ARA6 (AtARA6) of Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be involved in endosomal trafficking by targeting vesicles to the plasma membrane. During this process AtARA6 is working in close relationship with the SNARE protein VAMP727 (vesicle associated membrane protein 727). Recently, ARA6 of the characean green algae Chara australis (CaARA6) was shown to have properties similar to AtARA6, pointing to similar trafficking pathways. In order to gain further insight into the vesicle trafficking machinery of characeae, C. australis was analyzed for homologous proteins of the VAMP72-family. A CaVAMP72 protein was detected and classified by protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses.
Membrane trafficking functions in the delivery of proteins that are newly synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to their final destinations, such as the plasma membrane (PM) and the vacuole, and in the internalization of extracellular components or PM-associated proteins for recycling or degradative regulation. These trafficking pathways play pivotal roles in the rapid responses to environmental stimuli such as challenges by microorganisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of plant membrane trafficking and its roles in plant-microbe interactions. Although there is little information regarding the mechanism of pathogenic modulation of plant membrane trafficking thus far, recent research has identified many membrane trafficking factors as possible targets of microbial modulation.
Membrane trafficking in plants is involved in cellular development and the adaptation to various environmental changes. SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) proteins mediate the fusion between vesicles and organelles to facilitate transport cargo proteins in cells. To characterize further the SNARE protein networks in cells, we carried out interactome analysis of SNARE proteins using 12 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Qa-SNAREs (SYP111, SYP121, SYP122, SYP123, SYP132, SYP21, SYP22, SYP31, SYP32, SYP41, SYP42 and SYP43). Microsomal fractions were prepared from each transgenic root, and subjected to immunoprecipitation (IP) using micromagnetic beads coupled to anti-GFP antibodies. To identify Qa-SNARE-interacting proteins, all immunoprecipitated products were then subjected to mass spectrometric (IP-MS) analysis. The IP-MS data revealed not only known interactions of SNARE proteins, but also unknown interactions. The IP-MS results were next categorized by gene ontology analysis. The data revealed that categories of cellular component organization, the cytoskeleton and endosome were enriched in the SYP2, SYP3 and SYP4 groups. In contrast, transporter activity was classified specifically in the SYP132 group. We also identified a novel interaction between SYP22 and VAMP711, which was validated using co-localization analysis with confocal microscopy and IP. Additional novel SNARE-interacting proteins play roles in vesicle transport and lignin biosynthesis, and were identified as membrane microdomain-related proteins. We propose that Qa-SNARE interactomics is useful for understanding SNARE interactions across the whole cell.
The multifunctional vacuole is the largest organelle in plant cells, and many proteins are transported to and stored in this organelle; thus, the vacuole has great physiological and agronomical importance. However, the molecular mechanism and regulation of plant vacuolar traffic remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that multiple vacuolar trafficking pathways operate in plants. RAB5 and RAB7 are evolutionarily conserved subfamilies of Rab GTPase, whose animal and yeast counterparts regulate vacuolar/endosomal trafficking in a sequential manner. Functional analyses of a putative activating complex for RAB7 indicated that this complex is responsible for maturation from RAB5- to RAB7-positive endosomes in plant cells. Moreover, these machinery components are recruited to a more complex trafficking network. Mutations in RAB5 and RAB7 conferred counteracting effects on the vti11 mutant. Furthermore, impairment of RAB5- and RAB7-dependent pathways differentially affected the transport of distinctive cargos. These results indicate that plants have developed a complex vacuolar transport system distinct from that of nonplant systems by assigning evolutionarily conserved machinery to unique trafficking pathways. These pathways provide a fundamental basis for plant development at the cellular and higher-ordered levels.
Plant vacuoles play critical roles in development, growth and stress responses. In mature cells, vacuolar membranes (VMs) display several types of structures, which are formed by invagination and folding of VMs into the lumenal side and can gradually move and change shape. Although such VM structures are observed in a broad range of tissue types and plant species, the molecular mechanism underlying their formation and maintenance remains unclear. Here, we report that a novel HEAT-repeat protein, SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 (SGR6), of Arabidopsis is involved in the control of morphological changes and dynamics of VM structures in endodermal cells, which are the gravity-sensing cells in shoots. SGR6 is a membrane-associated protein that is mainly localized to the VM in stem endodermal cells. The sgr6 mutant stem exhibits a reduced gravitropic response. Higher plants utilize amyloplast sedimentation as a means to sense gravity direction. Amyloplasts are surrounded by VMs in Arabidopsis endodermal cells, and the flexible and dynamic structure of VMs is important for amyloplast sedimentation. We demonstrated that such dynamic features of VMs are gradually lost in sgr6 endodermal cells during a 30 min observation period. Histological analysis revealed that amyloplast sedimentation was impaired in sgr6. Detailed live-cell imaging analyses revealed that the VM structures in sgr6 had severe defects in morphological changes and dynamics. Our results suggest that SGR6 is a novel protein involved in the formation and/or maintenance of invaginated VM structures in gravity-sensing cells.
In the treatment of severe MRSA infections such as endocarditis, more than 20 mg/L of plasma trough concentration (C(min)) is recommended for teicoplanin; however, in the treatment of common MRSA infections, recommended C(min) remains more than 10 mg/L. In this study, we set C(min) as 15-30 mg/L to obtain a favorable clinical outcome in the treatment of common MRSA infections, and investigated the optimal loading regimen that achieved the target C(min) in patients with normal renal function. Seventy-eight patients received the high-dose regimen A (6 mg/kg every 12-h for initial two days) and 60 patients received the high-dose regimen B (the first five loading doses of 10-12 mg/kg at 12-h intervals for initial three days, followed by 6 mg/kg once daily). The mean C(min) on the 4th day was 13.7 ± 5.3 mg/L in regimen A, and 20.0 ± 6.6 mg/L in regimen B (P < 0.001), and the proportion of patients achieving the 15-30 mg/L was 25.6% and 68.3% (P < 0.001). Clinical response at end-of treatment were 66.7% and 85.0% (P = 0.014). The patients of initial C(min) with ?15 mg/L had tended to be higher clinical response than those with <15 mg/L (80.9% vs 68.6%, P = 0.084). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects in regimen A and B (nephrotoxicity; 1.3% vs 3.3%, P = 0.413, hepatotoxicity; 5.1% vs 3.3%, P = 0.608). In conclusion, to obtain C(min) 15-30 mg/L, the first five loading doses of 10-12 mg/kg at 12-h intervals was required in patients with normal renal function.
Accurate dose delivery is essential for the success of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer. Reproducibility of IMRT dose delivery to HN regions can be critically influenced by treatment-related changes in body contours. Moreover, some set-up margins may not be adaptable to positional uncertainties of HN structures at every treatment. To obtain evidence for appropriate set-up margins in various head and neck areas, we prospectively evaluated positional deviation (? values) of four bony landmarks (i.e. the clivus and occipital protuberance for the head region, and the mental protuberance and C5 for the neck region) using megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography during a treatment course. Over 800 ? values were analyzed in each translational direction. Positional uncertainties for HN cancer patients undergoing IMRT were evaluated relative to the body mass index. Low positional accuracy was observed for the neck region compared with the head region. For the head region, most of the ? was distributed within ± 5 mm, and use of the current set-up margin was appropriate. However, the ? values for the neck region were within ± 8 mm. Especially for overweight patients, a few millimeters needed to be added to give an adequate set-up margin. For accurate dose delivery to targets and to avoid excess exposure to normal tissues, we recommend that the positional verification process be performed before every treatment.
The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is an important organelle for protein transport at the post-Golgi network, which functions as a sorting station that directs cargo proteins to a variety of destinations including post-Golgi compartments and the extracellular space. However, the functions and dynamics of the TGN in plant cells have not been well understood yet. To elucidate the dynamics of the plant TGN, we established transgenic plants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SYP43, the ortholog of Tlg2/syntaxin16, which is localized to the TGN in yeast and mammalian cells, under the control of the native promoter as a TGN marker. Observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy and super-resolution confocal live imaging microscopy revealed two types of TGN in Arabidopsis root: the GA-TGNs (Golgi-associated TGNs), located on the trans-side of the Golgi apparatus, and the GI-TGNs (Golgi-released independent TGNs), located away from the Golgi apparatus and behaving independently. The GI-TGNs is derived from a population of GA-TGNs by segregation, although the core of the GA-TGN remains even after the generation of the GI-TGN. We further found that the abundance of the GI-TGNs differs between observed tissues. Our results indicate that the dynamic features of the TGN in plant cells differ from those of animal and yeast cells.
A 66-year-old woman with a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) presented with an irregularly shaped leg ulcer surrounded by pigmentation on the left lower limb. In addition, the circumference of her left thigh had gradually increased. The ulcer did not respond to topical treatment and enlarged, therefore, she visited our hospital. Arteriography of the left lower limb showed multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), based on which we made a diagnosis of a leg ulcer due to multiple AVMs. Transcatheter arterial embolisation with a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and lipiodol was performed six times in the period of about a year for treating the AVMs. The ulcer was managed with bed rest, surgical debridement, continuous pressure support with elastic wrap and topical treatment. After 15?months, the ulcer healed, leaving pigmentation and scarring. It is quite rare for AVMs to progress in the elderly. We speculate that the DVT had caused occult AVMs to become symptomatic following an increase in size.
RAB5 GTPases are important regulators of endosomal membrane traffic in yeast, plants, and animals. A specific subgroup of this family, the ARA6 group, has been described in land plants including bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. Here, we report on the isolation of an ARA6 homologue in a green alga. CaARA6 (CaRABF1) from Chara australis, a member of the Characeae that is a close relative of land plants, encodes a polypeptide of 237 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 25.4kDa, which is highly similar to ARA6 members from Arabidopsis thaliana and other land plants and has GTPase activity. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells, fluorescently tagged CaARA6 labelled organelles with diameters between 0.2 and 1.2 µm, which co-localized with fluorescently tagged AtARA6 known to be present on multivesicular endosomes. Mutations in the membrane-anchoring and GTP-binding sites altered the localization of CaARA6 comparable to that of A. thaliana ARA6 (RABF1). In characean internodal cells, confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy with antibodies against AtARA6 and CaARA6 revealed ARA6 epitopes not only at multivesicular endosomes but also at the plasma membrane, including convoluted domains (charasomes), and at the trans-Golgi network. Our findings demonstrate that ARA6-like proteins have a more ancient origin than previously thought. They indicate further that ARA6-like proteins could have different functions in spite of the high similarity between characean algae and flowering plants.
The first total synthesis of vineomycin B2 (1) has been accomplished. The aglycon segment, a vineomycinone B2 derivative, and the glycon segment, an ?-L-acurosyl-L-rhodinose derivative, were prepared via C-glycosylation using an unprotected sugar and powerful chemoselective O-glycosylation using a 2,3-unsaturated sugar, respectively, as the key steps. Furthermore, effective and simultaneous introduction of the two glycon moieties to the aglycon part by concentration-controlled glycosylation led to the total synthesis of 1.
Rab GTPases regulate the tethering and fusion of transport vesicles to target membranes in membrane trafficking by acting as a molecular switch, cycling between GDP- and GTP-bound states. RAB5 is a member of the Rab GTPase family, the members of which have been shown to perform various functions in the endocytic pathway, including the regulation of endosomal fusion and motility in animal cells. RAB5-mediated endosomal trafficking has also been found to play important roles in various higher order plant functions, which include the regulation of the polar transport of auxin and responses to environmental conditions. The regulatory mechanisms and functions of plant RAB5 have also been investigated at the molecular and cellular levels. However, the significance of RAB5 activity at the tissue and organ levels has hardly been investigated thus far. In the present study, we examined the effect of a mutation in VPS9a, which encodes the sole guanine nucleotide exchange factor for all RAB5s in the vegetative stages of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that multiple developmental processes were impaired in the mutant plants, including the growth and pattern formation of the roots and establishment of auxin maxima. Our results indicate that RAB5 plays distinctive pivotal roles in the development of plants.
RAB11 GTPases, widely conserved members of RAB small GTPases, have evolved in a unique way in plants; plant RAB11 has notable diversity compared with animals and yeast. Recently, we have shown that members of RABA1, a subgroup in Arabidopsis RAB11 group, are required for salinity stress tolerance. To obtain a clue to understand its underlying mechanism, here we investigate whether RABA1 regulates sodium transport across the plasma membrane and accumulation in the vacuole. The results indicate that the raba1 quadruple mutant is not defective in the import and intracellular distribution of sodium, implying that RABA1 members are involved in a more indirect way in the responses to salinity stress.
Arabidopsis thaliana ARA7 (AtRabF2b), a member of the plant Rab5 small GTPases functioning in the vacuolar transport pathway, localizes to pre-vacuolar compartments (PVCs), known as multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in plant cells. Overexpression of the constitutively active GTP-bound mutant of ARA7, ARA7(Q69L), induces the formation of large ring-like structures (1-2 µm in diameter). To better understand the biology of these ARA7(Q69L)-induced ring-like structures, transgenic Arabidopsis cell lines expressing ARA7(Q69L) tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a heat shock-inducible promoter were generated. In these transgenic cells, robust ring-like structures were formed after 4 h of heat shock induction. Transient co-expression, confocal imaging, and immunogold electron microscopy (immunogold-EM) experiments demonstrated that these GFP-ARA7(Q69L)-labelled ring-like structures were distinct from the Golgi apparatus and trans-Golgi network, but were labelled with an antibody against an MVB marker protein. In addition, live cell imaging and detailed EM analysis showed that the GFP-ARA7(Q69L)-induced spherical structures originated from the homotypic fusion of MVBs. In summary, it was demonstrated that GFP-ARA7(Q69L) expression is an efficient tool for studying PVC/MVB-mediated protein trafficking and vacuolar degradation in plant cells.
Rice (Oryza sativa) glutelins are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum as a precursor, which are then transported via the Golgi to protein storage vacuoles (PSVs), where they are proteolytically processed into acidic and basic subunits. The glutelin precursor mutant6 (glup6) accumulates abnormally large amounts of proglutelin. Map-base cloning studies showed that glup6 was a loss-of-function mutant of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which activates Rab GTPase, a key regulator of membrane trafficking. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the transport of proglutelins and ?-globulins to PSV was disrupted in glup6 endosperm. Secreted granules of glutelin and ?-globulin were readily observed in young glup6 endosperm, followed by the formation of large dilated paramural bodies (PMBs) containing both proteins as the endosperm matures. The PMBs also contained membrane biomarkers for the Golgi and prevacuolar compartment as well as the cell wall component, ?-glucan. Direct evidence was gathered showing that GLUP6/GEF activated in vitro GLUP4/Rab5 as well as several Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Rab5 isoforms to the GTP-bound form. Therefore, loss-of-function mutations in GEF or Rab5 disrupt the normal transport of proglutelin from the Golgi to PSVs, resulting in the initial extracellular secretion of these proteins followed, in turn, by the formation of PMBs. Overall, our results indicate that GLUP6/GEF is the activator of Rab5 GTPase and that the cycling of GTP- and GDP-bound forms of this regulatory protein is essential for the intracellular transport of proglutelin and ?-globulin from the Golgi to PSVs and in the maintenance of the general structural organization of the endomembrane system in rice seeds.
Cell surface proteins play critical roles in the perception of environmental stimuli at the plasma membrane (PM) and ensuing signal transduction. Intracellular localization of such proteins must be strictly regulated, which requires elaborate integration of exocytic and endocytic trafficking pathways. Subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), a receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, also depends on membrane trafficking. However, our understanding about the mechanisms involved is still limited. In this study, we visualized ligand-induced endocytosis of FLS2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged FLS2 expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Upon treatment with the flg22 peptide, internalized FLS2-GFP from the PM was transported to a compartment with properties intermediate between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the multivesicular endosome. This compartment gradually discarded the TGN characteristics as it continued along the trafficking pathway. We further found that FLS2 endocytosis involves distinct RABA/RAB11 subgroups at different steps. Moreover, we demonstrated that transport of de novo-synthesized FLS2 to the PM also involves a distinct RABA/RAB11 subgroup. Our results demonstrate the complex regulatory system for properly localizing FLS2 and functional differentiation in RABA members in endo- and exocytosis.
Strigolactones (SLs) are phytohormones that inhibit shoot branching and function in the rhizospheric communication with symbiotic fungi and parasitic weeds. An ?/?-hydrolase protein, DWARF14 (D14), has been recognized to be an essential component of plant SL signalling, although its precise function remains unknown. Here we present the SL-dependent interaction of D14 with a gibberellin signalling repressor SLR1 and a possible mechanism of phytohormone perception in D14-mediated SL signalling. D14 functions as a cleavage enzyme of SLs, and the cleavage reaction induces the interaction with SLR1. The crystal structure of D14 shows that 5-hydroxy-3-methylbutenolide (D-OH), which is a reaction product of SLs, is trapped in the catalytic cavity of D14 to form an altered surface. The D14 residues recognizing D-OH are critical for the SL-dependent D14-SLR1 interaction. These results provide new insight into crosstalk between gibberellin and SL signalling pathways.
Metastasis is a consequence of many biological events, during which cancer stem cells are shifted into a malignant state. Among these events, invasion of prostate cancer cells into host tissues is possible to be assessed by means of an in vitro invasion model, and is thought to be coupled to altered expression of membrane proteins. Dysregulated functions of the factors regulating organogenesis during embryogenesis are known to facilitate metastasis of many types of cancers. PAX2 (paired box 2) is a member of the PAX transcription factor family, which regulates prostatic ductal growth and branching in organogenesis of mammalian prostates. However, the role of PAX2 in prostate cancer development remains to be determined.
Rab small GTPases regulate vesicle transport in eukaryotes by interacting with various effectors. Guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) catalyzes the transition from inactive GDP-bound Rab to active GTP-bound Rab. The existence of several GDP-bound intermediates containing the Arabidopsis thaliana Rab5 homologue ARA7 and the GEF VPS9a prior to the formation of a nucleotide-free binary complex has been proposed [Uejima et al. (2010), J. Biol. Chem. 285, 36689-36697]. During this process, VPS9a directly interacts with the ?-phosphate of GDP and the P-loop lysine of ARA7 via a catalytically important aspartate finger, which promotes the release of GDP from ARA7. However, it is unclear how VPS9a removes Mg2+ from ARA7 before forming the GDP-bound ternary complex. Here, the structure of the ARA7-GDP-Ca2+-VPS9a complex is reported, in which the aspartate finger directly coordinates the divalent metal ion. Ca2+ is bound to the canonical Mg2+-binding site, coordinated by the ?-phosphate of GDP and the P-loop serine of ARA7. Unexpectedly, Ca2+ is further coordinated by the aspartate finger and the main chain of VPS9a. This structure may represent the earliest intermediate step in the GEF-catalyzed nucleotide-exchange reaction of ARA7 before the metal-free GDP-bound intermediates are created.
We report five-metallic stent placement cases for malignant duodenal stenosis. Two of them received a placement of Ultraflex by over-the-wire (OTW) procedure, and the other three received a placement of WallFlex by through-the-scope (TTS) procedure. We assessed the baseline characteristic of the patient, procedural time and food intake after the stent placement for both OTW and TIS groups. OTW GROUP CASE 1: A 93-year-old woman with cancer of the ampulla of Vater, 60 min. in procedure time and low-residue diet after stent replacement. OTW GROUP CASE 2: A 76-year-old man with pancreatic cancer, 90 min. in procedure time and low-residue diet after stent replacement. TTS GROUP CASE 1: A 56-year-old man with recurrent postoperative bile duct cancer and gallbladder cancer, 16 min. in procedure time and full diet after stent replacement. TTS group case 2: A 79-year-old woman with pancreatic cancer, 40 min. in procedure time and liquids only after stent placement. TTS GROUP CASE 3: A 64-year-old woman with pancreatic cancer, 17 min. in procedure time and liquids only after stent placement. In comparison with OTW, TTS placement was much easier and it took a shorter procedural time. However, we consider that a selection of suitable stents and an assessment of the location for good food intake after stent placement are more important.
"Bulb" is a mobile and complex structure appearing in vacuolar membrane of plant cell. We recently reported new fluorescent marker lines for bulbs and bulb-less mutants. We tried multicolor visualization of vacuolar membrane to show distinct segregation of bulb-positive protein (?TIP or AtVAM3) and bulb-negative protein (AtRab75). Unexpectedly, GFP-AtRab75 resulted to localize in bulb under the condition of co-expression with TagRFP-AtVAM3. The signal intensities of GFP-AtRab75 and TagRFP-AtVAM3 were quantified and compared. The result indicates that TagRFP-AtVAM3 is concentrated in bulb than GFP-AtRab75.
To identify molecular targets associated with the development of diabetes, we analyzed the hepatic proteome of obese diabetic db/db mice using electrophoresis on a high-resolution two-dimensional gel combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. By comparison between non-diabetic db/+ and diabetic db/db mice, six proteins and one protein were significantly decreased and increased in the diabetic mice, respectively. Among these proteins, two of the decreased proteins are involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related unfolded protein response, GRP78 and protein disulfide isomerase A3, and it was revealed that the decreased GRP78 expression in the liver of diabetic db/db mice is due to the reduction of GRP78 protein synthesis rather than RNA transcription. In addition, we found that the treatment of human hepatocyte HepG2 cells with oleic acid decreased the expression of GRP78, and attenuated the activation of AKT by insulin stimulation. These results suggest that decreased GRP78 expression may induce resistance to insulin by inhibiting the AKT activation, and plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes.
Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) are necessary for selective transport events, including receptor-mediated endocytosis on the plasma membrane and cargo molecule sorting in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Components involved in CCV formation include clathrin heavy and light chains and several adaptor proteins that are conserved among plants. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis has been shown to play an integral part in plant endocytosis. However, little information is known about clathrin dynamics in living plant cells. In this study, we have visualized clathrin in Arabidopsis thaliana by tagging clathrin light chain with green fluorescent protein (CLC-GFP). Quantitative evaluations of colocalization demonstrate that the majority of CLC-GFP is localized to the TGN, and a minor population is associated with multivesicular endosomes and the Golgi trans-cisternae. Live imaging further demonstrated the presence of highly dynamic clathrin-positive tubules and vesicles, which appeared to mediate interactions between the TGNs. CLC-GFP is also targeted to cell plates and the plasma membrane. Although CLC-GFP colocalizes with a dynamin isoform at the plasma membrane, these proteins exhibit distinct distributions at newly forming cell plates. This finding indicates independent functions of CLC (clathrin light chains) and dynamin during the formation of cell plates. We have also found that brefeldin A and wortmannin treatment causes distinctly different alterations in the dynamics and distribution of clathrin-coated domains at the plasma membrane. This could account for the different effects of these drugs on plant endocytosis.
To reveal the mechanism of urinary urgency evoked by cold sensation, we investigated the convergence of the primary sensory afferents of the skin and bladder. Dichotomizing afferents of L6-S1 dorsal root ganglion neurons that innervate the skin and bladder was constantly observed with retrograde neuron tracers in rats. In-situ hybridization revealed that approximately 8.0% of the double-labelled cells expressed transient receptor potential channel melastatin member 8 (TRPM8) transcripts in the dorsal root ganglions. Cold and menthol stimuli to the skin generated bladder nerve responses conducted through dichotomizing axons, which significantly decreased in the presence of the TRPM8 blocker BCTC. Taken together, TRPM8-expressing sensory neurons with dichotomizing axons projecting to the skin and bladder may be responsible for the urinary urgency evoked by cold sensation.
CtBP/BARS is a unique protein family in having quite diversified cellular functions, intercellular localizations, and developmental roles. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is the sole homolog of CtBP/BARS from Arabidopsis thaliana, although it has plant AN-specific motifs and a long C-terminus. Previous studies suggested that AN would function in the nucleus as a transcriptional co-repressor, as CtBPs function in animals; however, precise verification has been lacking. In this paper, we isolated a homologous gene (MAN) of AN from liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Transformation of the Arabidopsis an-1 mutant with 35S-driven MAN completely complemented the an-1 phenotype, although it lacks the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) that exists in AN proteins isolated from other plant species. We constructed several plasmids for expressing modified ANs with amino acid substitutions in known motifs. The results clearly indicated that modified AN with mutations in the putative NLS-like domain could complement the an-1 phenotype. Therefore, we re-examined localization of AN using several techniques. Our results demonstrated that AN localizes on punctuate structures around the Golgi, partially overlapping with a trans-Golgi network resident, which highlighted an unexpected link between leaf development and membrane trafficking. We should reconsider the roles and evolutionary traits of AN based on these findings.
The plant vacuole fulfills a variety of functions, and is essential for plant growth and development. We previously identified complex and mobile structures on the continuous vacuolar membrane, which we refer to as bulbs. To ascertain their biological significance and function, we searched for markers associated with bulbs, and mutants that show abnormalities with respect to bulbs. We observed bulb-like structures after expression of non-membranous proteins as well as the functional soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) molecules VAM3 and VTI11. Bulbs are formed in more tissues than previously reported, including flowering organs, suspension culture cells, endodermal cells in the flowering stem, and at very early stages of seed germination. Using existing and newly developed marker lines, we found that the frequency of bulb occurrence is significantly decreased in multiple shoot gravitropism (sgr) mutants, which are known to have a defect in vacuolar membrane properties in endodermal cells. Based on results with new marker lines, which enabled us to observe the process of bulb biogenesis, and analysis of the phenotypes of these mutants, we propose multiple mechanisms for bulb formation, one of which may be that used for formation of transvacuolar strands.
Aripiprazole has made a significant contribution to the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. It has improved its safety and tolerability profiles, and these effects have been attributed to its pharmacological profile at the serotonin 5-HT and dopamine D(2) receptors. To discover compounds that have a similar pharmacological profile, we introduced a generic single-cell-based calcium imaging assay that standardizes the readouts from various assays used in previous studies on aripiprazole. In the present assay, the efficacy and potency of known ligands of serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(7) and dopamine D(2L) receptors were comparable to those found in previous studies using a variety of readouts. The developed assay was also able to reproduce the partial agonist activity, the low intrinsic activity and the selective activation of aripiprazole at the dopamine D(2L) receptors. Under identical experimental conditions, geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), a plant indole alkaloid, behaved as a partial agonist at the serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor, a partial agonist/antagonist at the dopamine D(2L) receptor and an antagonist at the serotonin 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(7) receptors. Interestingly, GM showed a relatively low intrinsic activity and evoked a partial activation response in a subset of cells expressing the dopamine D(2L) receptor; both of these effects were similarly observed for aripiprazole. Although GM is far less potent at the dopamine receptor than aripiprazole at dopamine D(2L) receptors (EC(50)=4.4 ?M for GM vs. EC(50)=56 nM for aripiprazole), GM and GM derivatives may comprise a new set of candidates for atypical antipsychotics.
Factor for adipocyte differentiation 104 (fad104) is a regulator of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Our previous study showed that fad104-deficient mice died immediately after birth, suggesting fad104 to be essential for neonatal survival. However, the cause of this rapid death is unclear. Here, we demonstrate the role of fad104 in neonatal survival. Phenotypic and morphological analyses showed that fad104-deficient mice died due to cyanosis-associated lung dysplasia including atelectasis. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed that FAD104 was strongly expressed in ATII cells in the developing lung. Most importantly, the ATII cells in lungs were immature, and impaired the expression of surfactant-associated proteins. Collectively, these results indicate that fad104 has an indispensable role in lung maturation, especially the maturation and differentiation of ATII cells.
Endosomal trafficking plays an integral role in various eukaryotic cell activities and serves as a basis for higher-order functions in multicellular organisms. An understanding of the importance of endosomal trafficking in plants is rapidly developing, but its molecular mechanism is mostly unknown. Several key regulators of endosomal trafficking, including RAB5, which regulates diverse endocytic events in animal cells, are highly conserved. However, the identification of lineage-specific regulators in eukaryotes indicates that endosomal trafficking is diversified according to distinct body plans and lifestyles. In addition to orthologues of metazoan RAB5, land plants possess a unique RAB5 molecule, which is one of the most prominent features of plant RAB GTPase organization. Plants have also evolved a unique repertoire of SNAREs, the most distinctive of which are diverse VAMP7-related longins, including plant-unique VAMP72 derivatives. Here, we demonstrate that a plant-unique RAB5 protein, ARA6, acts in an endosomal trafficking pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. ARA6 modulates the assembly of a distinct SNARE complex from conventional RAB5, and has a functional role in the salinity stress response. Our results indicate that plants possess a unique endosomal trafficking network and provide the first indication of a functional link between a specific RAB and a specific SNARE complex in plants.
The esophageal epithelium has sensory properties that enable it to sustain normal barrier function. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel that is activated by extracellular hypotonicity, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phorbol esters, and elevated temperature. We found that TRPV4 is expressed in both human esophageal tissue and in HET-1A cells, a human esophageal epithelial cell line. Specific activation of TRPV4 by the phorbol ester 4?-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4?-PDD) increased intracellular Ca(2+) in a subset of HET-1A cells. Elevated temperature strongly potentiated this effect at low concentrations of 4?-PDD, and all of the responses were inhibited by the TRPV antagonist ruthenium red. TRPV4 activation differentially affected cell proliferation and cell viability; HET-1A cell proliferation was increased by 1 ?M 4?-PDD, whereas higher concentrations (10 ?M and 30 ?M) significantly decreased cell viability. Transient TRPV4 activation triggered ATP release in a concentration-dependent manner via gap-junction hemichannels, including pannexin 1 and connexin 43. Furthermore, TRPV4 activation for 24 h did not increase the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8) but reduced IL-1?-induced IL-8 production. Small-interference RNA targeted to TRPV4 significantly attenuated all of the 4?-PDD-induced responses in HET-1A cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that TRPV4 is a novel regulator of Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways linked to cell proliferation, cell survival, ATP release, and IL-8 production in human esophageal epithelial cells.
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep in vancomycin has prompted guidelines that recommend a target trough concentration (C (min)) of 15-20 mg/L, and it is also considered necessary to set a C (min) of >15 mg/L for teicoplanin (TEIC), especially in patients with complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate TEIC regimen for reaching the revised target C (min) (15-30 mg/L) in patients with normal renal function and those with renal dysfunction. We analyzed patients with MRSA infections who were treated with TEIC between July 2006 and December 2009. Two-day loading regimen was studied in patients with non-renal-dysfunction (group 1). The 1-day loading regimen was studied in patients with non-renal-dysfunction (group 2, control) and in patients with renal dysfunction (group 3). The 178 patients in the study consisted of 76, 28, and 74 patients in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. C (min) on day 4 was 14.6 ± 5.6, 11.9 ± 4.1, and 13.5 ± 4.2 mg/L, and the proportion of patients achieving the revised target range was 34.2%, 17.9%, and 20.3%, respectively. Only one patient in group 1 revealed C (min) of >30 mg/L. Treatment success rates, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity were similar among the three groups. It was difficult to achieve the revised target C (min) with the 2-day loading regimen in patients without renal dysfunction and with the standard TEIC regimen, even in patients with renal dysfunction. Further investigation of an even higher TEIC dosing regimen is considered necessary.
Prostate cancer development is associated with hyperactive androgen signaling. However, the molecular link between androgen receptor (AR) function and humoral factors remains elusive. A prostate cancer mouse model was generated by selectively mutating the AR threonine 877 into alanine in prostatic epithelial cells through Cre-ERT2-mediated targeted somatic mutagenesis. Such AR point mutant mice (ARpe-T877A/Y) developed hypertrophic prostates with responses to both an androgen antagonist and estrogen, although no prostatic tumor was seen. In prostate cancer model transgenic mice, the onset of prostatic tumorigenesis as well as tumor growth was significantly potentiated by introduction of the AR T877A mutation into the prostate. Genetic screening of mice identified Wnt-5a as an activator. Enhanced Wnt-5a expression was detected in the malignant prostate tumors of patients, whereas in benign prostatic hyperplasia such aberrant up-regulation was not obvious. These findings suggest that a noncanonical Wnt signal stimulates development of prostatic tumors with AR hyperfunction.
There are few case reports regarding patients with right lung agenesis living to old age because of both severe mediastinal and cardiac displacements. We report a 61-year-old woman with right pulmonary agenesis complicated by a transient ischemic attack that was evaluated by a three-dimensional reconstruction of helical computed tomography and an echocardiography. This patient was able to survive until old age because she had no critical anomalies in other organs including the heart. A mitral valve prolapse was detected by a two-dimensional echocardiography and we treated her with anti-platelet aggregation therapy for the prevention of recurrent stroke.
Endocytosis is crucial for various cellular functions and development of multicellular organisms. In mammals and yeast, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, key components of vesicle formation, and their regulators ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and ARF-GTPase-activating protein (GAPs) mediate endocytosis. A similar role has not been established in plants, mainly because of the lack of the canonical ARF and ARF-GEF components that are involved in endocytosis in other eukaryotes. In this study, we revealed a regulatory mechanism of endocytosis in plants based on ARF GTPase activity. We identified that ARF-GEF GNOM and ARF-GAP vascular network defective 3 (VAN3), both of which are involved in polar auxin transport-dependent morphogenesis, localize at the plasma membranes as well as in intracellular structures. Variable angle epifluorescence microscopy revealed that GNOM and VAN3 localize to partially overlapping discrete foci at the plasma membranes that are regularly associated with the endocytic vesicle coat clathrin. Genetic studies revealed that GNOM and VAN3 activities are required for endocytosis and internalization of plasma membrane proteins, including PIN-FORMED auxin transporters. These findings identified ARF GTPase-based regulatory mechanisms for endocytosis in plants. GNOM and VAN3 previously were proposed to function solely at the recycling endosomes and trans-Golgi networks, respectively. Therefore our findings uncovered an additional cellular function of these prominent developmental regulators.
SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) mediate specific membrane fusion between transport vesicles or organelles and target membranes. VAM3/SYP22 and PEP12/SYP21 are Qa-SNAREs that act in the vacuolar transport pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana, and are localized predominantly on the vacuolar membrane and the pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC), respectively. Previous studies have shown that loss-of-function mutants of VAM3/SYP22 or PEP12/SYP21 showed male gametophytic lethality, suggesting that VAM3/SYP22 and PEP12/SYP21 possess different, non-redundant functions. We have re-evaluated the effects of mutations in these genes using T-DNA insertion mutants in the Columbia accession. We found that a mutation in VAM3/SYP22 (vam3-1) caused pleiotropic abnormalities, including semi-dwarfism and wavy leaves. In contrast, a loss-of-function mutant of PEP12/SYP21 (pep12) showed no apparent abnormal phenotype. We also found that the double vam3-1 pep12 mutant had severely reduced fertilization competence, although male and female gametophytes (vam3-1(-) pep12(-) ) maintained the ability to fertilize. Moreover, promoter swapping analysis revealed that expression of a GFP-PEP12/SYP21 fusion under the control of the VAM3/SYP22 promoter suppressed all phenotypes of the vam3-1 mutant. These results indicate that the functions of VAM3/SYP22 and PEP12/SYP21 were redundant and interchangeable.
Testis-specific protein on Y chromosome (TSPY) is an ampliconic gene on the Y chromosome, and genetic interaction with gonadoblastoma has been clinically established. However, the function of the TSPY protein remains to be characterized in physiological and pathological settings. In the present study, we observed coexpression of TSPY and the androgen receptor (AR) in testicular germ-cell tumors (TGCTs) in patients as well as in model cell lines, but such coexpression was not seen in normal testis of humans or mice. TSPY was a repressor for androgen signaling because of its trapping of cytosolic AR even in the presence of androgen. Androgen treatment stimulated cell proliferation of a TGCT model cell line, and TSPY potently attenuated androgen-dependent cell growth. Together with the finding that TSPY expression is reduced in more malignant TGCTs in vivo, the present study suggests that TSPY serves as a repressor in androgen-induced tumor development in TGCTs and raises the possibility that TSPY could be used as a clinical marker to assess the malignancy of TGCTs.
We present the main points of the optimization in IMRT. The skin surface of the planned target volume was reduced by a few millimeters, in view of the limitations of a calculation grid in accurately estimating the influence of build-up or contamination of electrons. Air cavities such as nasal or oral cavities were, in general, filled with water equivalent density in the dose calculation. Planned target volume was contracted by 5 mm when PTV of a higher prescribed dose was delineated adjacent to it. The 5 mm width of ring-shaped ROI was set at 5 mm outside of the entire PTV to eliminate hot spots. Physical quality assurance is extremely important to eradicate unexpected dose inhomogeneity, and meticulous efforts are required.
We report a 53-year-old female patient with an unresectable metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph node from a primary gingival carcinoma of the mandible. The patient had a history of tongue carcinoma and had undergone a radical neck dissection for the treatment of gingival carcinoma. She underwent combined chemotherapy consisting of S-1 (80 mg on days 1-14, followed by a 7-day rest), docetaxel (35mg/m2 by intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8), and CDDP (10mg/m2 by intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8) every 3 weeks. After three courses of the above chemotherapy regimen, a computerized tomography examination revealed a complete response. The patient did not experience any severe side effects during the course of chemotherapy. Combined S-1, docetaxel, and CDDP chemotherapy can thus be effective for unresectable recurrences of oral cancer in lymph nodes.
Many GTPases regulate intracellular transport and signaling in eukaryotes. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate GTPases by catalyzing the exchange of their GDP for GTP. Here we present crystallographic and biochemical studies of a GEF reaction with four crystal structures of Arabidopsis thaliana ARA7, a plant homolog of Rab5 GTPase, in complex with its GEF, VPS9a, in the nucleotide-free and GDP-bound forms, as well as a complex with aminophosphonic acid-guanylate ester and ARA7·VPS9a(D185N) with GDP. Upon complex formation with ARA7, VPS9 wedges into the interswitch region of ARA7, inhibiting the coordination of Mg(2+) and decreasing the stability of GDP binding. The aspartate finger of VPS9a recognizes GDP ?-phosphate directly and pulls the P-loop lysine of ARA7 away from GDP ?-phosphate toward switch II to further destabilize GDP for its release during the transition from the GDP-bound to nucleotide-free intermediates in the nucleotide exchange reaction.
Our purpose in the present study is to provide a normative set of nonsensical pictures known as droodles and to demonstrate the role of semantic comprehension in facilitating recall of pictorial stimuli. The set consists of 98 pairs of droodles. Experiment 1 standardized these pictorial stimuli with respect to several variables, such as appropriateness of verbal labels, relationship between two droodles, and correct recall. Appropriateness of verbal labels was rated higher for pictures presented in pairs than for pictures presented singly. Experiment 2 used the standardized set of droodles in a recall experiment similar to those of Bower, Karlin, and Dueck (1975) and others. As we expected, semantic interpretation can strongly facilitate recall. Multiple regression analysis showed that several measures had significant power of explanation for recall performance. The full set of norms and pictures from this article may be downloaded from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.
A 36-year-old woman initially was treated for a contusion by local injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride into the left dorsum of the foot. Approximately 3 months after the injury and injection, linear sclerotic plaques originating from the site of contusion and injection were recognized. These progressed in extent and severity over a period of 3 years, when she presented to our clinic. By biopsy, swelling of collagen fibers in the lower dermis was revealed and the condition was diagnosed as linear scleroderma. Our present case had multiple linear sclerotic plaques of the left lower extremity, the distribution of which was consistent with Blaschko lines. It was also revealed that the initial sclerotic plaque was at the site of the contusion and local mepivacaine hydrochloride injection. Our present case is interesting in that the findings suggest a correlation between linear scleroderma plaque occurrence and the contusion or injection of mepivacaine.
Endocytosis performs a wide range of functions in animals and plants. Clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) formation is an initial step of endocytosis, and in animal cells is largely achieved by dynamins. However, little is known of its molecular mechanisms in plant cells. To identify dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) involved in endocytic CCV formation in plant cells, we compared the behaviors of two structurally different Arabidopsis DRPs, DRP2B and DRP1A, with those of the clathrin light chain (CLC), a marker of CCVs, at the plasma membrane by variable incidence angle fluorescent microscopy (VIAFM). DRP2B shares domain organization with animal dynamins whereas DRP1A is plant-specific. We show that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged DRP2B and DRP1A colocalized with CLC tagged with monomeric Kusabira Orange (mKO) in Arabidopsis cultured cells. Time-lapse VIAFM observations suggested that both GFP-DRP2B and GFP-DRP1A appeared and accumulated on the existing mKO-CLC foci and disappeared at the same time as or immediately after the disappearance of mKO-CLC. Moreover, DRP2B and DRP1A colocalized and assembled/disassembled together at the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that DRP2B and DRP1A interacted with each other. An inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, tyrphostin A23, disturbed the localization of DRP1A, but had little effect on the localization of DRP2B, indicating that DRP1A and DRP2B have different molecular properties. These results suggest that DRP2B and DRP1A participate together in endocytic CCV formation in Arabidopsis cells despite the difference of their molecular properties.
To investigate the functional expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel protein in human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cells and to determine whether calcium influx into UC cells through TRPV2 is involved in apoptotic cell death.
Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents a critical first step of innate defense in plants and animals. However, maturation and transport of PRRs are not well understood. We find that the rice chitin receptor OsCERK1 interacts with Hsp90 and its cochaperone Hop/Sti1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Hop/Sti1 and Hsp90 are required for efficient transport of OsCERK1 from the ER to the plasma membrane (PM) via a pathway dependent on Sar1, a small GTPase which regulates ER-to-Golgi trafficking. Further, Hop/Sti1 and Hsp90 are present at the PM in a complex (designated the "defensome") with OsRac1, a plant-specific Rho-type GTPase. Finally, Hop/Sti1 was required for chitin-triggered immunity and resistance to rice blast fungus. Our results suggest that the Hop/Sti1-Hsp90 chaperone complex plays an important and likely conserved role in the maturation and transport of PRRs and may function to link PRRs and Rac/Rop GTPases.
TRPM8 and TRPA1 are cold-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels. TRPM8 is activated by moderate cooling, while TRPA1 is activated by extreme, noxious cold temperatures. These cold receptors are expressed in different subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. TRPA1 is co-expressed in a subpopulation of somatosensory neurons expressing TRPV1, which is activated by heat. However, the distribution and co-expression of these channels in the nodose-petrosal ganglion complex, which contains the jugular (JG), petrosal (PG), and nodose ganglia (NG) (mainly involved in putative somatic, chemo- and somato-sensation, and somato and visceral sensation, respectively), remain unknown. Here, we conducted in situ hybridization analysis of the rat nodose-petrosal ganglion complex using specific riboprobes for TRPM8, TRPA1, and TRPV1 to compare the features of the cranial sensory ganglia. Hybridization signals for TRPA1 were diffusely observed throughout these ganglia, whereas TRPM8 transcripts were seen in the JG and PG but not in the NG. We retrogradely labeled cranial nerve X with Fast Blue (fluorescent dye) and found TRPM8 transcripts in the jugular-vagal ganglion but not the NG neurons. TRPA1 transcripts were not detected in TRPM8-expressing neurons but were present in the subpopulation of TRPV1-expressing visceral sensory neurons. Taken together, these findings support that in the vagal system the expression of cold-activated TRP channels differs between nodose- and jugular-ganglion neurons suggesting different mechanisms of cold-transduction and that the TRPA1 distribution is consistent with its proposed function as a cold-sensing receptor in the visceral system.
Chromatin reorganization is essential for transcriptional control by sequence-specific transcription factors. However, the molecular link between transcriptional control and chromatin reconfiguration remains unclear. By colocalization of the nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR) on the ecdysone-induced puff in the salivary gland, Drosophila DEK (dDEK) was genetically identified as a coactivator of EcR in both insect cells and intact flies. Biochemical purification and characterization of the complexes containing fly and human DEKs revealed that DEKs serve as histone chaperones via phosphorylation by forming complexes with casein kinase 2. Consistent with the preferential association of the DEK complex with histones enriched in active epigenetic marks, dDEK facilitated H3.3 assembly during puff formation. In some human myeloid leukemia patients, DEK was fused to CAN by chromosomal translocation. This mutation significantly reduced formation of the DEK complex, which is required for histone chaperone activity. Thus, the present study suggests that at least one histone chaperone can be categorized as a type of transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors.
Mild acute pancreatitis (AP) is rarely complicated by infection, and the value of prophylactic antibiotics is questionable. We report a case of mild AP complicated by infection, which developed within 1 week after the onset. A 66-year-old woman was referred to our hospital where a diagnosis of mild AP was made, based on laboratory data and computed tomography (CT) findings. She was managed conservatively with fluid resuscitation, intravenous antibiotics, and protease inhibitor. Her general condition improved initially, but a high fever redeveloped on hospital day 3. On hospital day 7, a repeat CT scan showed a peripancreatic fluid collection with gas, indicating peripancreatic abscess. A drainage operation was performed, and the organism cultured from the abscess was Escherichia coli. Her postoperative course was uneventful. We report this case to stress that infection may develop even in mild AP, and even in the early phase.
We have previously reported that a novel gene, factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) 24, promotes adipogenesis in vitro. To examine the role of fad24 in adipogenesis in vivo and the development of obesity, transgenic mice overexpressing fad24 were generated using mouse fad24 cDNA under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer. The comparison of the ability of fibroblasts from fad24 transgenic embryos to differentiate into adipocytes with that of fibroblasts from wild-type embryos revealed that fad24 overexpression promotes adipogenesis in embryonic fibroblasts. The weight and histology of white adipose tissues, and serum adipocytokine levels were compared between fad24 transgenic mice and wild-type mice, and we found that fad24 overexpression increased the number of smaller adipocytes, caused hyperplasia rather than hypertrophy in white adipose tissue and increased the serum adiponectin level in mice fed both normal chow and a high-fat diet. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests indicated that the activity for glucose metabolism is improved in fad24 transgenic mice fed normal chow in comparison with that in wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that fad24 is a positive regulator of adipogenesis in vivo. Moreover, the increase in the number of smaller adipocytes caused by the overexpression of fad24 appears to enhance glucose metabolic activity, perhaps by increasing the serum adiponectin level.
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of ubiquitous proteins that help minimize the harmful effects of oxidative stress by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides to less harmful forms. A full-length cDNA corresponding to a 2-Cys Prx gene was isolated from the flatback mud crab Eurypanopeus depressus and designated as EdPrx-1 (GenBank accession no. EU684547). EdPrx-1 has a major open-reading frame of 594 bp and is capable of encoding a polypeptide of 198 amino acid residues. Like other 2-Cys Prxs, EdPrx-1 protein possesses two conserved cysteine residues that play an essential role for the antioxidant activity of the proteins. The EdPrx-1 protein, as deduced from the cDNA sequence, shows a high level (74-93%) of sequence similarity to the 2-Cys Prxs from other crustaceans as well as those from many arthropod species (73-76% similarity). It shares about 70% sequence similarity with homologs from mammalian species. EdPrx-1 gene is expressed at low level in the gill, hypodermis, and hepatopancreas tissues of the crab under non-stressed condition; however, its expression is elevated about three-fold in the gills under hypo-osmotic stress. This suggests a possible role in protecting against oxidative stress caused by the increased metabolic activities associated with hyperosmoregulation.
The post-Golgi traffic network in plant cells is highly complex, which is correlated with the large number of genes related to this function. RABs and SNAREs are key regulators of tethering and fusion of transport vesicles to target membranes, and the numbers of these regulators have also expanded in plant lineages. In addition to this increase in the net number of genes, plants also seem to have evolved new gene families tailored to fulfill plant-unique functions. In this article, we summarize recent progress in studies on plant-unique RABs and SNAREs functioning in post-Golgi trafficking, with a special focus on the endocytic pathway.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important therapeutic targets for many areas of drug research and development. Although chimeric Galpha16 proteins are valuable tools for detecting the activation of Galpha(i/o)-coupled receptors, the details of the activation process remain unclear. The authors introduce a series of chimeras that combine both Galpha16 and Galpha(i/o) (Galpha(16/o), Galpha(16/i2), and Galpha(16/i3)) into a well-established transient expression system to examine the ability of these chimeras to interact with D2 long-form (D2L) dopamine and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors. The pEC50 data obtained for known agonists were similar to results from previous studies that used other cell-based assays, thus indicating sufficient sensitivity for the assay. Moreover, quinpirole exhibited similar intrinsic activity to dopamine at the D2L receptor, whereas S-(-)-3-PPP displayed partial activity of dopamine and quinpirole in the presence of the Galpha(16/o) chimera. The potency of dopamine for D2L receptors was similar among Galpha(16/o), Galpha(16/i2), and Galpha(16/i3). In contrast, the 5-HT1A receptor exhibited a significantly preferential coupling for Galpha(16/i3) compared with Galpha(16/i2) when serotonin was used as a ligand. This finding was in close agreement with the results of previous reports. The present system could therefore be used as a rapid functional assay for high-throughput screening and deorphanization.
Cytokinesis represents the final stage of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm becomes partitioned between daughter cells. The process differs to some extent between animal and plant cells, but proteins of the syntaxin family mediate membrane fusion in the plane of cell division in diverse organisms. How syntaxin localization is kept in check remains elusive. Here, we report that localization of the Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin in the plane of cell division is maintained by sterol-dependent endocytosis involving a clathrin- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A-dependent mechanism. On genetic or pharmacological interference with endocytosis, KNOLLE mis-localizes to lateral plasma membranes after cell-plate fusion. Fluorescence-loss-in-photo-bleaching and fluorescence-recovery-after-photo-bleaching experiments reveal lateral diffusion of GFP-KNOLLE from the plane of division to lateral membranes. In an endocytosis-defective sterol biosynthesis mutant displaying lateral KNOLLE diffusion, KNOLLE secretory trafficking remains unaffected. Thus, restriction of lateral diffusion by endocytosis may serve to maintain specificity of syntaxin localization during late cytokinesis.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive TRP (thermoTRP) subfamily of receptors, is an important cutaneous sensor that detects thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV3 is activated by innocuous warm temperature stimuli (>33 degrees C) and a variety of physiologically active substances. While the corneal epithelium is known to respond to such stimuli, it is unknown whether TRPV3 is involved in this phenomenon. We show here that TRPV3 mRNA and protein are abundantly expressed in the epithelial cells of human and mouse cornea. Carvacrol, an agonist of TRPV3, elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in both primary mouse corneal epithelial cells and cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCE-T cells). The response to carvacrol was inhibited by ruthenium red, a TRPV channel antagonist. Moreover, repetitive agonist stimulation sensitized the response with gradually increasing amplitude, suggesting that the TRPV3 in the cornea has similar physiological and pharmacological characteristics to that in skin keratinocytes. Finally, a wound healing assay revealed that appropriate calcium ion influx via activated TRPV3 in corneal epithelial cells accelerated their proliferation. Thus, functional TRPV3 is present in corneal epithelial cells and may play a role not only in thermosensation, but also in the regulation of cell proliferation.
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