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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Extended lifespan, reduced body size and leg skeletal muscle mass, and decreased mitochondrial function in clk-1 transgenic mice.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Mutational inactivation of clk-1, which encodes an enzyme necessary for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (CoQ), extends the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, whether mammalian clk-1 regulates the lifespan of mice is not known because clk-1-deficiencies are embryonic lethal. Here, we investigated the lifespan of clk-1 transgenic mice (Tg96/I), which were rescued from embryonic lethality via the transgenic expression of mouse clk-1. Tg96/I mice lived longer and had smaller bodies than wild-type mice, but Tg96/I mice had CoQ levels equivalent to wild-type mice. The small-sized Tg96/I mice exhibited reduced whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) during the dark period, and lean leg skeletal muscles with reduced mitochondrial VO2 and ATP content compared with wild-type mice. These findings indicate a close relationship between lifespan extension and decreased mitochondrial function, which was induced by the transgenic expression of clk-1, in leg skeletal muscles that exhibit high metabolic activity.
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Cardiac electrophysiological alterations in heart/muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase-deficient mice: prevention by a dietary antioxidant polyphenol.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Cardiac electrophysiological alterations induced by chronic exposure to reactive oxygen species and protective effects of dietary antioxidant have not been thoroughly examined. We recorded surface electrocardiograms (ECG) and evaluated cellular electrophysiological abnormalities in enzymatically-dissociated left ventricular (LV) myocytes in heart/muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase-deficient (H/M-Sod2(-/-)) mice, which exhibit dilated cardiomyopathy due to increased oxidative stress. We also investigated the influences of intake of apple polyphenols (AP) containing mainly procyanidins with potent antioxidant activity. The QRS and QT intervals of ECG recorded in H/M-Sod2(-/-) mice were prolonged. The effective refractory period in the LV myocardium of H/M-Sod2(-/-) mice was prolonged, and susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation induced by rapid ventricular pacing was increased. Action potential duration in H/M-Sod2(-/-) LV myocytes was prolonged, and automaticity was enhanced. The density of the inwardly rectifier K(+) current (I K1) was decreased in the LV cells of H/M-Sod2(-/-) mice. The AP intake partially improved these electrophysiological alterations and extended the lifespan in H/M-Sod2(-/-) mice. Thus, chronic exposure of the heart to oxidative stress produces a variety of electrophysiological abnormalities, increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias, and action potential changes associated with the reduced density of I K1. Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients may prevent oxidative stress-induced electrophysiological disturbances.
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The effects of 3% diquafosol sodium application on the tear functions and ocular surface of the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1)-knockout mice.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the role of a water and mucin secretagogue (3% diquafosol sodium eye drops) on the tear function and conjunctival ocular surface changes in Sod1(-/-) in comparison to the wild-type (WT) mice.
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The effects of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the tear functions and ocular surface of the superoxide dismutase-1 (sod1) knockout mice.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To investigate the efficacy of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the tear functions and ocular surface status of the superoxide dismutase-1(Sod1(-/-)) mice.
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trans-Resveratrol in Gnetum gnemon protects against oxidative-stress-induced endothelial senescence.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Gnetum gnemon is an arboreal dioecious plant that is cultivated in Indonesia. The seeds of this species mainly contain dimeric stilbenoid compounds [gnetin C (1), gnemonoside A (2), and gnemonoside D (3)] along with trans-resveratrol (4). trans-Resveratrol has been reported to have antiaging, anticancer, and antidiabetic effects, as well as being a calorie restriction mimetic. SIRT1 exerts a protective effect against vascular senescence. In this study, the effects of these four main stilbenoid derivatives of a G. gnemon seed endosperm ethanolic extract on endothelial senescence were investigated. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, administration of the G. gnemon ethanolic extract increased SIRT1 and decreased endothelial senescence. The concentration of 1 in blood plasma was 6-fold higher than 4 in these mice. Next, the in vitro effects of the four main stilbenoid derivatives of G. gnemon seeds were investigated. Senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were induced by hydrogen peroxide. Endothelial senescence was inhibited by 4, which increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and SIRT1, whereas 1-3 had no effect. These results indicated that the ethanolic extract of G. gnemon seeds inhibits endothelial senescence, suggesting that 4 plays a critical role in the prevention of endothelial senescence.
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Chemosensory ventilatory responses in the mutant mice with Presbyterian hemoglobinopathy.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The working hypothesis of this study was that chronically increased tissue oxygenation would facilitate respiratory endurance to chemical stimuli. We investigated the ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia before and after carotid chemodenervation in the anesthetized, spontaneously breathing Presbyterian, which carry a low affinity variant of hemoglobin, and in wild-type mice. We found a dampening of all chemosensory responses in Presbyterian hemoglobinopathy. Particularly, the Presbyterian mouse with intact carotid body innervation was more vulnerable to hypoxia than the wild-type mouse, showing an accelerated decline in breathing frequency which was not counterbalanced by tidal respiration. We further found that chemodenervation in the Presbyterian mouse, performed in normoxia, led to respiratory arrest. The study shows enhanced susceptibility of respiration to hypoxia and indispensability of neural input from the carotid body for upholding the central respiratory controllers function in Presbyterian hemoglobinopathy. The study also suggests a relationship between hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation and respiration, which points to a metabolic, tissue oxygenation-linked component of respiratory regulation.
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Antioxidants improve the phenotypes of dilated cardiomyopathy and muscle fatigue in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-deficient mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Redox imbalance elevates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in cells and promotes age-related diseases. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are antioxidative enzymes that catalyze the degradation of ROS. There are three SOD isoforms: SOD1/CuZn-SOD, SOD2/Mn-SOD, and SOD3/EC-SOD. SOD2, which is localized in the mitochondria, is an essential enzyme required for mouse survival, and systemic knockout causes neonatal lethality in mice. To investigate the physiological function of SOD2 in adult mice, we generated a conditional Sod2 knockout mouse using a Cre-loxP system. When Sod2 was specifically deleted in the heart and muscle, all mice exhibited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and died by six months of age. On the other hand, when Sod2 was specifically deleted in the skeletal muscle, mice showed severe exercise disturbance without morphological abnormalities. These provide useful model of DCM and muscle fatigue. In this review, we summarize the impact of antioxidants, which were able to regulate mitochondrial superoxide generation and improve the phenotypes of the DCM and the muscle fatigue in mice.
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is constitutively up-regulated in top alpinists.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Alpinists who challenge Mt. Everest need adaptation to hypoxia before the attack of Mt. Everest. Although this adaptation is important for the success of climbing Mt. Everest, the molecular mechanism on the adaptation to hypoxia is not well understood. In order to clarify this mechanism, we investigated hypoxia-induced gene expressions specific for top alpinists using microarray analyses. We report here that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is significantly higher in the blood of top alpinist compared with non-alpinists. Although HO-1 expression of non-alpinists is also up-regulated in response to hypoxia, HO-1 level of the top alpinists are constitutively higher than that of non-alpinists. Serial examinations of HO-1 in one top alpinist revealed that the higher expression of HO-1 is maintained in high-level several months after the attack of top mountains. Taken together with the biochemical function of HO-1 that catalyzes heme into CO and bilirubin, HO-1 expression may improve the circulation and compensate with oxidative tissue damages induced by hypoxia. These data also suggest that peripheral blood has the memory on hypoxia independent of antigens by maintaining the high-level of HO-1 expression in top alpinists, which merits the rapid adaptation to hypoxia for 8000m climbing.
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SOD1 (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase) deficiency drives amyloid ? protein oligomerization and memory loss in mouse model of Alzheimer disease.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Oxidative stress is closely linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Soluble amyloid ? (A?) oligomers cause cognitive impairment and synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the relationship between oligomers, oxidative stress, and their localization during disease progression is uncertain. Our previous study demonstrated that mice deficient in cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, SOD1) have features of drusen formation, a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (Imamura, Y., Noda, S., Hashizume, K., Shinoda, K., Yamaguchi, M., Uchiyama, S., Shimizu, T., Mizushima, Y., Shirasawa, T., and Tsubota, K. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 11282-11287). Amyloid assembly has been implicated as a common mechanism of plaque and drusen formation. Here, we show that Sod1 deficiency in an amyloid precursor protein-overexpressing mouse model (AD mouse, Tg2576) accelerated A? oligomerization and memory impairment as compared with control AD mouse and that these phenomena were basically mediated by oxidative damage. The increased plaque and neuronal inflammation were accompanied by the generation of N(?)-carboxymethyl lysine in advanced glycation end products, a rapid marker of oxidative damage, induced by Sod1 gene-dependent reduction. The Sod1 deletion also caused Tau phosphorylation and the lower levels of synaptophysin. Furthermore, the levels of SOD1 were significantly decreased in human AD patients rather than non-AD age-matched individuals, but mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD, SOD2) and extracellular SOD (CuZn-SOD, SOD3) were not. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic superoxide radical plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. Activation of Sod1 may be a therapeutic strategy for the inhibition of AD progression.
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Cytoplasmic superoxide causes bone fragility owing to low-turnover osteoporosis and impaired collagen cross-linking.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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The aging process correlates with the accumulation of cellular and tissue damage caused by oxidative stress. Although previous studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a pathologic role in the development of bone fragility, little direct evidence has been found. In order to investigate the pathologic significance of oxidative stress in bones, we analyzed the bone tissue of mice deficient in cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, encoded by the Sod1 gene; Sod1(-/-)). In this study, we showed for the first time that in vivo cytoplasmic superoxide caused a distinct weakness in bone stiffness and decreased BMD, aging-like changes in collagen cross-linking, and transcriptional alterations in the genes associated with osteogenesis. We also showed that the surface areas of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were decreased significantly in the lumbar vertebrae of Sod1(-/-) mice, indicating the occurrence of low-turnover osteopenia. In vitro experiments demonstrated that intracellular oxidative stress induced cell death and reduced the proliferation in primary osteoblasts but not in osteoclasts, indicating that impaired osteoblast viability caused the decrease in osteoblast number and suppressed RANKL/M-CSF osteoclastogenic signaling in bone. Furthermore, treatment with an antioxidant, vitamin C, effectively improved bone fragility and osteoblastic survival. These results imply that intracellular redox imbalance caused by SOD1 deficiency plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of bone fragility both in vivo and in vitro. We herein present a valuable model for investigating the effects of oxidative stress on bone fragility in order to develop suitable therapeutic interventions.
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Loss of parietal cell superoxide dismutase leads to gastric oxidative stress and increased injury susceptibility in mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) prevents accumulation of the superoxide that arises as a consequence of oxidative phosphorylation. However, SOD2 is a target of oxidative/nitrosative inactivation, and reduced SOD2 activity has been demonstrated to contribute to portal hypertensive gastropathy. We investigated the consequences of gastric parietal cell-specific SOD2 deficiency on mitochondrial function and gastric injury susceptibility. Mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the parietal cell Atpase4b gene promoter were crossed with mice harboring loxP sequences flanking the sod2 gene (SOD2 floxed mice). Cre-positive mice and Cre-negative littermates (controls) were used in studies of SOD2 expression, parietal cell function (ATP synthesis, acid secretion, and mitochondrial enzymatic activity), increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, and gastric susceptibility to acute injury. Parietal cell SOD2 deficiency was accompanied by a 20% (P < 0.05) reduction in total gastric SOD activity and a 93% (P < 0.001) reduction in gastric SOD2 activity. In SOD2-deficient mice, mitochondrial aconitase and ATP synthase activities were impaired by 36% (P < 0.0001) and 44% (P < 0.005), respectively. Gastric tissue ATP content was reduced by 34% (P < 0.002). Basal acid secretion and peak secretagogue (histamine)-induced acid secretion were reduced by 43% (P < 0.0001) and 40% (P < 0.0005), respectively. There was a fourfold (P < 0.02) increase in gastric mucosal apoptosis and 41% (P < 0.001) greater alcohol-induced gastric damage in the parietal cell SOD2-deficient mice. Our findings indicate that loss of parietal cell SOD2 leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in perturbed energy metabolism, impaired parietal cell function, and increased gastric mucosal oxidative stress. These alterations render the gastric mucosa significantly more susceptible to acute injury.
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Isolation and Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan assay of flavonoids from onion.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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The main flavonoids were isolated from three selected onion cultivars. Three phenolic compounds were obtained by reverse-phase HPLC, and their structures were elucidated by multiple NMR measurements. There were two known compounds, quercetin and quercetin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (Q3G), and one novel compound, quercetin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside-(4?1)-?-d-glucopyranoside (Q3M), which was identified in onion for the first time. These flavonoids were found to be more abundant in the onion peel than in the flesh or core. Their antioxidative activities were tested using the DPPH method, and their antiaging activities were evaluated using a Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan assay. No direct correlation was found between antioxidative activity and antiaging activity. Quercetin showed the highest antioxidative activity, whereas Q3M showed the strongest antiaging activity among these flavonoids, which might be related to its high hydrophilicity.
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Apple Procyanidins Suppress Amyloid ?-Protein Aggregation.
Biochem Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Procyanidins (PCs) are major components of the apple polyphenols (APs). We previously reported that treatment with PC extended the mean lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (Sunagawa et al., 2011). In order to estimate the neuroprotective effects of PC, we investigated the antiaggregative activity of PC on amyloid ?-protein (A?) aggregation, which is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimers disease. We herein report that PC significantly suppressed A?42 aggregation and dissociated A?42 aggregates in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that PC is a potent suppressor of A? aggregation. Furthermore, PC significantly inhibited A?42 neurotoxicity and stimulated proliferation in PC-12 cells. These results suggested that the PC and AP acted as neuroprotective factors against toxic A? aggregates.
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Insulin receptor mutation results in insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia but does not exacerbate Alzheimers-like phenotypes in mice.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Obesity is a risk factor for Alzheimers disease (AD), which is characterized by amyloid ? depositions and cognitive dysfunction. Although insulin resistance is one of the phenotypes of obesity, its deleterious effects on AD progression remain to be fully elucidated. We previously reported that the suppression of insulin signaling in a mouse with a heterozygous mutation (P1195L) in the gene for the insulin receptor showed insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia but did not develop diabetes mellitus [15]. Here, we generated a novel AD mouse model carrying the same insulin receptor mutation and showed that the combination of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia did not accelerate plaque formation or memory abnormalities in these mice. Interestingly, the insulin receptor mutation reduced oxidative damage in the brains of the AD mice. These findings suggest that insulin resistance is not always involved in the pathogenesis of AD.
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MnSOD deficiency results in elevated oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial function but does not lead to muscle atrophy during aging.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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In a previous study, we reported that a deficiency in MnSOD activity (approximately 80% reduction) targeted to type IIB skeletal muscle fibers was sufficient to elevate oxidative stress and to reduce muscle function in young adult mice (TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice). In this study, we used TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice to examine the effect of elevated oxidative stress on mitochondrial function and to test the hypothesis that elevated oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial function over the lifespan of the TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice would be sufficient to accelerate muscle atrophy associated with aging. We found that mitochondrial function is reduced in both young and old TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice, when compared with control mice. Complex II activity is reduced by 47% in young and by approximately 90% in old TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice, and was found to be associated with reduced levels of the catalytic subunits for complex II, SDHA and SDHB. Complex II-linked mitochondrial respiration is reduced by approximately 70% in young TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice. Complex II-linked mitochondrial Adenosine-Tri-Phosphate (ATP) production is reduced by 39% in young and was found to be almost completely absent in old TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice. Furthermore, in old TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice, aconitase activity is almost completely abolished; mitochondrial superoxide release remains > 2-fold elevated; and oxidative damage (measured as F(2) - isoprostanes) is increased by 30% relative to age-matched controls. These data show that despite elevated skeletal muscle-specific mitochondrial oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and complex II-linked mitochondrial dysfunction, age-related muscle atrophy was not accelerated in old TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice, suggesting mitochondrial oxidative stress may not be causal for age-related muscle atrophy.
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Generation and characterization of a novel kidney-specific manganese superoxide dismutase knockout mouse.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Inactivation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a mitochondrial antioxidant, has been associated with renal disorders and often results in detrimental downstream events that are mechanistically not clear. Development of an animal model that exhibits kidney-specific deficiency of MnSOD would be extremely beneficial in exploring the downstream events that occur following MnSOD inactivation. Using Cre-Lox recombination technology, kidney-specific MnSOD deficient mice (both 100% and 50%) were generated that exhibited low expression of MnSOD in discrete renal cell types and reduced enzymatic activity within the kidney. These kidney-specific 100% KO mice possessed a normal life-span, although it was interesting that the mice were smaller. Consistent with the important role in scavenging superoxide radicals, the kidney-specific KO mice showed a significant increase in oxidative stress (tyrosine nitration) in a gene-dose dependent manner. In addition, loss of MnSOD resulted in mild renal damage (tubular dilation and cell swelling). Hence, this novel mouse model will aid in determining the specific role (local and/or systemic) governed by MnSOD within certain kidney cells. Moreover, these mice will serve as a powerful tool to explore molecular mechanisms that occur downstream of MnSOD inactivation in renal disorders or possibly in other pathologies that rely on normal renal function.
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Lifespan and glucose metabolism in insulin receptor mutant mice.
J Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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Insulin/insulin-like growth factor type 1 signaling regulates lifespan and resistance to oxidative stress in worms, flies, and mammals. In a previous study, we revealed that insulin receptor (IR) mutant mice, which carry a homologous mutation found in the long-lived daf-2 mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans, showed enhanced resistance to oxidative stress cooperatively modulated by sex hormones and dietary signals (Baba et al., (2005)). We herein investigated the lifespan of IR mutant mice to evaluate the biological significance of insulin signaling in mice. Under normoxia, mutant male mice had a lifespan comparable to that of wild-type male mice. IR mutant female mice also showed a lifespan similar to that of wild-type female mice, in spite of the fact that the IR mutant female mice acquired more resistance to oxidative stress than IR mutant male mice. On the other hand, IR mutant male and female mice both showed insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, but they did not develop hyperglycemia throughout their entire lifespan. These data indicate that the IR mutation does not impact the lifespan in mice, thus suggesting that insulin signaling might have a limited effect on the lifespan of mice.
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Superoxide dismutase deficiency enhances superoxide levels in brain tissues during oxygenation and hypoxia-reoxygenation.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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To determine whether the mitochondria or cytoplasm produces superoxide during ischemia-reperfusion of the brain, we analyzed lucigenine-enhanced chemiluminescence emission in slices of brain tissue prepared from manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)-deficient (Sod2-deficient) and copper and zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD)-deficient (Sod1-deficient) mice during oxygenation and hypoxia-reoxygenation. The steady-state level of chemiluminescence under oxygenated conditions was significantly enhanced by a lack of either Sod. We hypothesize that the enhanced chemiluminescence produced by Sod2 and Sod1 deficiency reflects in situ superoxide generation in the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively. Based on this hypothesis, the major site of intracellular superoxide generation was assumed to be the cytoplasm. However, mitochondria occupy less cellular space than the cytoplasm. In terms of volume, the superoxide concentration is assumed to be higher in mitochondria than in the cytoplasm. Mn-SOD activity was 18% of the Cu,Zn-SOD activity observed in the wild-type mouse brain. However, when mitochondrial SOD activity was expressed as per volume, it was assumed to be equal to that observed in the cytoplasm. This imbalance between superoxide and SOD activity is expected to cause mitochondrial oxidative damage. The chemiluminescence intensity increased significantly during reoxygenation and was enhanced by Sod2 deficiency but was not significantly affected by Sod1 deficiency. The superoxide concentration in the reoxygenated brain would be higher in the mitochondria than in the cytoplasm. The present study indicated that the major site of intracellular superoxide generation in the brain during oxygenation is the cytoplasm, whereas it is the mitochondria during reoxygenation.
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Silymarin attenuated the amyloid ? plaque burden and improved behavioral abnormalities in an Alzheimers disease mouse model.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2010
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Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and the formation of senile plaques. Silymarin, an extract of milk thistle, has long been used as a medicinal herb for liver diseases. Here we report marked suppression of amyloid ?-protein (A?) fibril formation and neurotoxicity in PC12 cells after silymarin treatment in vitro. In vivo studies had indicated a significant reduction in brain A? deposition and improvement in behavioral abnormalities in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice that had been preventively treated with a powdered diet containing 0.1% silymarin for 6 months. The silymarin-treated APP mice also showed less anxiety than the vehicle-treated APP mice. These behavioral changes were associated with a decline in A? oligomer production induced by silymarin intake. These results suggest that silymarin is a promising agent for the prevention of AD.
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Elevated mitochondrial superoxide disrupts normal T cell development, impairing adaptive immune responses to an influenza challenge.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical in a broad spectrum of cellular processes including signaling, tumor progression, and innate immunity. The essential nature of ROS signaling in the immune systems of Drosophila and zebrafish has been demonstrated; however, the role of ROS, if any, in mammalian adaptive immune system development and function remains unknown. This work provides the first clear demonstration that thymus-specific elevation of mitochondrial superoxide (O(2)(•-)) disrupts normal T cell development and impairs the function of the mammalian adaptive immune system. To assess the effect of elevated mitochondrial superoxide in the developing thymus, we used a T-cell-specific knockout of manganese superoxide dismutase (i.e., SOD2) and have thus established a murine model to examine the role of mitochondrial superoxide in T cell development. Conditional loss of SOD2 led to increased superoxide, apoptosis, and developmental defects in the T cell population, resulting in immunodeficiency and susceptibility to the influenza A virus H1N1. This phenotype was rescued with mitochondrially targeted superoxide-scavenging drugs. These findings demonstrate that loss of regulated levels of mitochondrial superoxide lead to aberrant T cell development and function, and further suggest that manipulations of mitochondrial superoxide levels may significantly alter clinical outcomes resulting from viral infection.
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Procyanidins from apples (Malus pumila Mill.) extend the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Apple polyphenols (AP) mainly consist of procyanidins (PC), which are composed of (-)-epicatechins and (+)-catechins. In order to investigate the antiageing effects of PC, we measured the lifespan of CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS worms treated with PC. Treatment with 65 µg/mL PC extended the mean lifespan of wild-type N2 and FEM-1 worms by 12.1 % and 8.4 %, respectively, i.e., to a similar extent as resveratrol. In addition, treatment with 100 µg/mL AP also significantly prolonged the mean lifespan of the same worms by 12.0 % and 5.3 %, respectively, i.e., to a similar extent as PC. In contrast, treatment with (-)-epicatechin did not extend the lifespan of the worms. PC did not modify the growth, food intake, or fecundity of C. elegans. Treatment with PC did not extend the lifespan of MEV-1 worms, which show excessive oxidative stress, indicating that PC had no antioxidant ability in the MEV-1 mutant. Moreover, treatment with PC had no effect on the longevity of SIR-2.1 worms, which lack the activity of SIR-2, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD (+)-dependent protein deacetylases. These results indicated that PC has SIR-2.1-dependent antiageing effects on C. elegans.
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Monoclonal antibody against the turn of the 42-residue amyloid ?-protein at positions 22 and 23.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Aggregation of the 42-mer amyloid ?-protein (A?42) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD). We have proposed a toxic conformer with a turn at positions 22 and 23, as well as a nontoxic conformer with a turn at positions 25 and 26, in A?42 aggregates from systematic proline scanning and solid-state NMR studies. Although recent clinical trials of immunization targeting A?42 aggregates have proved useful, some adverse effects were reported. One of the reasons was hypothesized to be excessive immunoreactions derived from the unintended removal of nontoxic A?42, which plays an important role in the physiological function. To develop a monoclonal antibody for toxic A?42, E22P-A?10-35, a minimum moiety for neurotoxicity containing the turn at positions 22 and 23, was used for the generation of antibodies, following the selection of clones using A?42 mutants of E22P (turn-inducing) and E22V (turn-preventing). The obtained clone (11A1) showed a high binding affinity (K(D) = 10.3 nM) for A?42 using surface plasmon resonance. 11A1 also inhibited the neurotoxicity of A?42 in PC12 cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed that not only extracellular but intracellular amyloid was stained in human AD brains. In Western blotting analyses using human brains, low-molecular weight-oligomers rather than the monomer of A? were readily recognized by 11A1. These results imply that 11A1 could detect toxic A?42 oligomers with the turn at positions 22 and 23 and that 11A1 could be applicable for the therapeutic targeting of toxic A?42 in AD.
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Model mice for tissue-specific deletion of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that converts toxic O(2)(-) to H(2)O(2). Previous studies have reported that a systemic deficiency in Mn-SOD causes neonatal lethality in mice. Therefore, no mouse model is available for the analysis of the pathological role of O(2)(-) injuries in adult tissues. To explore an adult-type mouse model, we generated tissue-specific Mn-SOD conditional knockout mice using a Cre-loxp system. First, we generated liver-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice by crossbreeding with albumin-Cre transgenic mice. Mn-SOD proteins were significantly downregulated in the liver of liver-specific Mn-SOD knockout mice. Interestingly, the mutant mice showed no obvious morphological abnormalities or biochemical alterations in the liver, suggesting a redundant or less important physiological role for Mn-SOD in the liver than previously thought. Next, we generated heart/muscle-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice by crossbreeding muscle creatine kinase-Cre transgenic mice. The mutant mice developed progressive dilated cardiomyopathy with specific molecular defects in mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, brain-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice that had been developed by crossbreeding with nestin-Cre transgenic mice developed a spongiform encephalopathy-like pathology associated with gliosis and died within 3 weeks of birth. These results imply that the superoxide generated in mitochondria plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of pathologies in the heart and brain, but not in the liver. In conclusion, we successfully generated various tissue-specific Mn-SOD conditional knockout mice that provide useful tools for the analysis of various oxidative stress-associated diseases.
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The turn formation at positions 22 and 23 in the 42-mer amyloid beta peptide: the emerging role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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One hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides in the brain; Abeta mainly consists of 42-mer and 40-mer peptides (Abeta42 and Abeta40). Abeta42 plays a more critical role in the pathogenesis of AD because Abeta42 aggregates much faster and is more toxic than Abeta40. Therefore, there is an urgent need to elucidate the mechanism of aggregation and neurotoxicity of Abeta42 to develop therapeutic agents. Here, we introduce the pathological role of Abeta42 in AD and review our recent findings of the structural analysis of Abeta42 using systematic proline replacement, electron spin resonance and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and the new mechanism of neurotoxicity of Abeta42 through the formation of radicals.
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Inhibition of autophagy in the heart induces age-related cardiomyopathy.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Constitutive autophagy is important for control of the quality of proteins and organelles to maintain cell function. Damaged proteins and organelles accumulate in aged organs. We have previously reported that cardiac-specific Atg5 (autophagy-related gene 5)-deficient mice, in which the gene was floxed out early in embryogenesis, were born normally, and showed normal cardiac function and structure up to 10 weeks old. In the present study, to determine the longer-term consequences of Atg5-deficiency in the heart, we monitored cardiac-specific Atg5-deficient mice for further 12 months. First, we examined the age-associated changes of autophagy in the wild-type mouse heart. The level of autophagy, as indicated by decreased LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II) levels, in the hearts of 6-, 14- or 26-month-old mice was lower than that of 10-week-old mice. Next, we investigated the cardiac function and life-span in cardiac-specific Atg5-deficient mice. The Atg5-deficient mice began to die after the age of 6 months. Atg5-deficient mice exhibited a significant increase in left ventricular dimension and decrease in fractional shortening of the left ventricle at the age of 10 months, compared to control mice, while they showed similar chamber size and contractile function at the age of 3 months. Ultrastructural analysis revealed a disorganized sarcomere structure and collapsed mitochondria in 3- and 10-month-old Atg5-deficient mice, with decreased mitochondrial respiratory functions. These results suggest that continuous constitutive autophagy has a crucial role in maintaining cardiac structure and function.
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Influence of oxidative stress on D-aspartyl endopeptidase activity.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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It is strongly suggested that D-aspartic acid (D-Asp)-containing proteins are spontaneously generated by oxidative stress and would cause many aging-related misfolding diseases, such as cataracts, prion disease, and Alzheimers disease. We have identified a D-Asp-containing protein-specific protease, D-aspartyl endopeptidase (DAEP), from mammalian mitochondria, serving as a scavenger against the noxious D-Asp-containing protein. Recently, it has been shown that the activity of Lon, an ATP-dependent protease degrading oxidatively damaged proteins in mitochondria, decreases with aging by oxidative stress. However, an obvious relation between DAEP activity and oxidative stress with aging remains to be demonstrated. In the present study, we showed that there was a remarkable decrease in DAEP activity in superoxide dismutase-deficient mice, which formed excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our result suggests that a decrease in DAEP activity by oxidative stress may cause the accumulation of D-Asp-containing protein, leading to mitochondria-associated diseases.
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The effect of TAT conjugated platinum nanoparticles on lifespan in a nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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We have shown that platinum nanoparticle species (nano-Pt) is a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic that scavenges superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. In Caenorhabditis elegans, nano-Pt functions as an effective antioxidant that induces an extension in lifespan and strong resistance against excessive oxidative stress. Our study with C. elegans was the first trial to use nano-Pt as a bio-active substance. However, a high concentration of nano-Pt was required for these survival effects, probably due to limited membrane permeability. Here, we show that the conjugation of nano-Pt with an HIV-1 TAT fusion protein C-terminally linked to a peptide with high affinity for platinum improves internalization, eliciting a similar level of antioxidant effects at one hundredth the concentration of unconjugated nano-Pt. This approach is a potential method to facilitate translocation of bio-active nanoparticles into living organisms and could be a model assay for estimate the effects of antioxidant in living organism.
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Oxidative stress in skeletal muscle causes severe disturbance of exercise activity without muscle atrophy.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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The increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that occurs during intense exercise has been proposed to be one of the major causes of muscle fatigue. In addition, the accumulation of cellular damage due to ROS is widely regarded to be one of the factors triggering age-related pathological conditions in skeletal muscle. To investigate the pathological significance of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, we generated skeletal muscle-specific manganese superoxide dismutase-deficient (muscle-Sod2(-/-)) mice. The mutant mice showed severe disturbances in exercise activity, but no atrophic changes in their skeletal muscles. In histological and histochemical analyses, the mutant mice showed centralized nuclei in their muscle fibers and selective loss of enzymatic activity in mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. In addition, the mutant mice displayed increased oxidative damage and reduced ATP content in their muscle tissue. Furthermore, a single administration of the antioxidant EUK-8 significantly improved exercise activity and increased the cellular ATP level in skeletal muscle. These results imply that the superoxide anions generated in mitochondria play a pivotal role in the progression of exercise intolerance.
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[Anti-aging research using Mn-SOD conditional knockout mice].
Yakugaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that converts toxic O(2)(-) to H(2)O(2). Previous studies have reported that a systemic deficiency in Mn-SOD causes neonatal lethality in mice. Therefore, no mouse model is available for the analysis of the pathological role of O(2)(-) injuries in adult tissues. To explore an adult-type mouse model, we generated tissue-specific Mn-SOD conditional knockout mice using a Cre-loxp system. First, we generated liver-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice by crossbreeding with albumin-Cre transgenic mice. Mn-SOD proteins were significantly downregulated in the liver of liver-specific Mn-SOD knockout mice. Interestingly, the mutant mice showed no obvious morphological abnormalities or biochemical alterations in the liver, suggesting a redundant or less important physiological role for Mn-SOD in the liver than previously thought. Next, we generated heart/muscle-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice by crossbreeding with muscle creatine kinase-Cre transgenic mice. The mutant mice developed progressive dilated cardiomyopathy with specific molecular defects in mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, skeletal muscle-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice that had been generated by crossbreeding with human skeletal actin-Cre transgenic mice developed a severe physical disturbance associated with impaired cellular ATP metabolism. These results imply that the superoxide generated in mitochondria plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of pathologies in the heart and skeletal muscle, but not in the liver. In conclusion, we successfully generated various tissue-specific Mn-SOD conditional knockout mice that provide useful tools for the analysis of various oxidative stress-associated diseases.
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Conditional knockout of Mn-SOD targeted to type IIB skeletal muscle fibers increases oxidative stress and is sufficient to alter aerobic exercise capacity.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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In vitro studies of isolated skeletal muscle have shown that oxidative stress is limiting with respect to contractile function. Mitochondria are a potential source of muscle function-limiting oxidants. To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle-specific mitochondrial oxidative stress is sufficient to limit muscle function, we bred mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the promoter for the inhibitory subunit of troponin (TnIFast-iCre) with mice containing a floxed Sod2 (Sod2(fl/fl)) allele. Mn-SOD activity was reduced by 82% in glycolytic (mainly type II) muscle fiber homogenates from young TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice. Furthermore, Mn-SOD content was reduced by 70% only in type IIB muscle fibers. Aconitase activity was decreased by 56%, which suggests an increase in mitochondrial matrix superoxide. Mitochondrial superoxide release was elevated more than twofold by mitochondria isolated from glycolytic skeletal muscle in TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice. In contrast, the rate of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production was reduced by 33%, and only during respiration with complex II substrate. F(2)-isoprostanes were increased by 36% in tibialis anterior muscles isolated from TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice. Elevated glycolytic muscle-specific mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage in TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice were associated with a decreased ability of the extensor digitorum longus and gastrocnemius muscles to produce contractile force as a function of time, whereas force production by the soleus muscle was unaffected. TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl) mice ran 55% less distance on a treadmill than wild-type mice. Collectively, these data suggest that elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage in glycolytic muscle fibers are sufficient to reduce contractile muscle function and aerobic exercise capacity.
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Role of Nrf2 and p62/ZIP in the neurite outgrowth by carnosic acid in PC12h cells.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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Neurotrophins such as NGF promote neuronal survival and differentiation via the cell surface TrkA neurotrophin receptor. Compounds with neurotrophic actions that are low in molecular weight and can permeate the blood-brain barrier are promising therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease. Carnosic acid (CA), an electrophilic compound in rosemary, activates antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-mediated transcription via activation of Nrf2. In the present study, we discovered that CA strongly promotes neurite outgrowth of PC12h cells. NGF as well as CA activated Nrf2, whereas CA and NGF-mediated neuronal differentiation was suppressed by Nrf2 knockdown. On the other hand, CA activated TrkA-downstream kinase Erk1/2 independently of Nrf2. CA-induced p62/ZIP expression in an Nrf2-dependent manner, while the CA-induced neural differentiation was suppressed by p62/ZIP knockdown. Furthermore, CA-induced ARE activation was attenuated both by p62/ZIP knockdown and a Trk signal inhibitor. These results suggest that the CA induction of p62/ZIP by Nrf2 enhances TrkA signaling which subsequently potentiates Nrf2 pathway. This is the first demonstration that activation of the Nrf2-p62/ZIP pathway by a low-molecular natural electrophilic compound plays important roles in TrkA-mediated neural differentiation and may represent the common molecular mechanism for neurotrophic activities of electrophilic compounds.
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Antioxidant, EUK-8, prevents murine dilated cardiomyopathy.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
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Mice lacking manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity exhibit the typical pathology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In the present study, presymptomatic and symptomatic mutant mice were treated with the SOD/catalase mimetic, EUK-8.
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[Anti-aging effects by caloric restriction].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Caloric restriction (CR) in experimental animals shows to extend the lifespan of animals with the decreased frequency of age-related diseases. CR also produces beneficial health effects in monkeys and humans. These benefits include improved insulin sensitivity, enhanced stress resistance, decreased cancer incidence, and increased neuronal function and neurogenesis. Several important signal transduction pathways have been implicated in the regulation of the physiological processes of CR leading to increased lifespan. One of these pathways includes the Sirt1 pathway. Sirt1 deacetylates a large number of transcriptional factors and cofactors involved in cell growth, differentiation, stress resistance, oxidative damage, and metabolism. Recently, several studies report that resveratrol and other compounds exogenously activate Sirt1 protein and improve the obesity-associated pathology in mice. In this text, we introduce the recent topics of CR research and discuss the anti-aging effects by CR.
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Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of Toxicity and Efficacy of A New Astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis Extract.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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Astaxanthin (Ax), a carotenoid ubiquitously distributed in microorganisms, fish, and crustaceans, has been known to be a potent antioxidant and hence exhibit various physiological effects. We attempted in these studies to evaluate clinical toxicity and efficacy of long-term administration of a new Ax product, by measuring biochemical and hematological blood parameters and by analyzing brain function (using CogHealth and P300 measures). Ax-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extracts equivalent to 4, 8, 20 mg of Ax dialcohol were administered to 73, 38, and 16 healthy adult volunteers, respectively, once daily for 4 weeks to evaluate safety. Ten subjects with age-related forgetfulness received an extract equivalent to 12 mg in a daily dosing regimen for 12 weeks to evaluate efficacy. As a result, no abnormality was observed and efficacy for age-related decline in cognitive and psychomotor functions was suggested.
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Overexpression of FOXO1 in skeletal muscle does not alter longevity in mice.
Mech. Ageing Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Caloric restriction (CR) is the most robust and reproducible intervention that can extend lifespan in rodents. Studies in invertebrates have led to the identification of genes that regulate lifespan, some of which encode components of the insulin or insulin-like signaling pathway, including DAF-16 (C. elegans) and dFOXO (Drosophila). Mice subjected to CR for 8 weeks showed an increase in FOXO1 mRNA and other longevity-related genes: Gadd 45alpha, glutamine synthase, and catalase in skeletal muscle. To investigate whether FOXO1 expression affects longevity in mammals, transgenic mice were studied that over-express FOXO1 in their skeletal muscle (FOXO1 mice), and in which muscle atrophy occurs. FOXO1 mice showed increases in Gadd 45alpha, and glutamine synthase proteins in skeletal muscle. In FOXO1 mice, the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation state of the p70 S6K and 4E-BP1 proteins were not altered, suggesting that translation initiation of protein synthesis might not be suppressed. The lifespan of FOXO1 mice was similar to their wild-type littermates. FOXO1 overexpression could not prevent aging-induced reduction in catalase, CuZu-SOD, and Mn-SOD mRNA in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that an increase in FOXO1 protein and its activation in skeletal muscle does not extend lifespan in mice.
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Skin atrophy in cytoplasmic SOD-deficient mice and its complete recovery using a vitamin C derivative.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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Intrinsic skin ageing is characterized by atrophy and loss of elasticity. Although the skin hypertrophy induced by photoageing has been studied, the molecular mechanisms of skin atrophy during ageing remain unclear. Here, we report that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD)-deficient mice show atrophic morphology in their skin. This atrophy is accompanied by the degeneration of collagen and elastic fibers, and skin hydroxyproline is also significantly reduced in deficient mice. These imply that the dysfunction of collagen and elastin biosynthesis are involved in the progression of skin thinning. Furthermore, transdermal administration of a vitamin C derivative which can permeate through the membrane, completely reversed the skin thinning and deterioration of collagen and elastin in the mutant mice. These indicate that the vitamin C derivative is a powerful agent for alleviating skin ageing through regeneration of collagen and elastin. The CuZn-SOD-deficient mice might be applicable to evaluation of therapeutic medicines against skin ageing.
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Identification of physiological and toxic conformations in Abeta42 aggregates.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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Aggregation of the 42-residue amyloid beta-protein (Abeta42) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD). Despite numerous structural studies on Abeta aggregates, the relationship between tertiary structure and toxicity remains unclear. Our proline scanning and solid-state NMR studies suggested that aggregates both of wild-type Abeta42 and of E22K-Abeta42 (one of the mutants related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy) contain two conformers: a major one with a turn at positions 25 and 26, and a minor one with a turn at positions 22 and 23. To identify the toxic conformer, the derivative Abeta42-lactam(22K-23E), in which the side chains at positions 22 and 23 were covalently linked, was synthesized as a minor conformer surrogate, along with Abeta42-lactam(25K-26E) as a major conformer surrogate. The Abeta42-lactam(22K-23E) showed stronger aggregation, neurotoxicity, radical generation, and oligomerization than wild-type Abeta42, whereas in Abeta42-lactam(25K-26E) were weak. The transition from the physiological conformation with a turn at positions 25 and 26 to the toxic conformation with a turn at positions 22 and 23 might be a key event in the pathogenesis of AD.
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Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
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In this study we tried to confirm the effect of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function in 96 subjects by a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects who complained of age-related forgetfulness were recruited. Ninety-six subjects were selected from the initial screen, and ingested a capsule containing astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract, or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Somatometry, haematology, urine screens, and CogHealth and Groton Maze Learning Test were performed before and after every 4 weeks of administration. Changes in cognitive performance and the safety of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract administration were evaluated. CogHealth battery scores improved in the high-dosage group (12 mg astaxanthin/day) after 12 weeks. Groton Maze Learning Test scores improved earlier in the low-dosage (6 mg astaxanthin/day) and high-dosage groups than in the placebo group. The sample size, however, was small to show a significant difference in cognitive function between the astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract and placebo groups. No adverse effect on the subjects was observed throughout this study. In conclusion, the results suggested that astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract improves cognitive function in the healthy aged individuals.
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Stimulation of the amyloidogenic pathway by cytoplasmic superoxide radicals in an Alzheimers disease mouse model.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
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Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Amyloid ? (A?) oligomer as an intermediate of aggregates causes memory loss in Alzheimers disease (AD). We have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in A? oligomerization and cognitive impairment using a human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic AD mice lacking cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (hAPP/Sod1-/-). Recently, clinical trials revealed inhibitors of A? production from hAPP as promising therapeutics, but the relationship between oxidative stress and A? metabolism remains unclear. Here we found that Sod1 deficiency enhanced ?-cleavage of hAPP, suggesting that it increased A? production in hAPP/Sod1-/- mice. In contrast, A? degradation did not decrease in hAPP/Sod1-/- as compared with hAPP/Sod1+/+ mice. Furthermore, we successfully detected in situ superoxide radicals associated with increased protein carbonylation in hAPP/Sod1-/-. These results suggest that cytoplasmic oxidative stress is involved in A? production as well as aggregation during AD progression.
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SOD1, but not SOD3, deficiency accelerates diabetic renal injury in C57BL/6-Ins2(Akita) diabetic mice.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a major defender against excessive superoxide generated under hyperglycemia. We have recently reported that renal SOD1 (cytosolic CuZn-SOD) and SOD3 (extracellular CuZn-SOD) isoenzymes are remarkably down-regulated in KK/Ta-Ins2(Akita) diabetic mice, which exhibit progressive diabetic nephropathy (DN), but not in DN-resistant C57BL/6- Ins2(Akita) (C57BL/6-Akita) diabetic mice. To determine the role of SOD1 and SOD3 in DN, we generated C57BL/6-Akita diabetic mice with deficiency of SOD1 and/or SOD3 and investigated their renal phenotype at the age of 20 weeks. Increased glomerular superoxide levels were observed in SOD1(-/-)SOD3(+/+) and SOD1(-/-)SOD3(-/-) C57BL/6-Akita mice but not in SOD1(+/+)SOD3(-/-) C57BL/6-Akita mice. The SOD1(-/-)SOD3(+/+) and SOD1(-/-)SOD3(-/-) C57BL/6-Akita mice exhibited higher glomerular filtration rate, increased urinary albumin levels, and advanced mesangial expansion as compared with SOD1(+/+)SOD3(+/+) C57BL/6-Akita mice, yet the severity of DN did not differ between the SOD1(-/-)SOD3(+/+) and SOD1(-/-)SOD3(-/-) C57BL/6-Akita groups. Increased renal mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), reduced glomerular nitric oxide (NO), and increased renal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were noted in the SOD1(-/-)SOD3(+/+) and SOD1(-/-)SOD3(-/-) C57BL/6-Akita mice. This finding indicates that such renal changes in fibrogenic cytokines, NO, and PGE2, possibly caused by superoxide excess, would contribute to the development of overt albuminuria by promoting mesangial expansion, endothelial dysfunction, and glomerular hyperfiltration. The present results demonstrate that deficiency of SOD1, but not SOD3, increases renal superoxide in the setting of diabetes and causes overt renal injury in nephropathy-resistant diabetic mice, and that SOD3 deficiency does not provide additive effects on the severity of DN in SOD1-deficient C57BL/6-Akita mice.
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Complex I generated, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide is released from the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Mitochondrial complex I has previously been shown to release superoxide exclusively towards the mitochondrial matrix, whereas complex III releases superoxide to both the matrix and the cytosol. Superoxide produced at complex III has been shown to exit the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC). To test whether complex I-derived, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide can be released to the cytosol, we measured superoxide generation in mitochondria isolated from wild type and from mice genetically altered to be deficient in MnSOD activity (TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl)). Under experimental conditions that produce superoxide primarily by complex I (glutamate/malate plus rotenone, GM+R), MnSOD-deficient mitochondria release ?4-fold more superoxide than mitochondria isolated from wild type mice. Exogenous CuZnSOD completely abolished the EPR-derived GM+R signal in mitochondria isolated from both genotypes, evidence that confirms mitochondrial superoxide release. Addition of the VDAC inhibitor DIDS significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide release (?75%) in mitochondria from either genotype respiring on GM+R. Conversely, inhibition of potential inner membrane sites of superoxide exit, including the matrix face of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the inner membrane anion channel did not reduce mitochondrial superoxide release in the presence of GM+R in mitochondria isolated from either genotype. These data support the concept that complex I-derived mitochondrial superoxide release does indeed occur and that the majority of this release occurs through VDACs.
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Reversal of slow growth and heartbeat through the restoration of mitochondrial function in clk-1-deficient mouse embryos by exogenous administration of coenzyme Q10.
Exp. Gerontol.
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The longevity gene clk-1/coq7 encodes an enzyme that is essential for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (CoQ) in mitochondria and regulates the lifespan and behavioral timing in Caenorhabditis elegans and the chronological lifespan in fission yeast. However, whether the mammalian clk-1/coq7 ortholog (clk-1) regulates these phenotypes in mammals remains to be fully evaluated due to the embryonic lethality of clk-1-deficient (clk-1(-/-)) mice. To investigate whether clk-1 regulates biological functions, such as growth and heartbeat, through CoQ in mouse embryos, we cultivated the cells and hearts of clk-1(-/-) mouse embryos at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) for at least 10 days in the presence of fetal bovine serum. In embryonic cells, cardiomyocytes, and hearts, the growth and heart rates were significantly slowed in clk-1(-/-) compared with wild-type or heterozygous mouse tissues. Moreover, frequent apoptosis and a significant reduction in mitochondrial functions, including membrane potential and ATP production, were observed in the clk-1(-/-) cells and hearts. The slowed growth and heart rates and the reduced mitochondrial function of clk-1(-/-) embryonic cells and hearts in culture were almost completely rescued by the administration of exogenous CoQ(10). The results indicate that clk-1 regulates growth and heart rates through CoQ-mediated mitochondrial functions in mouse embryos.
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Age-related dysfunction of the lacrimal gland and oxidative stress: evidence from the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) knockout mice.
Am. J. Pathol.
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An imbalance between free radical generation and radical scavenging antioxidant systems results in oxidative stress, which has been associated with cell injury observed in many age-related diseases. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) family is a major antioxidant system, and deficiency of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) in mice leads to many different phenotypes that resemble accelerated aging. In this study we examined the morphologic features and the secretory functions of the lacrimal glands in Sod1(-/-) mice. Lacrimal glands showed atrophy of acinar units; fibrosis; infiltration with CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, and neutrophils; increased staining with both 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; increases in apoptotic cells; and the presence of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in senescent Sod1(-/-) mice. Electron microscopy findings revealed evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, presence of swollen and degenerated mitochondria, and the presence of apoptotic cell death in the lacrimal glands of senescent Sod1(-/-) mice. These alterations were also associated with the accumulation of secretory vesicles in acinar epithelial cells, decreased production of both stimulated and nonstimulated tears, and a decline in total protein secretion from the lacrimal glands. Our results suggest that Sod1(-/-) mice may be a good model system in which to study the mechanism of reactive oxygen species-mediated lacrimal gland alterations.
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Restoration of the behavioral rates and lifespan in clk-1 mutant nematodes in response to exogenous coenzyme Q(10).
Exp. Gerontol.
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The clk-1 gene encodes demethoxyubiquinone mono-oxygenase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (CoQ), which is an electron transporter in the respiratory chain of mitochondria. Therefore, clk-1 mutant nematodes that have loss-of-function mutations in the clk-1 gene lack endogenous CoQ(9) and exhibit slowed behavioral rates and an extended lifespan compared with wild-type animals when they are fed standard bacteria containing endogenous CoQ(8). This finding suggests that clk-1 regulates behavioral rates and the lifespan through CoQ in nematodes; however, the effects of exogenous CoQ on the regulation of these biological processes have been incompletely evaluated. In this study, we found that adding 10 ?M water-soluble CoQ(10) to the culture medium of clk-1 mutant nematodes that were fed a diet of standard bacteria restored the pharyngeal pumping, defecation and the lifespan to levels that were comparable to those of wild-type animals. The results indicate that both behavioral rates and lifespan are regulated by the clk-1 gene through the action of CoQ in nematodes.
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