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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Functions of liver natural killer cells are dependent on the severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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During chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the role of intra-hepatic (IH) natural killer (NK) cells is still controversial. To clarify their functions, we investigated anti-viral and cytotoxic activity of NK cells in human fresh liver biopsies. We compared the functions of IH-NK cells in HCV-infected and NASH patients in physiological conditions as well as after stimulation using flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Interestingly, few IH-NK cells produced anti-viral cytokine IFN-? in HCV-infected patients similarly as in non-infected individuals. Spontaneous degranulation activity was extremely low in peripheral NK cells compared to IH-NK cells, and was significantly higher in IH-NK cells from HCV-infected patients compared to non-infected individuals. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that perforin granules were polarized at the apical pole of IH-NK cells. The presence of CD107a and perforin in IH-NK cells demonstrated that NK cells exerted a cytolytic activity at the site of infection. Importantly, IH-NK cell functions from HCV-infected patients were inducible by specific exogenous stimulations. Upon ex vivo K562 target cell stimulations, the number of degranulating NK cells was significantly increased in the pool of IH-NK cells compared to circulating NK cells. Interestingly, after stimulation, the frequency of IFN-?-producing IH-NK cells in HCV-infected patients was significantly higher at early stage of inflammation whereas the spontaneous IH-NK cell degranulation activity was significantly impaired in patients with highest inflammation and fibrosis Metavir scores. Our study highlights that some IH-NK cells in HCV-infected patients are able to produce INF-? and degranulate and that those two activities depend on liver environment including the severity of liver injury. Thus, we conclude that critical roles of IH-NK cells have to be taken into account in the course of the liver pathogenesis associated to chronic HCV infection.
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Characterization and role of intra-hepatic regulatory T cells in chronic hepatitis C pathogenesis.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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In chronic hepatitis C (CHC), HCV-specific T-cell responses are often dysfunctionnal. In vitro data point out that regulatory T cells (Treg) are able to suppress HCV-specific lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion but their implication in this pathology is still debated.
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Altered functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and reduced cytolytic activity of natural killer cells in patients with chronic HBV infection.
Gastroenterology
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) modulates the immune system to escape clearance. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) initiate antiviral immunity and might determine outcomes of HBV infections. Functional defects in pDCs and natural killer (NK) cells have been reported in patients with chronic HBV infection. However, the mechanisms of these immune dysfunctions and the interactions between pDCs and NK cells have not been determined. We investigated features of pDCs from patients with chronic HBV infection and their interactions with NK cells.
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Plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce efficient stimulation of antiviral immunity in the context of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Hepatology
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The immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is essential for viral clearance. Therefore, restoring functional anti-HBV immunity is a promising immunotherapeutic approach to treatment of chronic infection. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a crucial role in triggering antiviral immunity through their ability to capture and process viral antigens and subsequently induce adaptive immune responses. We investigated the potential of pDCs to trigger antiviral cellular immunity against HBV. We used a human leukocyte antigen A (HLA-A)*0201(+) pDC line loaded with HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from hepatitis B core/hepatitis B surface (HBc/HBs) antigens to amplify specific CD8 T cells ex vivo from chronic HBV patients and established a Hepato-HuPBL mouse model to address the therapeutic potential of the strategy in vivo. Stimulation of PBMCs or liver-infiltrating lymphocytes from HLA-A*0201(+) chronic HBV patients by HBc peptide-loaded pDCs elicited up to 23.1% and 76.1% HBV-specific CD8 T cells in 45.8% of cases. The specific T cells from the "responder" group secreted interferon-?, expressed CD107 upon restimulation, and efficiently lysed HBV antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Circulating hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was found to distinguish the group of patients not responding to the pDC stimulation. The therapeutic efficacy of the pDC vaccine was evaluated in immunodeficient NOD-SCID ?(2) m(-/-) mice reconstituted with HBV patients PBMCs and xenotransplanted with human HBV-transfected hepatocytes. Vaccination of Hepato-HuPBL mice with the HBc/HBs peptide-loaded pDCs elicited HBV-specific T cells able to specifically lyse the transfected hepatocytes and reduce the systemic viral load.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.