Adipose tissue (AT) was long perceived as a passive lipid storage depot but it is now considered as an endocrine organ that produces a large number of mediators that affect metabolism, inflammation and coagulation. In obesity, the increased size of adipocytes and chronic low-grade inflammation within AT alter its normal physiological function. AT dysfunction results in altered production and secretion of adipokines, which in turn affect several tissues, e.g. the liver, skeletal muscles and vasculature, in a para- or endocrine manner. Numerous circulating proinflammatory mediators involved in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are directly released from adipocytes, thereby linking obesity to an increased cardiovascular risk. In the current chapter, we focus, on the one hand, on a small selection of novel adipokines with a potentially strong link to CVD: soluble dipeptidyl peptidase-4, visfatin and lipocalin-2. On the other hand, we summarize the most recent findings on the novel cardioprotective adipokines omentin and apelin.
DPP4 is an ubiquitously expressed cell-surface protease that is shedded to the circulation as soluble DPP4 (sDPP4). We recently identified sDPP4 as a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate direct effects of sDPP4 on human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) and to identify responsible signaling pathways. Using physiological concentrations of sDPP4, we could observe a concentration-dependent activation of ERK1/2 (3-fold) after 6h, which remained stable for up to 24h. Additionally, sDPP4 treatment induced a 1.5-fold phosphorylation of the NF-?B subunit p65. In accordance with sDPP4-induced stress and inflammatory signaling, sDPP4 also stimulates hVSMC proliferation. Furthermore we could observe an increased expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 (2.5-, 2.4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) by the sDPP4 treatment. All direct effects of sDPP4 on signaling, proliferation and inflammation could completely be prevented by DPP4 inhibition. Bioinformatic analysis and signaling signature induced by sDPP4 suggest that sDPP4 might be an agonist for PAR2. After the silencing of PAR2, the sDPP4-induced ERK activation as well as the proliferation was totally abolished. Additionally, the sDPP4-induced upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 could completely be prevented by the PAR2 silencing. In conclusion, we show for the first time that sDPP4 directly activates the MAPK and NF-?B signaling cascade involving PAR2 and resulting in the induction of inflammation and proliferation of hVSMC. Thus, our in vitro data might extend the current view of sDPP4 action and shed light on cardiovascular effects of DPP4-inhibitors.
While white adipose tissue (AT) is an energy storage depot, brown AT is specialized in energy dissipation. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-expressing adipocytes with a different origin than classical brown adipocytes have been found in white AT. These "brite" (brown-in-white) adipocytes may represent a therapeutic target to counteract obesity. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a role in the regulation of adipogenesis. Based on studies with murine cells, BMP4 is assumed to induce stem cell commitment to the white adipocyte lineage, whereas BMP7 promotes brown adipogenesis. There is evidence for discrepancies between mouse and human AT. Therefore we compared the effect of BMP4 and BMP7 on white-to-brown transition in primary human adipose stem cells (hASCs) from subcutaneous AT. Long-term exposure of hASCs to recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 during differentiation increased adipogenesis, as determined by lipid accumulation and PPAR? expression. Not only BMP7, but also BMP4 increased UCP1 expression in hASCs and decreased expression of the white-specific marker TCF21. The ability of hASCs to induce UCP1 in response to BMP4 and BMP7 markedly differed between donors and could be related to the expression of the brite marker CD137. However, mitochondrial content and oxygen consumption was not increased in hASCs challenged with BMP4 and BMP7. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that BMP4 has similar effects on white-to-brown transition as BMP7 in our human cell model. Thus, the roles of BMP4 and BMP7 in adipogenesis cannot always be extrapolated from murine to human cell models.
Adipose tissue is acknowledged as an endocrine organ that releases bioactive factors termed adipokines. Visfatin was initially identified as a novel adipokine with insulin-mimetic properties in mice. This adipokine was identical to two previously described molecules, namely, pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) and the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt). Enhanced circulating visfatin/Nampt levels have been reported in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, visfatin/Nampt circulating levels correlate with markers of systemic inflammation. In cardiovascular diseases, visfatin/Nampt was initially proposed as a clinical marker of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular damage, with a potential prognostic value. Nevertheless, beyond being a surrogate clinical marker, visfatin/Nampt is an active player promoting vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Visfatin/Nampt effects on cytokine and chemokine secretion, macrophage survival, leukocyte recruitment by endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle inflammation and plaque destabilization make of this adipokine an active factor in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms mediating the cellular actions of this adipokine and to better characterize the factors regulating visfatin/Nampt expression and release in all these pathologic scenarios. Only then, we will be able to conclude whether visfatin/Nampt is a therapeutical target in cardiometabolic diseases.
Visfatin is a multifaceted adipokine whose circulating levels are enhanced in different metabolic diseases. Extracellular visfatin can exert various deleterious effects on vascular cells, including inflammation and proliferation. Limited evidence exists, however, on the capacity of human vascular cells to synthesize and release visfatin by themselves, under basal or pro-inflammatory conditions.
Brown adipose tissue has gained interest as a potential target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Irisin is a newly identified hormone secreted from skeletal muscle enhancing browning of white fat cells, which improves systemic metabolism by increasing energy expenditure in mice. The discovery of irisin raised expectations of its therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases. However, the effect of irisin in humans is unclear. Analyses of genomic DNA, mRNA and expressed sequence tags revealed that FNDC5, the gene encoding the precursor of irisin, is present in rodents and most primates, but shows in humans a mutation in the conserved start codon ATG to ATA. HEK293 cells transfected with a human FNDC5 construct with ATA as start codon resulted in only 1% full-length protein compared to human FNDC5 with ATG. Additionally, in vitro contraction of primary human myotubes by electrical pulse stimulation induced a significant increase in PGC1? mRNA expression. However, FNDC5 mRNA level was not altered. FNDC5 mRNA expression in muscle biopsies from two different human exercise studies was not changed by endurance or strength training. Preadipocytes isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited differentiation to brite human adipocytes when incubated with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7, but neither recombinant FNDC5 nor irisin were effective. In conclusion, our findings suggest that it is rather unlikely that the beneficial effect of irisin observed in mice can be translated to humans.
Visfatin, also known as extracellular pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), is an adipocytokine whose circulating levels are enhanced in metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Circulating visfatin levels have been positively associated with vascular damage and endothelial dysfunction. Here, we investigated the ability of visfatin to directly impair vascular reactivity in mesenteric microvessels from both male Sprague-Dawley rats and patients undergoing non-urgent, non-septic abdominal surgery. The pre-incubation of rat microvessels with visfatin (50 and 100 ng/mL) did not modify the contractile response to noradrenaline (1 pmol/L to 30 µmol/L), as determined using a small vessel myograph. However, visfatin (10 to 100 ng/mL) concentration-dependently impaired the relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh; 100 pmol/L to 3 µmol/L), without interfering with the endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (1 nmol/L to 3 µmol/L). In both cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat microvascular preparations, visfatin (50 ng/mL) stimulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, as determined by lucigenin-derived chemiluminiscence. The relaxation to ACh impaired by visfatin was restored by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 µmol/L). Additionally, the Nampt inhibitor APO866 (10 mmol/L to 10 µmol/L), but not an insulin receptor-blocking antibody, also prevented the stimulation of NADPH oxidase and the relaxation impairment elicited by visfatin. Accordingly, the product of Nampt activity nicotinamide mononucleotide (100 nmol/L to 1 mmol/L) stimulated endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and concentration-dependently impaired ACh-induced vasorelaxation. In human mesenteric microvessels pre-contracted with 35 mmol/L potassium chloride, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation to bradykinin (1 nmol/L to 3 µmol/L) was equally impaired by visfatin and restored upon co-incubation with APO866. In conclusion, visfatin impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation through a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase stimulation and relying on Nampt enzymatic activity, and therefore arises as a potential new player in the development of endothelial dysfunction.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key factor in angiogenesis and vascular permeability which is associated with many pathological processes. 2,5-hydroxybenzene sulfonate (DHBS; dobesilate) is a small molecule with anti-angiogenic activity that has been described as an inhibitor of fibroblast growth factors (FGF). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of DHBS on VEGF-induced actions. The effects of DHBS were evaluated on VEGF-induced proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and rat aorta relaxation, as well as on in vivo VEGF-induced skin vascular permeability and neovascularization in rats. DHBS at 50 and 100 ?M concentration significantly inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC induced by VEGF (10 ng/ml), without significantly affecting HUVEC proliferation in the absence of VEGF. Rapid VEGF-induced activation of Akt in HUVEC was also prevented by DHBS (100 ?M). Additionally, DHBS (2 ?M) specifically inhibited the relaxation of rat aorta induced by VEGF (0.1 to 30 ng/ml), but not endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (1 nM to 10 ?M). The in vivo enhancement of vascular permeability caused by VEGF injection (50 ?l at 10 ng/ml) in rat skin was also inhibited by DHBS co-administration (200 ?M) (74.8±3.8% inhibition of dye extravasation). Administration of DHBS (200 mg/kg/day; i.p.) also reduced VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. DHBS inhibits main responses elicited in vitro and in vivo by VEGF. As a dual antagonist of VEGF and FGF activities, DHBS could be of therapeutic interest in the treatment of diseases related to VEGF/FGF overproduction and excessive angiogenesis.
Apoptosis and inflammatory/oxidative stress have been associated with hyperglycemia in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and other cell types. We and others have highlighted the role of early products of non-enzymatic protein glycation in inducing proinflammatory conditions and increasing apoptotic rates in HPMCs. Loss of HPMCs seems to be a hallmark of complications associated with peritoneal membrane dysfunction. The aim of this work is to elucidate the mechanisms by which Amadori adducts may act upon HPMC apoptosis.
Hyperglycemia is acknowledged as an independent risk factor for developing diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. At present, most therapeutic approaches are targeted at a tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, although this fails to prevent macrovascular complications of the disease. Indeed, it remains highly controversial whether or not the mere elevation of extracellular D-glucose can directly promote vascular inflammation, which favors early pro-atherosclerotic events.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.