JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of a series of 2-amino-naphthoquinones against human cancer cells.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The cytotoxicity of a series of aminonaphthoquinones resulting from the reaction of suitable aminoacids with 1,4-naphthoquinone was assayed against SF-295 (glioblastoma), MDAMB-435 (breast), HCT-8 (colon), HCT-116 (colon), HL-60 (leukemia), OVCAR-8 (ovarian), NCI-H358M (bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma) and PC3-M (prostate) cancer cells and also against PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells). The results demonstrated that all the synthetic aminonaphthoquinones had relevant cytotoxic activity against all human cancer lines used in this experiment. Five of the compounds showed high cytotoxicity and selectivity against all cancer cell lines tested (IC50 = 0.49 to 3.89 µg·mL-1). The title compounds were less toxic to PBMC, since IC50 was 1.5 to eighteen times higher (IC50 = 5.51 to 17.61 µg·mL-1) than values shown by tumour cell lines. The mechanism of cell growth inhibition and structure-activity relationships remains as a target for future investigations.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of mechanisms involved in antinociception produced by the alkaloid caulerpine.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In previous works we showed that oral administration of caulerpine, a bisindole alkaloid isolated from algae of the genus Caulerpa, produced antinociception when assessed in chemical and thermal models of nociception. In this study, we evaluated the possible mechanism of action of this alkaloid in mice, using the writhing test. The antinociceptive effect of caulerpine was not affected by intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment of mice with naloxone, flumazenil, l-arginine or atropine, thus discounting the involvement of the opioid, GABAergic, l-arginine-nitric oxide and (muscarinic) cholinergic pathways, respectively. In contrast, i.p. pretreatment with yohimbine, an ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist, or tropisetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, significantly blocked caulerpine-induced antinociception. These results suggest that caulerpine exerts its antinociceptive effect in the writhing test via pathways involving ?2-adrenoceptors and 5-HT3 receptors. In summary, this alkaloid could be of interest in the development of new dual-action analgesic drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis, leishmanicidal activity and theoretical evaluations of a series of substituted bis-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of eight substituted bis-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized through lawsone condensation with various aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes under mild acidic conditions. The title compounds were evaluated for antileishmanial activity in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes; six compounds showed good activity without significant toxic effects. The compound with the highest activity was used for an in vivo assay with Leishmania amazonensis.
Related JoVE Video
INECO frontal screening: an instrument to assess executive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Span J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although several brief sensitive screening tools are available to detect executive dysfunction, few have been developed to quickly assess executive functioning. The INECO Frontal Screening (IFS) is a brief tool which has proved be useful for the assessment of the executive functions in patients with dementia. The aim of this study was to explore whether the IFS is as sensitive and specific as the BADS, a battery designed to assess the dysexecutive syndrome, in schizophrenia. Our sample comprised a group of 34 schizophrenic patients (Mean age = 39.59, DP = 10.697) and 31 healthy controls (Mean age = 35.52, DP = 10.211). To all groups were administered the BADS, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and IFS. The results suggest that schizophrenic patients performed significantly worse than the control group in all tests (p < .05). The IFS total score was 13.29 for the experimental group and 26.21 for the control group (p < .001). Considering a cut-off of 14 points, the IFS sensitivity was 100% and specificity 56% in detection of executive dysfunction in schizophrenia, compared with the BADS, that if we consider a cut-off of 11 points, was a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 50%. Thus, IFS is a brief, sensitive and specific tool for the detection of executive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Vasorelaxation induced by a new naphthoquinone-oxime is mediated by NO-sGC-cGMP pathway.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been established that oximes cause endothelium-independent relaxation in blood vessels. In the present study, the cardiovascular effects of the new oxime 3-hydroxy-4-(hydroxyimino)-2-(3-methylbut-2-enylnaphtalen-1(4H)-one (Oxime S1) derived from lapachol were evaluated. In normotensive rats, administration of Oxime S1 (10, 15, 20 and 30 mg/Kg, i.v.) produced dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure. In isolated aorta and superior mesenteric artery rings, Oxime S1 induced endothelium-independent and concentration-dependent relaxations (10(-8) M to 10(-4) M). In addition, Oxime S1-induced vasorelaxations were attenuated by hydroxocobalamin or methylene blue in aorta and by PTIO or ODQ in mesenteric artery rings, suggesting a role for the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Additionally, Oxime S1 (30 and 100 µM) significantly increased NO concentrations (13.9 ± 1.6 nM and 17.9 ± 4.1 nM, respectively) measured by nitric oxide microsensors. Furthermore, pre-contraction with KCl (80 mM) prevented Oxime S1-derived vasorelaxation in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Of note, combined treatment with potassium channel inhibitors also reduced Oxime S1-mediated vasorelaxation suggesting a role for potassium channels, more precisely Kir, Kv and KATP channels. We observed the involvement of BKCa channels in Oxime S1-induced relaxation in mesenteric artery rings. In conclusion, these data suggest that the Oxime S1 induces hypotension and vasorelaxation via NO pathway by activating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and K+ channels.
Related JoVE Video
Modification of the surface chemistry of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes by HNO3 and H2SO4 hydrothermal oxidation for application in direct contact membrane distillation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A specific methodology based on nitric acid hydrothermal oxidation was used to control the surface chemistry of multi-walled (MWCNTs) and single-walled (SWCNTs) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different lengths, and this methodology was adapted to the use of sulphuric acid containing ammonium persulfate as an oxidizing agent. The amount of oxygen-containing surface groups depends on the number and length of the graphene layers of the CNTs, thicker and shorter CNTs having more reactive sites for surface functionalization. In particular, the oxidation of MWCNTs was more pronounced than that of short SWCNTs and less surface groups were introduced into long SWCNTs, regardless of the acid used at any fixed concentration. It was also possible to tailor the surface chemistry of both SWCNTs and MWCNTs by using the adopted methodologies, and the amount of both oxygen- and sulphur-containing functional groups was correlated with the concentration of each oxidizing agent used. Mathematical functions that allow precise control of the amount and type of the surface groups introduced into carbon nanotubes were obtained. Buckypapers were also prepared over a polytetrafluoroethylene commercial membrane. These membranes were tested in direct contact membrane distillation and, under salinity conditions, the membrane prepared using oxidized MWCNTs (instead of SWCNTs) was the most efficient, the permeate flux of the commercial membrane significantly increasing in the presence of these CNTs, while completely rejecting chloride ions. In addition, the permeate flux was precisely correlated with the amount of oxygenated functional surface groups (as well as with the pH of point of zero charge) of the oxidized MWCNTs.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis of bridged oxafenestranes from pleuromutilin.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fenestranes are an intriguing class of highly strained molecules possessing a quaternary carbon with bonds that deviate from the canonical tetrahedral geometry. Herein we report the discovery that the natural product pleuromutilin can be used as a structurally complex starting material for the synthesis of a series of bridged cis,cis,cis,cis-[4.5.5.5]- and cis,cis,cis,cis-[4.5.7.5]oxafenestranes through a carbocation rearrangement cascade. X-ray crystallographic analysis of several cis,cis,cis,cis-[4.5.5.5]oxafenestranes shows a significant planarization of the central tetracoordinate carbon atom and demonstrates the influence of bridgehead substituents and bridging rings on planarity.
Related JoVE Video
Killing of Mycobacterium avium by lactoferricin peptides: improved activity of arginine- and D-amino-acid-containing molecules.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mycobacterium avium causes respiratory disease in susceptible individuals, as well as disseminated infections in immunocompromised hosts, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality among these populations. Current therapies consist of a combination of antibiotics taken for at least 6 months, with no more than 60% overall clinical success. Furthermore, mycobacterial antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, urging the need to develop novel classes of antimicrobial drugs. One potential and interesting alternative strategy is the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMP). These are present in almost all living organisms as part of their immune system, acting as a first barrier against invading pathogens. In this context, we investigated the effect of several lactoferrin-derived AMP against M. avium. Short peptide sequences from both human and bovine lactoferricins, namely, hLFcin1-11 and LFcin17-30, as well as variants obtained by specific amino acid substitutions, were evaluated. All tested peptides significantly inhibited the axenic growth of M. avium, the bovine peptides being more active than the human. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for the display of antimycobacterial activity, whereas the all-d-amino-acid analogue of the bovine sequence displayed the highest mycobactericidal activity. These findings reveal the promising potential of lactoferricins against mycobacteria, thus opening the way for further research on their development and use as a new weapon against mycobacterial infections.
Related JoVE Video
Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV?m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC)?=?129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD)?=?496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2?-)  L(-?1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal?=?41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal?
Related JoVE Video
[Brazilian-Portuguese translation and cultural adaptation of the sleep and wake disturbances domains of the Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)].
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Altered sleep and wakefulness affect individuals' mood, memory, and psychomotor performance and thus directly impact their quality of life. Tools to analyze the quality of these factors should be available for clinical evaluation. This study aimed to translate into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapt the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), specifically the sleep and wake disturbances domains. The translation and cultural adaptation processes followed the guidelines proposed by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) organization. The methodology included translation, reconciliation, back-translation, review by PROMIS, review by independent reviewers, pretest, and incorporation of the results into the final version. The Portuguese version of the sleep and wake disturbances domains presents semantic, idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence with the items in the source language.
Related JoVE Video
Polishing for glass ceramics: which protocol?
J Prosthodont Res
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The execution of adjustments on ceramic restorations is sometimes necessary for either correction of occlusion and/or inadequate contours or esthetical improvements. Clinically, the surfaces undergo weariness through fine grinding diamond burs which remove the superficial glazing layer. Several materials for ceramic polishing have been used in an attempt to reach a satisfactory surface smoothness. The aim of this study was to perform a literature review on different polishing protocols of several dental ceramics.
Related JoVE Video
[Portuguese-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Fatigue domain of Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)].
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The items bank of the Fatigue domain is part of an American system developed for evaluation of results reported by patients, called Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). This study aimed to translate and cross-culturally adapt this item bank for the Brazilian population, as a promising new tool for evaluating health-related quality of life. The items in this bank were translated using rigorous translation and back-translation protocols. The translated version was pre-tested in twenty Brazilians with a brief cognitive and retrospective interview in order to test the items' conceptual, cultural, and semantic equivalences. In the translation and back-translation process, only three of the 82 items had to be reworded due to the culturally inadequate content. In the pretest, only four items needed to be reworded, but without conceptual and semantic alterations. The results showed that the translated version of this item bank is conceptually, culturally, and semantically equivalent to the original version.
Related JoVE Video
Characterisation of a new exopolysaccharide obtained from of fermented kefir grains in soymilk.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been widely studied in recent decades due to similarity to gums used in the food industry. Exopolysaccharides can be used in food processing as a thickener and/or stabiliser. This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties, thermal behaviour and structural composition of the lyophilised EPS obtained from the fermentation of kefir grains in soymilk. The EPS in concentration 18 mg/mL exhibited water activity of 0.204 and pH=6.20 at 25°C, reducing sugars content of 22.10% (v/v) and protein content of 2% (v/v). The thermogravimetric curve obtained was similar to those reported in the literature for other EPSs. The degradation temperature was 351.84°C and showed that the EPS in this study had a high thermal stability. Characteristic polysaccharide bands were observed in the infrared spectrum. The analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) showed that the EPS is only composed of glucose.
Related JoVE Video
[Portuguese-language cultural adaptation of the Items Banks of Anxiety and Depression of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)].
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS), structured in Itens Banks, provides a new tool for evaluating results that apply to various chronic diseases through advanced statistical techniques (TRI) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The aim of this study was to culturally adapt the Items Banks of Anxiety and Depression of PROMIS to the Portuguese language. The process followed the recommendations of PROMIS through the advanced translation, reconciliation, back-translation, FACIT review, independent review, finalization, pre-test, and incorporation of the results from the pre-test. The translated version was pre-tested in ten patients, and items 3, 46, and 53 of the Bank of Anxiety and item 46 of the bank of Depression had to be changed. Changes affected equivalence of meaning, and the final version was consistent with the Brazilian population's linguistic and cultural skills. In conclusion, for the Brazilian population the translated version proved semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original.
Related JoVE Video
Quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of phenolics isolated from different extracts of Capsicum frutescens (Pimenta Malagueta).
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper presents the quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and the flavonoid chrysoeriol isolated from different extracts (hexane and acetonitrile extracts from whole fruit, peel and seed) of Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta). The acetonitrile extract of the seeds, peel and whole fruits contained capsaicin as a major component, followed in abundance by dihydrocapsaicin and chrysoeriol. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds against seven microorganisms showed chrysoeriol was the most active compound. In the antioxidant test, the acetonitrile extract from the whole fruit showed the highest activity. The antioxidant activity of pimenta malagueta may be correlated with its phenolic content, principally with the most active compound, capsaicin.
Related JoVE Video
Increased breast cancer cell toxicity by palladination of the polyamine analogue N (1),N (11)-bis(ethyl)norspermine.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor forms among women and many women succumb to their disease. Thus, new anticancer agents that can efficiently improve patient survival are of the utmost importance. In this study, the effects of the polyamine analogues N (1),N (11)-bis(ethyl)norspermine (BENSpm) and N (1)-cyclo-propylmethyl-N (11)-ethylnorspermine (CPENSpm) and the synthesized dinuclear complexes Pd2BENSpm (Pd-BENSpm), Pt2CPENSpm (Pt-CPENSpm) and Pd2Spm (Pd-Spm) were investigated in normal-like breast epithelial MCF-10A cells and the breast cancer cell lines JIMT-1 and L56BR-C1. The overall data show that palladination of BENSpm resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity, in contrast to platination of CPENSpm that reduced cytotoxicity, which might be explained by differences in the cellular uptake of Pd-BENSpm and Pt-CPENSpm. BENSpm and Pd-BENSpm treatment reduced the CD44(+)CD24(-) putative cancer stem cell population, evaluated by flow cytometry. Furthermore, Pd-BENSpm was the most efficient compound regarding induction of DNA damage and decrease in colony formation in soft agar. Pt-CPENSpm and Pd-Spm, on the other hand, were shown to be the least toxic compounds of all tested. Pd-Spm efficiently reduced the cellular glutathione levels, which probably was a consequence of its metabolic inactivation by conjugation to this endogenous thiol. The normal-like cells were found to be less sensitive to the agents than the breast cancer cells. Our findings show that Pd-BENSpm exhibits promising anticancer effects which render it suitable for further optimization to develop a new metal-based chemotherapeutic drug for breast cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Antimicrobial activity of lippia species from the brazilian semiarid region traditionally used as antiseptic and anti-infective agents.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Multistage treatment system for raw leachate from sanitary landfill combining biological nitrification-denitrification/solar photo-Fenton/biological processes, at a scale close to industrial--biodegradability enhancement and evolution profile of trace pol
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multistage treatment system, at a scale close to the industrial, was designed for the treatment of a mature raw landfill leachate, including: a) an activated sludge biological oxidation (ASBO), under aerobic and anoxic conditions; b) a solar photo-Fenton process, enhancing the bio-treated leachate biodegradability, with and without sludge removal after acidification; and c) a final polishing step, with further ASBO. The raw leachate was characterized by a high concentration of humic substances (HS) (1211 mg CHS/L), representing 39% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and a high nitrogen content, mainly in the form of ammonium nitrogen (>3.8 g NH4(+)-N/L). In the first biological oxidation step, a 95% removal of total nitrogen and a 39% mineralization in terms of DOC were achieved, remaining only the recalcitrant fraction, mainly attributed to HS (57% of DOC). Under aerobic conditions, the highest nitrification rate obtained was 8.2 mg NH4(+)-N/h/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), and under anoxic conditions, the maximum denitrification rate obtained was 5.8 mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N)/h/g VSS, with a C/N consumption ratio of 2.4 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N). The precipitation of humic acids (37% of HS) after acidification of the bio-treated leachate corresponds to a 96% DOC abatement. The amount of UV energy and H2O2 consumption during the photo-Fenton reaction was 30% higher in the experiment without sludge removal and, consequently, the reaction velocity was 30% lower. The phototreatment process led to the depletion of HS >80%, of low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions >70% and other organic micropollutants, thus resulting in a total biodegradability increase of >70%. The second biological oxidation allowed to obtain a final treated leachate in compliance with legal discharge limits regarding water bodies (with the exception of sulfate ions), considering the experiment without sludge. Finally, the high efficiency of the overall treatment process was further reinforced by the total removal percentages attained for the identified organic trace contaminants (>90%).
Related JoVE Video
Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Geopropolis Collected by Melipona subnitida (Jandaíra) Bees.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An investigation of the geopropolis collected by Melipona subnitida (jandaíra) stingless bee led to the isolation and characterization of two phenylpropanoids, 6-O-p-coumaroyl-D-galactopyranose (1) and 6-O-cinnamoyl-1-O-p-coumaroyl- ? -D-glucopyranose (2), and seven flavonoids, 7-O-methyl-naringenin (3), 7-O-methyl aromadendrin (4), 7,4-di-O-methyl aromadendrin (5), 4-O-methyl kaempferol (6), 3-O-methyl quercetin (7), 5-O-methyl aromadendrin (8), and 5-O-methyl kaempferol (9). The structure of the new phenylpropanoid (1) was established from IR, LC-ESI-MS, and NMR spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The extract and fractions demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and ? -carotene/linoleic acid tests.
Related JoVE Video
Insights into real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater treatment using solar advanced oxidation processes.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were applied to the treatment of a real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater as a pre-oxidation step to enhance the biodegradability of the recalcitrant compounds, which can be further oxidized using a biological process. Tests were conducted on a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation and at pilot scale with compound parabolic collectors using natural solar radiation. The cotton-textile dyeing wastewater presents a lilac color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (pH?=?8.2), moderate organic content (DOC?=?152 mg C L(-1), COD?=?684 mg O2 L(-1)) and low-moderate biodegradability (40 % after 28 days in Zahn-Wellens test). All the tested processes contributed to an effective decolorization and mineralization, but the most efficient process was the solar-photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 98.5 % decolorization and 85.5 % mineralization after less than 0.1 and 5.8 kJUV L(-1), respectively. In order to achieve a final wastewater with a COD below 250 mg O2 L(-1) (discharge limit into water bodies imposed by the Portuguese Legislation-Portaria no. 423/97 of 25 June 1997), considering the combination of a solar-photo-Fenton reaction with a biological process, the phototreatment energy required is 0.5 kJUV L(-1), consuming 7.5 mM hydrogen peroxide, resulting in 58.4 % of mineralization [Formula: see text].
Related JoVE Video
Antileishmanial Phenylpropanoids from the Leaves of Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyptis pectinata, popularly known in Brazil as "sambacaitá" or "canudinho," is an aromatic shrub largely grown in the northeast of Brazil. The leaves and bark are used in an infusion for the treatment of throat and skin inflammations, bacterial infections, pain, and cancer. Analogues of rosmarinic acid and flavonoids were obtained from the leaves of Hyptis pectinata and consisted of two new compounds, sambacaitaric acid (1) and 3-O-methyl-sambacaitaric acid (2), and nine known compounds, rosmarinic acid (3), 3-O-methyl-rosmarinic acid (4), ethyl caffeate (5), nepetoidin A (6), nepetoidin B (7), cirsiliol (8), circimaritin (9), 7-O-methylluteolin (10), and genkwanin (11). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-5, and 7 were evaluated in vitro against the promastigote form of L. braziliensis, and the ethanol extract. The hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water fractions were also evaluated. The EtOH extract, the hexane extract, EtOAc, MeOH:H2O fractions; and compounds 1, 2 and 4 exhibited antileishmanial activity, and compound 1 was as potent as pentamidine. In contrast, compounds 3, 5, and 7 did not present activity against the promastigote form of L. braziliensis below 100?µM. To our knowledge, compounds 1 and 2 are being described for the first time.
Related JoVE Video
Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and palynological analysis of stingless bee honey from Amazonas, Northern Brazil.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study honey samples produced by Melipona (Michmelia) seminigra merrillae, collected in seven counties distributed in the central and southern region of Amazonas state in Brazil, were analysed for their botanical origin, content and profile of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-two pollen types were identified. The total phenolic content ranged from 17 to 66 mg GAE/g of extract; the highest contents were found in honeys produced from pollen types such as Clidemia and Myrcia. The antioxidant activity was higher in the samples that contained higher quantities of phenolic compounds. In relation to the antibacterial activity, samples CAD3, CAD4 and SAD3 presented the best results. Fourteen phenolic compounds were determined. Among them, we identified the flavonoid taxifolin, which has not previously been described in honeys from stingless bees, and we report the identification of catechol in Brazilian honey samples for the first time.
Related JoVE Video
Development of indole/indazole-aminopyrimidines as inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK): optimization for JNK potency and physicochemical properties.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel series of indole/indazole-aminopyrimidines was designed and synthesized with an aim to achieve optimal potency and selectivity for the c-Jun kinase family or JNKs. Structure guided design was used to optimize the series resulting in a significant potency improvement. The best compound (17) has IC50 of 3 nM for JNK1 and 20 nM for JNK2, with greater than 40-fold selectivity against other kinases with good physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties.
Related JoVE Video
Norspermidine and novel Pd(II) and Pt(II) polynuclear complexes of norspermidine as potential antineoplastic agents against breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
New strategies are needed for breast cancer treatment and one initial step is to test new chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer cell lines, to choose candidates for further studies towards clinical use.
Related JoVE Video
Structural diversity and mode of action on lipid membranes of three lactoferrin candidacidal peptides.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The structure and membrane interactions of three antimicrobial peptides from the lactoferrin family were investigated through different techniques. Circular dichroism shows that the peptides adopt a secondary structure in the presence of DMPC/DMPG, and DSC reveals that they all interact with these membranes, albeit differently, whereas only LFchimera has an effect in pure zwitterionic membranes of DMPC. DSC further shows that membrane action is weakest for LFcin17-30, increases for LFampin265-284 and is largest for LFchimera. These differences are clearly reflected in a different structure upon interaction, as revealed by SAX. This technique shows that LFcin17-30 only induces membrane segregation (two lamellar phases are apparent upon cooling from fluid phase), whereas LFampin265-284 induces micellization of the membrane with structure compatible to a micellar cubic phase of space group Pm3n, and LFchimera leads to membrane destruction through the formation of two cubic phases, Pn3m and Im3m. These structural results show a remarkable parallel with the ones obtained previously by freeze fracture microscopy of the effect of these peptides against Candida albicans.
Related JoVE Video
Biodegradability enhancement of a leachate after biological lagooning using a solar driven photo-Fenton reaction, and further combination with an activated sludge biological process, at pre-industrial scale.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This work proposes an integrated leachate treatment strategy, combining a solar photo-Fenton reaction, to enhance the biodegradability of the leachate from an aerated lagoon, with an activated sludge process, under aerobic and anoxic conditions, to achieve COD target values and nitrogen content according to the legislation. The efficiency and performance of the photo-Fenton reaction, concerning a sludge removal step after acidification, defining the optimum phototreatment time to reach a biodegradable wastewater that can be further oxidized in a biological reactor and, activation sludge biological process, defining the nitrification and denitrification reaction rates, alkalinity balance and methanol dose necessary as external carbon source, was evaluated in the integrated system at a scale close to industrial. The pre-industrial plant presents a photocatalytic system with 39.52 m(2) of compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) and 2 m(3) recirculation tank and, an activated sludge biological reactor with 3 m(3) capacity. Leachate biodegradability enhancement by means of a solar driven photo-Fenton process was evaluated using direct biodegradability tests, as Zahn-Wellens method, and indirect measure according to average oxidation state (AOS), low molecular carboxylic acids content (fast biodegradable character) and humic substances (recalcitrant character) concentration. Due to high variability of leachate composition, UV absorbance on-line measurement was established as a useful parameter for photo-Fenton reaction control.
Related JoVE Video
Mycobacterium avium Infection Induces H-Ferritin Expression in Mouse Primary Macrophages by Activating Toll-Like Receptor 2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Important for both host and pathogen survivals, iron is a key factor in determining the outcome of an infectious process. Iron with-holding, including sequestration inside tissue macrophages, is considered an important strategy to fight infection. However, for intra-macrophagic pathogens, such as Mycobacterium avium, host defence may depend on intracellular iron sequestration mechanisms. Ferritin, the major intracellular iron storage protein, plays a critical role in this process. In the current study, we studied ferritin expression in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages upon infection with M. avium. We found that H-ferritin is selectively increased in infected macrophages, through an up-regulation of gene transcription. This increase was mediated by the engagement of Toll like receptor-2, and was independent of TNF-alpha or nitric oxide production. The formation of H-rich ferritin proteins and the consequent iron sequestration may be an important part of the panoply of antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of obesity in the kinematic parameters of gait in young women.
Int J Gen Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the population, particularly in women. Obesity has an impact on the musculoskeletal system, leading to knee and ankle overexertion, difficulty with balance, and functional disability. The aim of this study was to identify changes in kinematic parameters of gait in obese young women.
Related JoVE Video
Knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and factors associated with condom use among adolescents in northeast Brazil.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and factors associated with condom use among adolescent.
Related JoVE Video
Lactoferrin-derived antimicrobial peptide induces a micellar cubic phase in a model membrane system.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The observation of a micellar cubic phase is reported for a mixture of an antimicrobial peptide from the Lactoferrin family, LFampin 265-284, and a model membrane system of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (3:1), as derived from small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD) measurements. The system shows remarkable thermotropic polymorphism: the peptide disrupts the lipid bilayer, forming a cubic phase of the space group Pm3n (t < 28°C), and as the temperature increases it shows a complex phase behavior (not fully clarified by SAXD). The onset, volume fraction of each phase, and phase parameters are seen to vary with peptide/lipid ratio and temperature. The obtained SAXD data represent the first experimental evidence, to our knowledge, of a micellar cubic phase in the context of antimicrobial peptide/membrane interaction. We propose that the micellization of the membrane according to the carpet model, for long proposed as a possible mechanism of action, can go through the formation of a cubic micellar phase.
Related JoVE Video
Immune and inflammatory responses to Leishmania amazonensis isolated from different clinical forms of human leishmaniasis in CBA mice.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leishmania amazonensis causes different diseases depending on the host and parasitic virulence factors. In this study, CBA mice were infected with L. amazonensis isolates from patients with localized (Ba125), diffuse cutaneous (Ba276) or visceral leishmaniasis (Ba109). Mice infected with Ba125 and Ba276 progressed rapidly and lesions displayed an infiltrate rich in parasitized macrophages and were necrotic and ulcerated. Ba109 induced smaller lesions and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate without necrosis or ulceration. Ba109 induced an insidious disease with lower parasite load in CBA mice, similar to human disease. Levels of IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-10 did not differ among the groups. Because all groups were unable to control the infection, expression of IL-4 associated with low production of IFN-? in the early phase of infection may account for susceptibility, but others factors may contribute to the differences observed in inflammatory responses and infection progression. Evaluation of some parasitic virulence factors revealed that Ba276 exhibits higher ecto-ADPase and 5-nucleotidase activities compared to the Ba109 and Ba125 strains. Both Ba276 and Ba125 had higher arginase activity in comparison to Ba109. Finally, these data suggest that the differences in enzyme activities among parasites can account for differences in host inflammatory responses and infection progression.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of laser (?670?nm) and dexamethasone on the chronology of cutaneous repair.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to assess the effect of LLLT associated with and without dexamethasone on inflammation and wound healing in cutaneous surgical wounds. Background: Limited studies are directed at the possible interference of laser photobiomodulation on the formation of myofibroblasts, associated with an antiinflammatory drug.
Related JoVE Video
Acute presentation of a benign cystadenofibroma of the fallopian tube: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cystadenofibromas are rare benign tumors of the fallopian tube with only 15 reported cases worldwide. They are usually asymptomatic and are found incidentally. This case is presented on account of its rarity and to the best of our knowledge, is the first reported case of cystadenofibroma of the fallopian tube discovered during an appendicectomy.
Related JoVE Video
[Miscellaneous orbital implant for anophthalmic cavity reconstruction surgery: case report].
Arq Bras Oftalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new model of orbital implant, matching the low cost of acrylic implants (PMMA) with the advantages of medpor (Porex) is presented herein. The new implant model consists of a PMMA implant with a dura mater scrap adhered on its anterior face of the same diameter of the acrylic implant and a medpor snip adhered on its posterior face by sterile cyanoacrylate. Dura mater was fixed to medpor with 6.0 mono-nylon. One patient who presented previous extrusion of the implant was submitted to surgery and was evaluated on the 1st, 7th, 15th, 30th postoperative days, and 3 and 6 months after surgery when a computed tomography was performed. A good cosmetic, mobility and volume result was noted after an escleral prosthesis was adapted, with no infection, migration or extrusion of the implant until this moment. This case showed us that it is possible to use a more economic implant model with the same results of medpor (Porex).
Related JoVE Video
Control of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium intracellulare infections with respect to distinct granuloma formations in livers of BALB/c mice.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium that can cause a range of diseases in humans. Complications from M. fortuitum infection have been associated with numerous surgical procedures. A protective immune response against pathogenic mycobacterial infections is dependent on the granuloma formation. Within the granuloma, the macrophage effector response can inhibit bacterial replication and mediate the intracellular killing of bacteria. The granulomatous responses of BALB/c mice to rapidly and slowly growing mycobacteria were assessed in vivo and the bacterial loads in spleens and livers from M. fortuitum and Mycobacterium intracellulare-infected mice, as well as the number and size of granulomas in liver sections, were quantified. Bacterial loads were found to be approximately two times lower in M. fortuitum-infected mice than in M. intracellulare-infected mice and M. fortuitum-infected mice presented fewer granulomas compared to M. intracellulare-infected mice. These granulomas were characterized by the presence of Mac-1+ and CD4+ cells. Additionally, IFN-?mRNA expression was higher in the livers of M. fortuitum-infected mice than in those of M. intracellulare-infected mice. These data clearly show that mice are more capable of controlling an infection with M. fortuitum than M. intracellulare. This capacity is likely related to distinct granuloma formations in mice infected with M. fortuitum but not with M. intracellulare.
Related JoVE Video
GB virus type C infection modulates T-cell activation independently of HIV-1 viral load.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many clinical studies have suggested a beneficial effect of GB virus type C (GBV-C) on the course of HIV-1 infection, but the mechanisms involved in such amelioration are not clear. As recent evidence has implicated cellular activation in HIV-1 pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of GBV-C viremia on T-cell activation in early HIV-1 infection.
Related JoVE Video
Polyarticular lipoma arborescens with inflammatory synovitis.
J Clin Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lipoma arborescens is a rare clinical condition characterized by mono or biarticular involvement of large joints, such as knees, hips, ankles, elbows, and shoulders. The aim of this case report is to describe an unusual case of lipoma arborescens affecting multiple large joints, mimicking rheumatoid arthritis. The patient, a 29-year-old woman had a history of intermittent arthritis of the wrists, knees, and ankles for at least 12 years. With the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis she had been on methotrexate (7.5 mg/wk) for the last 6 months along with different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, without benefit. On physical examination a discreet joint swelling of the knees without effusion, gluteal muscle atrophy, and limited hip movements were observed. Laboratory tests presented normal acute phase reactants of inflammation as well as the rheumatoid factor, CK, and negative results for antinuclear, anti-DNA, anti-SSA/Ro, and anti-CCP (ELISA) antibodies. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knees and hips showed articular effusion and synovitis, and a pattern of lipoma arborescens. The histopathologic study confirmed the diagnosis. Knee arthroscopic synovectomy brought some improvement to joint mobility and pain.Although rare, this condition must be remembered in the presence of inflammatory arthropathy, particularly in the absence of response to clinical treatment, and absence of rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies, since the therapeutic strategy is radically different.
Related JoVE Video
Verbal fluency in the detection of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease among Brazilian Portuguese speakers: the influence of education.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Verbal fluency (VF) tasks are simple and efficient clinical tools to detect executive dysfunction and lexico-semantic impairment. VF tasks are widely used in patients with suspected dementia, but their accuracy for detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is still under investigation. Schooling in particular may influence the subjects performance. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two semantic categories (animals and fruits) in discriminating controls, MCI patients and Alzheimers disease (AD) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Improved synthesis of seven aromatic Baylis-Hillman adducts (BHA): evaluation against Artemia salina Leach. and Leishmania chagasi.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We described a very efficient procedure to prepare seven aromatic compounds (1-7), a new class of antileishmanial substances, through Baylis-Hillman reaction (BHR). With one, all the Baylis-Hillman adducts were prepared in quantitative yields by reaction of the corresponding aromatic aldehydes in acrylonitrile at 0 degrees C in only 10-40min reaction time. We present our results about the toxicities of these compounds evaluated on the microcrustaceous Artemia salina Leach. and against promastigote Leishmania chagasi. All substances evaluated in this work have showed high bioactivity. The 3-hydroxy-2-methylene-3-(4-bromopheny)propanenitrile (4) (LC(50)=30.9 microg/mL on A. salina; IC(50)=25.2 microM on L. chagasi) was the most active compound evaluated on A. salina Leach. and on promastigote L. chagasi. The 2-[hydroxy(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]acrylonitrile (7) (LC(50)=30.9 microg/mL on A. salina Leach.; IC(50)=4.8 microg/mL on L. chagasi) was also a very active substance evaluated in this work on promastigote L. chagasi.
Related JoVE Video
Chemical composition, botanical evaluation and screening of radical scavenging activity of collected pollen by the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela).
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stingless bees in Brazil are indigenous and found all over the country. Bee pollen is used for its nutritional value in the human diet. It is made up of natural flower pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions. In order to evaluate the chemical composition, free radical scavenging activity, and botanical origin, sample of pollen loads from stingless bee, Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu amarela) was studied. The EtOAc extract of pollen of Melipona rufiventris yielded the following compounds: p-hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroquercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin3-O-(6-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, and quercetin. This is the first report of the isolation of isorhamnetin3-O-(6O-E-p-coumaroyl)beta-D-glucopyranoside from pollen. The free radicalscavenging activities of different solvent extracts of pollen were determined using DPPH assay. This activity decreases in the order: EtOAc>EtOH>Hexane extract. It appears that the EtOAc extract of the pollen is a good scavenger of active oxygen species. The botanical evaluation of pollen loads showed the composition by two pollen types, with the dominant type (97.3%) being Scopariadulcis (L.) (Scrophulariaceae) and the minor one Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae). This suggests a specific foraging behavior in Melipona rufiventris bees, even in an environment with such a rich botanical diversity as the Northeastern Brazil.
Related JoVE Video
Analytical approaches toward successful human cell metabolome studies by NMR spectroscopy.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of cell handling and storage on cell integrity and (1)H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectra. Three different cell types have been considered (lung tumoral, amniocytes, and MG-63 osteosarcoma cells) in order for sample-dependent effects to be identified. Cell integrity of fresh cells and cells frozen in cryopreservative solution was approximately 70-80%, with the former showing higher membrane degradation, probably enzymatic, as indicated by increased phosphocholine (PC) and/or glycerophosphocholine (GPC). Unprotected freezing (either gradual or snap-freezing) was found to lyse cells completely, similar to mechanical cell lysis. Besides enhanced metabolites visibility, lysed cells showed a different lipid profile compared to intact cells, with increased choline, PC, and GPC and decreased phosphatidylcholine (PTC). Cell lysis has, therefore, a significant effect on cell lipid composition, making handling reproducibility an important issue in lipid analysis. Sample spinning was found to disrupt 5-25% of cells, depending on cell type, and HRMAS was shown to be preferable to solution-state NMR of suspensions or supernatant, giving enhanced information on lipids and comparable resolution for smaller metabolites. Relaxation- and diffusion-edited NMR experiments gave limited information on intact cells, compared to lysed cells. The (1)H HRMAS spectra of the three cell types are compared and discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative insult caused by benzonidazole in chronic Chagas heart disease.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic chagasic cardiac patients are exposed to oxidative stress that apparently contributes to disease progression. Benznidazole (BZN) is the main drug used for the treatment of chagasic patients and its action involves the generation of reactive species. 41 patients with Chagas heart disease were selected and biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured before and after 2 months of BZN treatment (5 mg/kg/day) and the subsequent antioxidant supplementation with vitamin E (800 UI/day) and C (500 mg/day) during 6 months. Patients were classified according to the modified Los Andes clinical hemodynamic classification in groups IA, IB, II and III, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), vitamin E and C and nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities were measured in their blood. Excepting in group III, after BZN treatment SOD, CAT, GPx and GST activities as well as PC levels were enhanced while vitamin E levels were decreased in these groups. After antioxidant supplementation the activities of SOD, GPx and GR were decreased whereas PC, TBARS, NO, and GSH levels were decreased. In conclusion, BZN treatment promoted an oxidative insult in such patients while the antioxidant supplementation was able to attenuate this effect by increasing vitamin E levels, decreasing PC and TBARS levels, inhibiting SOD, GPx and GR activities as well as inflammatory markers, mainly in stages with less cardiac involvement.
Related JoVE Video
New iodine derivatives of flavonol and isoflavone.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The reaction of the flavonol 3,7,3, 4-tetra-O-methylquercetin (1) and of the isoflavone 7,4-di-O-methylgenistein (2) with alkaline iodine in methanol afforded four new iodine derivatives: 8-iodo-5-hydroxy-3,7,3, 4-tetramethoxy- flavone (1a) and 6-iodo-5-hydroxy-3,7,3, 4-tetramethoxyflavone (1b) from 1; 2 afforded a mixture of two compounds, identified as a racemic mixture of (+/-)-trans-5-hydroxy-2,3,7,4-tetramethoxy-8-iodo-isoflavanone (2a) and (+/-)-trans-5-hydroxy-2,3,7,4-tetramethoxy-6,8-diiodo-isoflavanone (2b). The formation of these different products reveals a significant difference involving the chemical interaction between the reactive site of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones of flavonol and isoflavone under the tested reaction conditions (using I2/KOH/MeOH). Furthermore, the trans stereo selectivity is noteworthy in the nucleophylic addition of methanol at the isoflavone alpha, beta-unsaturated system. The structures were identified on the basis of spectral data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectra.
Related JoVE Video
Biflavonoids from the unripe fruits of Clusia paralicola and their antioxidant activity.
Nat Prod Commun
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Investigation of the green fruits of Clusia paralicola (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of two 3,8"-biflavonoids, 2R, 3S, 2"R, 3"R-GB1-7"-O-beta-glucoside (1) and 2R, 3S, 2"R, 3,8"-binaringenin-7"-O-beta-glucoside (2), together with four known compounds: beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, beta-amyrin, and epicatechin. The structures were established from the IR, LC-ESI-MS and NMR spectral data, including 2D-NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by CD spectra. The total extract and the biflavonoids demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and betacarotene/linoleic acid tests.
Related JoVE Video
Development of amino-pyrimidine inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK): kinase profiling guided optimization of a 1,2,3-benzotriazole lead.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of amino-pyrimidines was developed based upon an initial kinase cross-screening hit from a CDK2 program. Kinase profiling and structure-based drug design guided the optimization from the initial 1,2,3-benzotriazole hit to a potent and selective JNK inhibitor, compound 24f (JNK1 and 2 IC(50)=16 and 66 nM, respectively), with bioavailability in rats and suitable for further in vivo pharmacological evaluation.
Related JoVE Video
Peripheral polyneuropathy and female sexual dysfunction--familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy as an example besides diabetes mellitus.
J Sex Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in peripheral polyneuropathies besides diabetes mellitus is still a poorly studied subject. Little is known about sexual function in women with amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or porphyria. Even for the worlds most common peripheral polyneuropathies such as diabetes mellitus, knowledge and consensus are still lacking. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is the most common cause of genetic systemic amyloidosis, with neurological clinical manifestations similar to diabetes mellitus. Until today, no study on the sexual function of these young female patients has been published.
Related JoVE Video
Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector.
Pharmacogn Mag
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of a technique for in vivo internal monitoring of (18)F within a Brazilian laboratory network.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
(18)FDG, an analogue of glucose labelled with the radionuclide (18)F, is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical in positron emission tomography/computed tomography technique. In Brazil, there are currently eight (18)FDG plants in operation and other facilities are expected to start their production in the near future. The growth in the production and clinical use of (18)FDG represents an increasing risk of worker exposures. According to national regulations and international recommendations, internal exposures should be effectively controlled in order to keep doses as low as possible. The implementation of a routine monitoring programme towards the estimation of internal doses related to the incorporation of (18)F is difficult, mainly due to its short physical half-life, the cost of a bioassay laboratory and the need of a monitoring service promptly available near the production plant. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a methodology for in vivo brain monitoring of (18)F to be applied in cases of suspected incorporation of (18)FDG. The technique presented a minimum detectable effective dose in the order of nanoSieverts, which allows its application for occupational monitoring purposes.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced leishmanicidal activity of cryptopeptide chimeras from the active N1 domain of bovine lactoferrin.
Amino Acids
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two antimicrobial cryptopeptides from the N1 domain of bovine lactoferrin, lactoferricin (LFcin17-30) and lactoferrampin (LFampin265-284), together with a hybrid version (LFchimera), were tested against the protozoan parasite Leishmania. All peptides were leishmanicidal against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, and LFchimera showed a significantly higher activity over its two composing moieties. Besides, it was the only peptide active on Leishmania pifanoi axenic amastigotes, already showing activity below 10 ?M. To investigate their leishmanicidal mechanism, promastigote membrane permeabilization was assessed by decrease of free ATP levels in living parasites, entrance of the vital dye SYTOX Green (MW = 600 Da) and confocal and transmission electron microscopy. The peptides induced plasma membrane permeabilization and bioenergetic collapse of the parasites. To further clarify the structural traits underlying the increased leishmanicidal activity of LFchimera, the activity of several analogues was assessed. Results revealed that the high activity of these hybrid peptides seems to be related to the order and sequence orientation of the two cryptopeptide moieties, rather than to their particular linkage through an additional lysine, as in the initial LFchimera. The incorporation of both antimicrobial cryptopeptide motifs into a single linear sequence facilitates chemical synthesis and should help in the potential clinical application of these optimized analogues.
Related JoVE Video
Palynological origin, phenolic content, and antioxidant properties of honeybee-collected pollen from Bahia, Brazil.
Molecules
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February-November) from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil). Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02) were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction in alveolar bone density of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Rev Bras Reumatol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the alveolar bone density (ABD) in the upper first molars of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to compare their ABD with that of healthy controls. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of the influence of medication and rheumatic disease activity on ABD, in addition to the correlation between ABD and periodontal and rheumatologic clinical parameters.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.