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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Slowly digestible starch--a review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2015
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The link between carbohydrate intake and health is becoming increasingly important for consumers, particularly in the areas of glycemic index (GI) and extended energy-releasing starches. From a physiological point of view, slowly digestible starch (SDS) delivers a slow and sustained release of blood glucose along with the benefits resulting from low glycemic and insulinemic response. SDS has been implicated in several health problems, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (metabolic syndromes). It may also have commercial potential as a novel functional ingredient in a variety of fields, such as nutrition, medicine, and agriculture. The present review assesses this form of digestion by analyzing methods to prepare and evaluate SDS, and factors affecting its transformation, its health benefits, and its applications.
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Unusual Fe(CN)63-/4- capture induced by synergic effect of electropolymeric cationic surfactant and graphene: Characterization and biosensing application.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Herein, a special microheterogeneous system for Fe(CN)63-/4- capture was constructed based on graphene (GN) and the electropolymeric cationic surfactant, an amphiphilic pyrrole derivative, (11-pyrrolyl-1-yl-undecyl) triethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (A2). The morphology of the system was characterized by scanning electron microscope. The redox properties of the entrapped Fe(CN)63-/4- were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectrometry. The entrapped Fe(CN)63-/4- exhibited highly electroactive with stable and symmetrical cyclic voltammetric signal. A dramatic negative shift in the half wave potential can be obtained due to the unusual Fe(CN)63-/4- partitioning in in this microheterogeneous system based on poly(A2+GN). Finally, the entrapped Fe(CN)63-/4- was applied in the construction of the enhanced biosensors to hydrogen peroxide and sulfide.
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Color switchable, emission enhanced fluorescence realized by engineering C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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This paper reports the preparation and properties of color-switchable fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-dots). C-dots that emit dark turquoise and green-yellow fluorescence under 365 nm UV illumination were obtained from the hydrothermal decomposition of citric acid. Dark green fluorescent C-dots were obtained by conjugating prepared C-dots to form C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles. After successful conjugation of the C-dots, the fluorescence emission undergoes a blue shift of nearly 20 nm (?0.15 eV) under UV excitation at 370 nm. The C-dots emit golden rod, green-yellow, and gold light under excitation at 455 nm, which shows that the prepared C-dots are color-switchable. Furthermore, conjugation of the C-dots results in enhanced, red-shifted absorption of the ?-?* transition of the aromatic sp2 domains due to the conjugated ?-electron system. N incorporation in the carbon structure leads to a degree of dipoles for all the aromatic sp2 bonds. The enhanced absorption in a wide range from 226 to 601 nm indicates extended conjugation in the C-dot@C-dot structure. The time-resolved average lifetimes for the three different types of C-dots prepared in this study are 7.10, 7.65, and 4.07 ns. The radiative rate (reduced decay lifetime) increases when the C-dots are conjugated in the C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles, leading to the enhanced fluorescence emission. The fluorescence emission of the C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles can be used in applications such as flow cytometry and cell imaging.
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Elucidation of Substituted Ester Group Position in Octenylsuccinic Anhydride Modified Sugary Maize Soluble Starch.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.
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Etiology and Epidemiology of Children with Acute Otitis Media and Spontaneous Otorrhea in Suzhou, China.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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There are scare data about bacterial etiology and the antibiotic susceptibility, serotype distribution and molecular characteristics of pneumococci in children with Acute Otitis Media (AOM) in China.
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Staphylococcal enterotoxin B administration during pregnancy imprints the increased CD4:CD8 T cell ratio in the peripheral blood from the neonatal to adult offspring rats.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Our previous study demonstrated that SEB administration during pregnancy could alter the percentage of T cells subpopulation in the thymus of the neonatal rats, however, it is little known about the effect of maternal SEB administration during pregnancy on T cells subpopulation in the peripheral blood of the offspring rats. In the present study, pregnant rats at gestational day (GD) 16 were intravenously injected with 15 ?g SEB. The present study revealed that the prenatal exposure of SEB significantly decreased the percentages of CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood of both the neonatal rats in the fifth day after delivery and the adult offspring rats, and significantly increased the percentage of CD4 T cells as well as the ratios of CD4 to CD8 T cells in both the neonatal and adult offspring rats. The prenatal exposure of SEB significantly decreased the expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-? in the plasma of the neonatal and adult offspring rats. Furthermore, SEB restimulation significantly increased the percentage of CD8 T cells and significantly decreased the percentage of CD4 T cells. These data suggested the prenatal exposure of SEB was able to imprint the increased CD4:CD8 T cell ratio in the peripheral blood from the neonate to adulthood through the decreased CD8 T cells and the increased CD4 T cells, and altered the response characteristics of CD4 and CD8 T cells to secondary SEB administration in the peripheral blood of the adult offspring rats.
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Design and Optimization of Novel Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors of Bis-Substituted Aromatic Amides Bearing Potent Activities against Tumor Growth and Metastasis.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are one of the most promising drug targets for cancer therapy, and since more than 90% of all cancer-related deaths are associated with tumor metastasis, developing strategies to inhibit tumor metastasis while retaining anti-tumor growth activity are of great interest. Herein we demonstrated the design and identification of a series of novel hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitors bearing potent activities against tumor growth and metastasis. Optimization of the initial hit resulted in the discovery of new HDAC inhibitors through studying the structure-activity relationship. Among them, compound 11b, one of the most potent leads, exhibited nanomolar IC50 values toward inhibition of class I and IIb HDACs as well as sub-micromolar activity against proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro. More importantly, it also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a breast tumor xenograft mouse model and dose-dependently blocked in vivo tumor metastasis in a mouse pulmonary metastasis model.
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Highly enantioselective reaction of 2-oxindoles with (3-indolyl)methanols by cooperative Catalysis of a Lewis acid and organocatalyst.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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An efficient cooperative biscinchona alkaloid and Lewis acid catalytic system was developed in the enantioselective ?-alkylation of 2-oxindoles with (3-indolyl)(phenyl)methanols to provide (2-oxindole)-linker-indole derivatives in good yields (70-83%) with high enantioselectivities (81%-92%).
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Monitoring of systemic and hepatic hemodynamic parameters in mice.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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The use of mouse models in experimental research is of enormous importance for the study of hepatic physiology and pathophysiological disturbances. However, due to the small size of the mouse, technical details of the intraoperative monitoring procedure suitable for the mouse were rarely described. Previously we have reported a monitoring procedure to obtain hemodynamic parameters for rats. Now, we adapted the procedure to acquire systemic and hepatic hemodynamic parameters in mice, a species ten-fold smaller than rats. This film demonstrates the instrumentation of the animals as well as the data acquisition process needed to assess systemic and hepatic hemodynamics in mice. Vital parameters, including body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate were recorded throughout the whole procedure. Systemic hemodynamic parameters consist of carotid artery pressure (CAP) and central venous pressure (CVP). Hepatic perfusion parameters include portal vein pressure (PVP), portal flow rate as well as the flow rate of the common hepatic artery (table 1). Instrumentation and data acquisition to record the normal values was completed within 1.5 h. Systemic and hepatic hemodynamic parameters remained within normal ranges during this procedure. This procedure is challenging but feasible. We have already applied this procedure to assess hepatic hemodynamics in normal mice as well as during 70% partial hepatectomy and in liver lobe clamping experiments. Mean PVP after resection (n= 20), was 11.41±2.94 cmH2O which was significantly higher (P<0.05) than before resection (6.87±2.39 cmH2O). The results of liver lobe clamping experiment indicated that this monitoring procedure is sensitive and suitable for detecting small changes in portal pressure and portal flow rate. In conclusion, this procedure is reliable in the hands of an experienced micro-surgeon but should be limited to experiments where mice are absolutely needed.
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[Effect of different functional groups on self-assembled monolayers on the biological characteristics of skeletal muscle cells in vitro].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To explore the effect of different functional groups on self-assembled monolayers on the biological characteristics of rabbit skeletal muscle cells in vitro.
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[Reliability and construct validity of the center for epidemiological studies depression scale in a rural women Population].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To test the reliability and construct validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a rural Chinese women population.
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[Diel variations of hydrochemistry and influencing factors in a surface stream in subtropical karst area, SW China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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In order to understand the diel variation and influencing factors of hydrochemistry in a surface creek fed by karst subterranean river in a subtropical area, where is located at Guancun Village, Daliang Township, Rong'an County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, two monitoring sites were set simultaneously to launch Guancun subterranean river outlet (G1) and surface creek mouth (G2), respectively. Physical and hydrochemical parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature (T) and specific conductivity (Spc) were measured at 15-minute intervals and water samples for analyzing major ions such as Ca2+, HCO3- and NO3- as well as delta3C(DIC) were collected at 2-hour intervals. The results showed that: (1) G1 and G2 sites were both HCO3- Ca type water, however the two monitoring sites showed different diel variations of hydrogeochemical process; (2) The physical and hydrochemical parameters (T, DO, pH, Spc) and major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO4(2-), NO3-, Cl- in G1 site were basically stable, while the physical and hydrochemical parameters (T, DO, pH, Spc) and major ions (Ca2+, HCO3- and NO3-) in G2 site displayed regular diel variation during monitoring; (3) The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and delta13C values in G2 monitoring site showed reverse characteristics in diurnal fluctuations, where DIC decreased in daylight and increased at night while the delta13C value increased in daylight and decreased at night, DIC also showed a negative correlation with the delta13C value (correlation coefficient is -0. 87, P < 0.01) in G2 site. These results indicated that photosynthesis and respiration of aquatic plants, water temperature and degassing jointly affected diurnal variation of hydrochemistry and controlled the cycling process of internal matter in this surface creek fed by karst subterranean river.
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Efficacy and safety of ginger-salt-indirect moxibustion for urge urinary incontinence after stroke: protocol for a pilot multicentre randomised controlled trial.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Ginger-salt-indirect moxibustion is widely applied to treat urge urinary incontinence after stroke, which is a common complication in stroke survivors. Moxa cone moxibustion and moxa box moxibustion are the main techniques of ginger-salt-indirect moxibustion. Our previous study had shown that ginger-salt-indirect moxibustion using moxa cones was feasible and effective for urination disorders post-stroke. This pilot study aims to assess the feasibility of conducting research to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ginger-salt-indirect moxibustion for patients with post-stroke urge urinary incontinence.
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The efficacy of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent in primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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PurposeTotal knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a popular procedure in severe osteoarthritis. But perioperative bleeding remains a problem. Floseal® is a mixture of thrombin and bovine gelatin which can benefit a lot on reducing intraoperative and postoperative bleeding. However, there is no enough evidence judging its safety and efficiency. So a meta-analysis is conducted by us to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent compared with conventional methods in TKA.MethodTwo independent reviewers selected literatures published before August 2014 from MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Other internet databases were also performed to identify trials according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. High-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective control trials (PCTs), and case controlled trials (CCTs) were selected. The meta-analysis was undertaken using RevMan 5.1 for Windows.ResultsThree RCTs, one PCT, and one CCT met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in hemoglobin decline and calculated total blood loss between the Floseal® group and control group. There were no significant differences in postoperative drainage volume, rate of transfusion requirement, incidence of wound infection, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE) between treatment and control groups.ConclusionsThe present meta-analysis indicates that a thrombin-based hemostatic agent can reduce hemoglobin decline and calculated total blood loss after TKA and is not related to adverse reactions or complications such as wound infection, DVT, and PE.
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Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Delta/Notch-like Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-Related Receptor (DNER) and Delta-like 1 Ligand (DLL 1) with the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Han Population.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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The aim of the study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1861612 of delta/notch-like Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-related receptor (DNER) and rs1884190 in the Delta-like 1 ligand (DLL1) gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. DNER rs1861612 and DLL1 rs1884190 polymorphisms were genotyped in patients with T2DM and age- and sex-matched T2DM-free controls from a Chinese Han population. A total of 298 patients with T2DM and 500 controls were enrolled in this study. We found that TC and TT genotypes of rs1861612 and variant T were associated with a significantly increased risk of T2DM. In contrast, the AG and AA genotypes of rs1884190 were not significantly associated with the risk of T2DM, even after further stratification analysis based on age or sex. Our results showed that DNER rs1861612 C to T change and variant T genotype may contribute to T2DM in a Chinese Han population.
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RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases.
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Biomechanical comparison of mono-segment transpedicular fixation with short-segment fixation for treatment of thoracolumbar fractures: A finite element analysis.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Mono-segment transpedicular fixation is a method for the treatment of certain types of thoracolumbar spinal fracture. Finite element models were constructed to evaluate the biomechanics of mono-segment transpedicular fixation of thoracolumbar fracture. Spinal motion (T10-L2) was scanned and used to establish the models. The superior half of the cortical bone of T12 was removed and the superior half of the cancellous bone of the T12 body was assigned the material properties of injured bone to mimic vertebral fracture. Transpedicular fixation of T11 and T12 was performed to produce a mono-segment fixation model; T11 and L1 were fixed to produce a short-segment fixation model. Motion differences between functional units and von Mises stress on the spine and implants were measured under axial compression, anterior bending, extensional bending, lateral bending and axial rotation. We found no significant difference between mono- and short-segment fixations in the motion of any functional unit. Stress on the T10/T11 nucleus pulposus and T10/T11 and L1/L2 annulus fibrosus increased significantly by about 75% on anterior bending, extensional bending and lateral bending. In the fracture model, stress was increased by 24% at the inferior endplate of T10 and by 43% at the superior endplate of L2. All increased stresses were reduced after fixation and lower stress was observed with mono-segment fixation. In summary, the biomechanics of mono-segment pedicle screw instrumentation was similar to that of conventional short-segment fixation. As a minimally invasive treatment, mono-segment fixation would be appropriate for the treatment of selected thoracolumbar spinal fractures.
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Osteopontin expression is associated with platinum-based chemotherapy response and prognosis of patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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To examine the expression of osteopontin (OPN) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to analyze the correlation of the expression level of OPN with response to platinum-based chemotherapy and the prognosis of NSCLC patients.
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Hybrid high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) organogels with oil separation properties.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Hybrid HIPE organogels were prepared from pre-formed hybrid organogels, which were formed from a triblock ionomer and Fe3O4 nanoparticles via charge-driven assembly. Magnetic materials can be obtained from these hybrid HIPE organogels simply by removal of solvents, and these materials have been confirmed to be excellent candidates for absorption of oil from water.
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Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in mice induced by lipopolysaccharide is attenuated by dapsone.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a key event in the development of many central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as septic encephalopathy and stroke. 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS, Dapsone) has displayed neuroprotective effect, but whether DDS has protective role on BBB integrity is not clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of DDS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BBB disruption and oxidative stress in brain vessels. Using in vivo multiphoton imaging, we found that DDS administration significantly restored BBB integrity compromised by LPS. DDS also increased the expression of tight junction proteins occludin, zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 in brain vessels. Level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reduced by DDS treatment, which may due to decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and NOX2 expression. Our results showed that LPS-induced BBB dysfunction could be attenuated by DDS, indicated that DDS has a therapeutic potential for treating CNS infection and other BBB related diseases.
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Histamine H1 receptor cell membrane chromatography online high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method reveals houttuyfonate as an activator of the histamine H1 receptor.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Allergy is an abnormal reaction of the body to an allergen. Histamine is responsible for many of the acute symptoms of allergic diseases. Many of the allergic and inflammatory actions of histamine are mediated by the histamine H1 receptor. In the present study, we established a two-dimensional histamine H1 receptor/cell membrane chromatography with online high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method for screening potential histamine-activating components in a traditional Chinese medicine injection. The specification of the method was validated by screening, separating, and identifying a mixed standard solution of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, gefitinib, tamsulosin, and nitrendipine. The Yujin injection, an example of traditional Chinese medicine injection, was screened and potential allergic components acting on the histamine H1 receptor were identified. A Ca(2+) flux assay showed that houttuyfonate and Yujin injection induced calcium release in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that houttuyfonate is an activator of the histamine H1 receptor. The mechanism of houttuyfonate activation involves phosphorylation of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. In conclusion, this two-dimensional method can rapidly detect and enrich target components isolated from the Yujin injection. This indicates that individuals with an overexpression of the histamine H1 receptor should be aware of possible allergic reactions when receiving the Yujin injection.
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Cell membrane-anchored biosensors for real-time monitoring of the cellular microenvironment.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Cell membrane-anchored biochemical sensors that allow real-time monitoring of the interactions of cells with their microenvironment would be powerful tools for studying the mechanisms underlying various biological processes, such as cell metabolism and signaling. Despite the significance of these techniques, unfortunately, their development has lagged far behind due to the lack of a desirable membrane engineering method. Here, we propose a simple, efficient, biocompatible, and universal strategy for one-step self-construction of cell-surface sensors using diacyllipid-DNA conjugates as the building and sensing elements. The sensors exploit the high membrane-insertion capacity of a diacyllipid tail and good sensing performance of the DNA probes. Based on this strategy, we have engineered specific DNAzymes on the cell membrane for metal ion assay in the extracellular microspace. The immobilized DNAzyme showed excellent performance for reporting and semiquantifying both exogenous and cell-extruded target metal ions in real time. This membrane-anchored sensor could also be used for multiple target detection by having different DNA probes inserted, providing potentially useful tools for versatile applications in cell biology, biomedical research, drug discovery, and tissue engineering.
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Acupuncture for neurogenic bladder due to spinal cord injury: a systematic review protocol.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Neurogenic bladder is one of the most common complications following spinal cord injury (SCI). In China, acupuncture therapy is a common treatment for neurogenic bladder due to SCI, but its effects and safety remain uncertain. A protocol is described for a systematic review to investigate the beneficial effects and safety of acupuncture for neurogenic bladder due to SCI.
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Acupuncture for discomfort in patients during gastroscopy: a systematic review protocol.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for discomfort in patients during gastroscopy.
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[The inhibitory effect of FA-MNP-MMP-9-ASODN nanocomposite on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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To observe the inhibitory effect of FA-MNP-MMP-9-ASODN nanocomposite on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) HNE-1 cell in vitro.
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[Analysis of respiratory complications in 922 severely burned patients].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To discuss the distribution of the respiratory complications in severely burned patients and the prevention and treatment experience against them.
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RAR?-C-Fos-PPAR?2 signaling rather than ROS generation is critical for all-trans retinoic acid-inhibited adipocyte differentiation.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Obesity has become a worldwide public health problem, which is mainly determined by excess energy intake and adipose tissue expansion. Adipose tissue expansion can occur through hyperplasia (adipocyte differentiation) or hypertrophy. Retinoic acid was shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In the study, we found that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. We did not observe significant apoptosis in differentiated adipocytes treated by ATRA. ATRA increased ROS generation and disturbed redox balance. However, antioxidant treatment did not ameliorate the reduction of lipid accumulation induced by ATRA, indicating that ROS generation was not involved in ATRA-inhibited adipocyte differentiation. ATRA reduced C/EBP?, PPAR? and its target gene expression. In the presence of ATRA, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ?/? expression was increased. Inhibition of RAR?, but not RAR?, blocked ATRA-induced reduction of PPAR?2 expression. ATRA induced a profound interaction between RAR? and C-Fos protein, reflected by Co-IP results. C-Fos was found to exhibit a differentiation-dependent DNA binding activity to PPAR?2 promoter. RAR? inhibitor significantly suppressed ATRA-inhibited DNA binding activity of C-Fos to PPAR?2 promoter, indicating that downregulation of C-Fos activity mediated activation of RAR?-exerted reduction of PPAR?2 expression and thus inhibition of adipocyte differentiation induced by ATRA. Taken together, these data demonstrates that RAR?-C-Fos-PPAR?2 signaling rather than ROS generation is critical for ATRA-inhibited adipocyte differentiation.
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Facile surface functionalization of hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Nonpolar phase synthesized hydrophobic nanocrystals show attractive properties and have demonstrated prominent potential in biomedical applications. However, the preparation of biocompatible nanocrystals is made difficult by the presence of hydrophobic surfactant stabilizer on their surfaces. To address this limitation, we have developed a facile, high efficiency, single-phase and low-cost method to convert hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to an aqueous phase using tetrahydrofuran, NaOH and 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid without any complicated organic synthesis. The as-transferred hydrophilic MNPs are water-soluble over a wide pH range (pH = 3-12), and the solubility is pH-controllable. Furthermore, the as-transferred MNPs with carboxylate can be readily adapted with further surface functionalization, varying from small molecule dyes to oligonucleotides and enzymes. Finally, the strategy developed here can easily be extended to other types of hydrophobic nanoparticles to facilitate biomedical applications of nanomaterials.
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Gel-derived cation-? stacking films of carbon nanotube-graphene complexes as oxygen cathodes.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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A key challenge in processing carbon nanotubes and their composites for large-scale applications is aggregation. Cation-? stacking interactions have been discovered to disperse heavily entangled single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles in ionic liquids (ILs). In this work, we found that a dispersible, silky single-layer graphene (SLG) can be readily gathered together to form a crosslinked gel after entrapping sufficient IL molecular via the likely noncovalent interaction. By incorporating the dispersed SWNTs into the gathered SLG gel synchronously, we prepared solid, finely crosslinked SWNTs-SLG films, assisted by an avenue of 2-step extraction to remove the IL completely. The gel-derived SWNTs-SLG complex film was applied as a support material of oxygen cathodes for Li-O2 batteries. It exhibited a remarkable improved cycleability in comparison to made of SWNTs and SLG alone due to the finely crosslinked feature. Decorated SWNTs and SLG can also form gel-derived complexes via the same process to construct support-catalyst complexes. A SWNTs-SLG film loaded with Ru nanoparticles exhibited not only catalytic effects, but also the ability to suppress the side reactions, and hence stabilized the whole Li-O2 battery. Our research introduces a gel-derived, high-dispersed processing of carbon nanotube-graphene complexes and demonstrates their favorable applications on Li-O2 batteries.
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Mis-splicing of the ABCC2 gene linked with Bt toxin resistance in Helicoverpa armigera.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used widely for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Previous work showed that mutations in a gene encoding the transporter protein ABCC2 are linked with resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or both in four species of Lepidoptera. Here we compared the ABCC2 gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaABCC2) between susceptible strains and a laboratory-selected strain with >1,000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac relative its susceptible parent strain. We discovered a 73-base pair (bp) insertion in the cDNA of the resistant strain that generates a premature stop codon expected to yield a truncated ABCC2 protein. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed that this insertion is an intron that is not spliced out because of a 6-bp deletion at its splicing site. Analysis of progeny from crosses revealed tight genetic linkage between HaABCC2 and resistance to Cry1Ac. These results provide the first evidence that mis-splicing of a gene encoding an ABCC2 protein confers resistance to a Bt toxin.
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Recognition of Bungarus multicinctus venom by a DNA aptamer against ?-bungarotoxin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Antibody-based technology is the main method for diagnosis and treatment of snake bite envenoming currently. However, the development of an antibody, polyclonal or monoclonal, is a complicated and costly procedure. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that recognize specific targets such as proteins and have shown great potential over the years as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In contrast to antibodies, aptamers can be selected in vitro without immunization of animals, and synthesized chemically with extreme accuracy, low cost and high degree of purity. In this study we firstly report on the identification of DNA aptamers that bind to ?-bungarotoxin (?-BuTx), a neurotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. A plate-SELEX method was used for the selection of ?-BuTx specific aptamers. After 10 rounds of selection, four aptamer candidates were obtained, with the dissociation constant ranged from 65.9 nM to 995 nM measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Competitive binding assays using both the fluorescently labeled and unlabeled aptamers revealed that the four aptamers bound to the same binding site of ?-BuTx. The best binder, ?B-1, bound specifically to ?-BuTx, but not to BSA, casein or ?-Bungarotoxin. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and enzyme-linked aptamer assay demonstrated that ?B-1 could discriminate B. multicinctus venom from other snake venoms tested. The results suggest that aptamer ?B-1 can serve as a useful tool for the design and development of drugs and diagnostic tests for ?-BuTx poisoning and B. multicinctus bites.
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The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of GSK 3? gene and sporadic alzheimer's disease in a cohort of southern Chinese Han population.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Recent studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK 3?) is an important molecule which regulates tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles formation. GSK 3? gene may be a potential candidate gene for the risk of sAD. To investigate the association of the polymorphisms in GSK 3? gene with sAD, we conducted a case-control study in a southern Chinese Han cohort including 302 sAD patients and 315 control participants. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3732361, rs56728675, rs60393216, and rs334558) within the promoter region of GSK 3? gene were selected and genotyped with a polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection (PCR-LDR) method. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between target SNPs and the risk of sAD. After adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ?4 status, no association was revealed between these SNPs and sAD (P > 0.05). The SNPs in the selected regions of GSK 3? gene are unlikely to confer the susceptibility of sAD in southern Chinese Han population. Further studies with a larger sample size and different ethnic populations are needed to reveal the role of SNPs of GSK 3? gene in the pathogenesis of sAD.
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Benazepril affects integrin-linked kinase and smooth muscle ?-actin expression in diabetic rat glomerulus and cultured mesangial cells.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and is associated with excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) benazepril has been shown to slow the progression of chronic renal disease and have beneficial effects in patients with a combination of chronic renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Transforming growth factor-?(1) (TGF-?(1)) plays a central role in the pathogenesis and progression of DN. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) can modulate TGF-?(1)-induced glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) injury, which is a prominent characteristic of renal pathology in kidney diseases. As an integrin cytoplasmic-binding protein, ILK regulates fibronectin (FN) matrix deposition and the actin cytoskeleton. Smooth muscle ?-actin (?-SMA) is involved in progressive renal dysfunction in both human and experimental renal disease.
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Preparation and antitumor activity of a tamibarotene-furoxan derivative.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Multi-target drug design, in which drugs are designed as single molecules to simultaneously modulate multiple physiological targets, is an important strategy in the field of drug discovery. QT-011, a tamibarotene-furoxan derivative, was here prepared and proposed to exert synergistic effects on antileukemia by releasing nitric oxide and tamibarotene. Compared with tamibarotene itself, QT-011 displayed stronger antiproliferative effects on U937 and HL-60 cells and was more effective evaluated in a nude mice U937 xenograft model in vivo. In addition, QT-011 could release nitric oxide which might contribute to the antiproliferative activity. Autodocking assays showed that QT-011 fits well with the hydrophobic pocket of retinoic acid receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that QT-011 might be a highly effective derivative of tamibarotene and a potential candidate compound as antileukemia agent.
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Efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of endobronchial tuberculosis.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The definitive diagnosis of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is challenging because the disease manifests in various non-specific ways, and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are often undetectable by sputum smear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of real-time PCR of bronchoscopic biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of EBTB.
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Expression of biologically active TAT-fused recombinant islet transcription factors.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells depends upon the activation of genes that are regulated by islet transcription factors (ITFs). Evidence suggests that ITFs contribute to the development of the pancreas. These studies are focused on developing a system to deliver individual ITF from different stages of islet cell development to promote precursors or other cell types to trans-differentiate into islet-like insulin-positive cells.
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The inhibitory effect of piperine from Fructus piperis extract on the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Allergy is an abnormal immune response to an allergen. Type I hypersensitivity is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic disorder. Fructus piperis is derived from the ripe fruit of the pepper, which is widely used as a spice in human diets and is also administered as a medicine in many countries. Piperine has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-depressant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of piperine on IgE-mediated allergic responses has not been reported. Here, the rat basophilic leukemia cells by membrane chromatography (RBL-2H3/CMC) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) to discover and identify piperine can bind to RBL-2H3 cell membranes. Piperine inhibited the expression of cytokines, and the release of both ?-hexosaminidase and histamine, which could be stimulated by antigen in RBL-2H3 mast cells. We found that the levels of intracellular Ca(2+) also decreased. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-? were significantly suppressed by piperine. The inhibitory effect of piperine on IgE-mediated degranulation and cytokine production by RBL-2H3 cells may be caused by the inhibition of IgE-mediated signaling pathways, including the phosphorylation of Lyn, p38, Erk, and Ras. In summary, piperine can inhibit antigen-induced allergic reactions that control degranulation.
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Low-Frequency Microsatellite Instability in Genomic Di-Nucleotide Sequences Correlates with Lymphatic Invasion and Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The clinical significance of low-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-L) in gastric cancer (GC) has not been well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of MSI-L in GC. We investigated microsatellite instability (MSI) in 5 di-nucleotide repeat sequences in 210 unselected GC patients. High-resolution fluorescent microsatellite analysis assay was utilized to detect MSI. Clinicopathological variables were compared among groups with different microsatellite statuses. The overall survival (OS) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors and variables correlated with lymph node metastasis. High-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H), MSI-L, and microsatellite stable were identified, respectively, in 10.5, 10.0, and 79.5 % of unselected GC cases. Tumors with MSI-H were less invasive, and these patients showed a better OS. MSI-L was correlated with more advanced tumor Node Metastasis stage, and more frequent lymph node metastasis. The unfavorable prognosis predicted by MSI-L was ascribed to its correlation with lymphatic invasion. MSI-L characterized by di-nucleotide markers represents a distinct subcategory of GC with aggressive clinicopathological features, which are particularly affiliated to lymphatic system and correlated with a poor prognosis. MSI-L could be beneficial for predicting the clinical outcome of GC.
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Oleanolic acid co-administration alleviates ethanol-induced hepatic injury via Nrf-2 and ethanol-metabolizing modulating in rats.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury. Our previous results have found that oleanolic acid (OA), a liver protective agent, plays a potent antioxidant activity in hepatocyte. In the present study, the protective effects of OA co-administration on ethanol-induced oxidative injury in rats were investigated through detecting hepatic histopathology, antioxidant enzymes, ethanol metabolic enzymes and inflammatory factors. Preventions of ethanol-induced oxidative injury by OA were reflected by markedly decreased serum activities of AST, ALT and significantly increased the hepatic ATP level. In addition, the increase of the hepatic TG content, MDA level and the decrease of hepatic GSH level, SOD activity, CAT activity induced by ethanol were significantly inhibited by OA co-administration. Furthermore, OA could also elevate the protein expressions and nuclear translocation of antioxidant transcription factor Nrf-2 and then up-regulated antioxidant enzymes expressions of HO-1, SOD-1 and GR. Moreover, OA co-administration can significantly reduce the activity and expressions of CYP2E1 and ADH, which has characteristic of generation ROS mediated oxidative stress and acetaldehyde respectively. Furthermore, OA co-administration could inhibition of the generation of inflammatory factors TNF-? and IL-6. Those above results indicated that OA co-administration can protect rats against ethanol-induced liver injury by induction Nrf-2 related antioxidant to maintain redox balance and modulating the ethanol-metabolizing and inflammatory pathway.
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Prenatal melamine exposure induces impairments of spatial cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in male adolescent rats.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Our previous studies showed that chronic melamine exposure could affect hippocampal synaptic plasticity and impair learning and memory on adult rats. In this study, we investigated whether prenatal melamine exposure (PME) induced cognitive deficits and impairment of synaptic plasticity in postnatal offspring. An animal model was produced by melamine exposure throughout gestational period with 400mg/kg/day, while male offspring rats were employed. Rats' performance in Morris water maze (MWM) was tested to evaluate learning and memory. To examine the variations of paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and synaptic plasticity, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in hippocampal CA1 by stimulating Schaffer collaterals path. The result showed that PME probably impaired spatial learning and memory. The fEPSPs amplitudes of LTP were much lower and the PPF ratio was significantly higher in PME group than controls. These data suggested that PME impaired hippocampal synaptic function, which was partly involved in spatial cognition impairments.
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Distribution and primary source analysis of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances with different chain lengths in surface and groundwater in two cities, North China.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in the hydrosphere. The knowledge on the distribution and composition patterns of PFAS analogues with different chain length significantly contribute to their source analysis. In the present study, a regional scale investigation of PFASs in surface river waters and adjacent ground waters was carried out in two cities of China with potential contamination, Tianjin and Weifang. A total of 31 water samples were collected, and 20 PFASs therein were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). The possible sources of PFASs in the aquatic environment were assessed primarily by concentration patterns as well as hierarchical cluster analysis. In all 4 rivers investigated in the two cities, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant compounds contributing over 70% of the PFASs detected. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFCA with a concentration range of 8.58-20.3ng/L in Tianjin and 6.37-25.9ng/L in Weifang, respectively. On the average, the highest concentration was observed in samples from Dagu Drainage Canal (Dagu) in Tianjin and those short-chain PFASs (C4-C6) was detected with a comparable level of the longer-chain PFASs (>C6). Specifically, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was dominant in the short-chain analogues. This indicates that a remarkably increasing input of short-chain PFASs might be related to wastewater treatment plant effluent or industrial discharges, which could be possibly due to the switch of manufacturing to short-chain products. In Weifang, precipitation and subsequent surface runoff as non-point sources could be significant inputs of PFASs into surface water while groundwater was possibly subjected to severe point sources with ?PFASs concentration up to ~100ng/L. The inconsistent distribution patterns in groundwater suggest complicated pathways of contamination.
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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Risk Factor for Stanford's Type B Aortic Dissection.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with aortic dissection (AD), but the magnitude of this association and its independence from confounders have not yet been established.
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Free-breathing pediatric MRI with nonrigid motion correction and acceleration.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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To develop and assess motion correction techniques for high-resolution pediatric abdominal volumetric magnetic resonance images acquired free-breathing with high scan efficiency.
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Bayesian Spatio-temporal Random Coefficient Time Series (BaST-RCTS) model of infectious disease.
Math Biosci
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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This paper proposes a new method, using Bayesian approach, to analyze time series data of infectious diseases which have both temporal and spatial variational structures. Standard ways to model heteroscedastic time series are the ARCH-type models. However, from an empirical standpoint, there is a need to include spatial effect into time series analysis to make allowance for confounder and ecological biases. On the basis of random coefficient autoregressive model, our model takes account of spatial correlated/uncorrelated heterogeneity. To assure the applicability of our model, we set up hypothesis framework before analyzing. It was proved that our model could provide the first two conditional moments of ARCH-type models. The empirical study of bacillary dysentery data also illustrated that our model could make accurate and precise approximations.
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Novel-designed Iliac Branch Stent Graft for Internal Iliac Artery Reconstruction during Aneurysm Repair.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Iliac branch stent grafts have been used for internal iliac artery preservation during aneurysm repair. However, current available branch iliac stent grafts used in western countries are not suitable for many patients in Asia because of shorter common iliac arteries (CIA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel-designed iliac branch stent graft (IBSG) in preservation of internal iliac artery during endovascular aneurysm repair in Chinese.
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Prediabetes Is Associated with HNF-4 ? P2 Promoter Polymorphism rs1884613: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Population and an Updated Meta-Analysis.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Background. Controversy remains for the association between hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF-4?) P2 promoter polymorphism rs1884613 and type 2 diabetes (T2D). There was no association test of this polymorphism with prediabetes and T2D in the Chinese population. Moreover, an updated meta-analysis in various ethnic groups is needed to establish the contribution of rs1884613 to T2D risk. Methods. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform approach, we genotyped rs1884613 of HNF-4? in the P2 promoter region among 490 T2D patients, 471 individuals with prediabetes, and 575 healthy controls. All the individuals were recruited from 16 community health service centers in Nanshan district in Shenzhen province. Using STATA 11.0 software, meta-analysis was performed to summarize the overall contribution of rs1884613 to T2D risk. Results. Polymorphism rs1884613 was associated with genetic susceptibility to prediabetes in the whole samples (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.16-1.68, P = 0.0001) and the female subgrouped samples (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14-1.92, P = 0.003) after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). In contrast, there was no association of rs1884613 with T2D in the whole samples and male in our case-control study and meta-analysis. Conclusions. Our results suggest that rs1884613 contributes to susceptibility to prediabetes, whereas this polymorphism may not play an important role in the development of T2D.
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Single-Atom Catalysis in Mesoporous Photovoltaics: The Principle of Utility Maximization.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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FeOx -supported single Pt atoms are used for the first time as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which are mesoporous photovoltaic devices. This system enables the investigation of the electrocatalytic behavior of a single-atom catalyst (SAC). Compared with conventional Pt CEs, the SAC-based CEs exhibit better reversibility as indicated by the peak-to-peak separation (Epp ). A high degree of atom utilization is demonstrated.
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Pathological characteristics of liver allografts from donation after brain death followed by cardiac death in pigs.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD) is a unique practice in China. The aim of this study was to define the pathologic characteristics of DBCD liver allografts in a porcine model. Fifteen male pigs (25-30 kg) were allocated randomly into donation after brain death (DBD), donation after circulatory death (DCD) and DBCD groups. Brain death was induced by augmenting intracranial pressure. Circulatory death was induced by withdrawal of life support in DBCD group and by venous injection of 40 mL 10% potassium chloride in DCD group. The donor livers were perfused in situ and kept in cold storage for 4 h. Liver tissue and common bile duct samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, TUNEL testing and electron microscopic examination. Spot necrosis was found in hepatic parenchyma of DBD and DBCD groups, while a large area of necrosis was shown in DCD group. The apoptosis rate of hepatocytes in DBD [(0.56±0.30)%] and DBCD [(0.50 ± 0.11)%] groups was much lower than that in DCD group [(3.78±0.33)%] (P<0.05). And there was no significant difference between DBD group and DBCD group (P>0.05)). The structures of bile duct were intact in both DBD and DBCD groups, while the biliary epithelium was totally damaged in DCD group. Under electron microscope, the DBD hepatocytes were characterized by intact cell membrane, well-organized endoplasmic reticulum, mild mitochondria edema and abundant glycogens. Broken cell membrane, mild inflammatory cell infiltration and sinusoidal epithelium edema, as well as reduced glycogen volume, were found in the DBCD hepatocytes. The DCD hepatocytes had more profound cell organelle injury and much less glycogen storage. In conclusion, the preservation injury of DBCD liver allografts is much less severe than that of un-controlled DCD, but more severe than that of DBD liver allografts under electron microscope, which might reflect post-transplant liver function to some extent.
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Effects of sevoflurane on leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-associated Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often require surgery, and therefore may receive inhalation anesthesia. However, it is currently unknown whether inhalation anesthetics affect the prognosis of the disease. Leucine?rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) genetic mutations are the most common cause of familial PD, contributing to ~39% of all cases in certain populations. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of inhaled anesthetics on PD, by observing the influence of sevoflurane on a LRRK2?associated Drosophila model of PD. PD transgenic Drosophila overexpressing LRRK2 were generated by crossing flies expressing an LRRK2 upstream activation sequence, with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)?Gal4 flies. Western blot analysis successfully verified that the transgenic Drosophila overexpressed LRRK2. Three days prior to eclosion, three genotypes of Drosophila were divided into four groups, and were exposed to air, 1, 2, or 3% sevoflurane, for 5 hours. Twenty?four hours after the exposure, the electrophysiological activities of the projection neurons (PN) in the brains of the Drosophila were recorded using a patch clamp. The locomotor activities were tested on days 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 following eclosion. The frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic currents (mEPSCs) obtained from the PNs of the TH?wild type LRRK2 (TH?WT) Drosophila brain, following exposure to air (1.60±0.05 Hz), was lower as compared with the wild type LRRK2 (WT) (2.51±0.07 Hz) and W1118 (2.41±0.10 Hz) Drosophila. After exposure to 1, 2 and 3% sevoflurane, the frequency of mEPSCs in the brains of the TH?WT group decreased to 0.82±0.04 Hz, 0.63±0.16 Hz and 0.55±0.04 Hz, respectively. The percentage decrease of the frequency of mEPSCs, from exposure to air to 1% sevoflurane, of the TH?WT group (48.32%±3.08%) was significantly higher, as compared with the WT (39.17%±1.42%) and W1118 (35.10%±2.66%) groups, and there was no statistical difference between the WT and W1118 groups. The transgenic TH?WT Drosophila presented an early decrease in locomotor ability, as compared with the WT and W1118 groups. Following a 5 hour exposure to sevoflurane, the percentage decrease of the climbing abilities of the TH?WT group, from exposure to air to 1% sevoflurane, were significantly lower, as compared with the WT and W1118 groups. In conclusion, sevoflurane had negative effects on the control W1118 flies, and also severely aggravated the prognosis of PD in the LRRK2?associated Drosophila model, through synaptic cholinergic deficits and impairment on locomotor abilities.
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Application of magnesium modified corn biochar for phosphorus removal and recovery from swine wastewater.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The recycling of lost phosphorus (P) is important in sustainable development. In line with this objective, biochar adsorption is a promising method of P recovery. Therefore, our study investigates the efficiency and selectivity of magnesium modified corn biochar (Mg/biochar) in relation to P adsorption. It also examines the available P derived from postsorption Mg/biochar. Mg/biochar is rich in magnesium nanoparticles and organic functional groups, and it can adsorb 90% of the equilibrium amount of P within 30 min. The Mg/biochar P adsorption process is mainly controlled by chemical action. The maximum P adsorption amount of Mg/biochar is 239 mg/g. The Langmuir-Freundlich model fits the P adsorption isotherm best. Thermodynamics calculation shows ?H > 0, ?G < 0, ?S > 0, and it demonstrates the P adsorption process is an endothermic, spontaneous, and increasingly disordered. The optimal pH is 9. The amounts of P adsorbed by Mg/B300, Mg/B450, and Mg/B600 from swine wastewater are lower than that adsorbed from synthetic P wastewater by 6.6%, 4.8%, and 4.2%, respectively. Mg/biochar is more resistant to pH and to the influence of coexisting ions than biochar. Finally, postsorption Mg/biochar can release P persistently. The P release equilibrium concentrations are ordered as follows: Mg/B600 > Mg/B450 > Mg/B300. The postsorption Mg/B300, Mg/B450, and Mg/B600 can release 3.3%, 3.9%, and 4.4% of the total adsorbed P, respectively, per interval time.
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PFOS and PFOA in paired urine and blood from general adults and pregnant women: assessment of urinary elimination.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Although levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human blood are well documented, information on elimination of these chemicals is limited. In this study, PFOS and PFOA were analyzed in 81 whole blood-urine paired samples from general adults and pregnant women in Tianjin, China. PFOS and PFOA were detected in 48 and 76 % of adult urine (AU) samples, with geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 0.011 and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively; whereas relatively low PFOS and PFOA concentrations were found in maternal urine (MU) samples, with GM concentrations of 0.006 and 0.003 ng/mL, respectively. For PFOA, the coefficients of Pearson's correlation between whole blood concentrations and creatinine-adjusted and creatinine-unadjusted urinary concentrations were 0.348 (p?=?0.013) and 0.417 (p?=?0.002), respectively. The GM urinary elimination rates of PFOS (PFOSUER) and PFOA (PFOAUER) were 16 and 25 %, respectively, for adults. These results indicate that urine is an important pathway of excretion of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The partitioning ratios of PFAS concentration between urine and whole blood (PFASU/B) in pregnant women (PFOSU/B, 0.0004; PFOAU/B, 0.0011) were significantly lower (p?=?0.025 for PFOSU/B, p?=?0.017 for PFOAU/B) than the ratios found in non-pregnant women (PFOSU/B, 0.0013; PFOAU/B, 0.0028). Furthermore, our results suggest a clear gender difference in the urinary elimination of PFOA, with male adults (31 %) having significantly higher PFOAUER than that of female adults (19 %). PFOSUER was significantly inversely correlated with age (r?=?-0.334, p?=?0.015); these findings suggest that urinary elimination of PFOS is faster in young adults than in the elderly.
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Elemental bioimaging of tissue level trace metal distributions in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) from a mining area in China.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Rice is a staple food and major source of nutrients, but it also bioaccumulates toxic elements. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine tissue-level trace metal spatial distribution in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds from the active Xikuangshan Sb mine area in China. Whole grain quantified elemental bioimages showed the highest concentration of Zn (1755 mg/kg) in the embryo andmicro zones of elevated Sb, As, Pb, Cd as high as 280, 57, 31 and 830 mg/kg, respectively on the husk/bran/endosperm tissues. Bioimages suggest that both Sb and Cd may be competing with Zn for binding sites. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were detected in seeds from upstream and downstream fields indicating the presence of toxic Sb(III). Brown rice is a good source of Zn, but white rice is a safer option if rice is grown in a polluted area.
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Deep first formal concept search.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis.
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High-level extracellular expression of inulin fructotransferase in Pichia pastoris for DFA III production.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) catalyzes inulin conversion to difructose anhydride (DFA III), which is a natural low-calorie sweetener. Although heterologous expression of IFTase was achieved in Escherichia coli, the extracellular enzyme activity was very low, which limited the commercialization of IFTase.
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Effects of gonadotropin on Fas and/or FasL expression and proliferation in rat ovary.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Although gonadotropin is a dominant hormone involved in promoting ovarian follicle development in females, the mechanism by which gonadotropin regulates follicular development is still unknown. To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of the gonadotropin on apoptosis and proliferation of ovarian cells in vivo, rats were injected subcutaneously with eCG and/or anti-eCG antiserum. Equine chorionic gonadotropin treatment increased ovarian cell proliferation and expression of FSH receptors (FSHR) as revealed by increased immunostaining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and FSHR in rat ovary. These effects did not occur in a follicular stage-dependent manner. Moreover, these actions were abolished by anti-eCG antiserum. However, granulosa cells exhibited more intense Fas- and FasL-positive immunostaining during all follicular stages in the anti-eCG antiserum group. We used Western blot analysis to confirm these results; Fas and FasL protein contents in rat ovaries were decreased by eCG. Meanwhile, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and FSHR expression were upregulated by eCG. However, all these eCG-induced regulations were reversed by anti-eCG antiserum treatment. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the anti-eCG antiserum and control groups. These results indicate that eCG promotes follicular development via downregulation of death-inducer Fas/FasL expression and promotion of ovarian cell proliferation, which is partially mediated by FSHR.
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A novel synthetic small molecule YH-306 suppresses colorectal tumour growth and metastasis via FAK pathway.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Cell migration and invasion are key processes in the metastasis of cancer, and suppression of these steps is a promising strategy for cancer therapeutics. The aim of this study was to explore small molecules for treating colorectal cancer (CRC) and to investigate their anti-metastatic mechanisms. In this study, six CRC cell lines were used. We showed that YH-306 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, YH-306 inhibited cell adhesion and protrusion formation of HCT116 and HT-29 CRC cells. Moreover, YH-306 potently suppressed uninhibited proliferation in all six CRC cell lines tested and induced cell apoptosis in four cell lines. Furthermore, YH-306 inhibited CRC colonization in vitro and suppressed CRC growth in a xenograft mouse model, as well as hepatic/pulmonary metastasis in vivo. YH-306 suppressed the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), c-Src, paxillin, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), Rac1 and the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMP) 2 and MMP9. Meanwhile, YH-306 also inhibited actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex-mediated actin polymerization. Taken together, YH-306 is a candidate drug in preventing growth and metastasis of CRC by modulating FAK signalling pathway.
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Correlation analysis of STAT3 and VEGF expression and eosinophil infiltration in nasal polyps.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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The expression and distribution of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as eosinophil infiltration in nasal polyps was detected to examine their roles and correlations in the nasal polyp pathogenesis. Using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase (SP) method, immunohistochemistry was performed on conventional paraffin sections of 30 surgery-resected polypous specimens and 10 inferior turbinate tissues that were resected during nasal septum deflection correction to detect the expression of STAT3, p-STAT3, and VEGF, as well as eosinophil infiltration. The rates of STAT3-, p-STAT3-, and VEGF-positive expression in the mucosal epithelium and glands of nasal polyps were 66.67, 56.67, and 76.67 %, respectively, values that were significantly higher than those in the inferior turbinate group. The number of eosinophils in the nasal polyps was significantly higher than in the inferior turbinate group. Expression of p-STAT3 and VEGF in nasal polyps and eosinophil infiltration was increased significantly and positively correlated, indicating that VEGF and eosinophil infiltration might be regulated by p-STAT3. Therefore, the expression of STAT3, p-STAT3, and VEGF, and eosinophil infiltration might be important factors in nasal polyp pathogenesis.
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Potential therapeutic mechanism of genistein in breast cancer involves inhibition of cell cycle regulation.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Genistein can prevent tumorigenesis and reduce the incidence of diseases that are dependent upon estrogen. Previous research, however, has shown that genistein can also increase the risk of breast cancer. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of genistein in breast cancer and to determine whether genistein produces a therapeutic effect or promotes the development of breast cancer. Gene microarray data obtained from three samples treated with alcohol (control group), three samples treated with 3 µmol/l genistein and three samples treated with 10 µmol/l genistein for 48 h, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional enrichment in the two genistein groups was performed. The interaction networks of the DEGs were constructed and the overlapping network was extracted. Finally, the functions and pathways of the DEGs in the overlapping network were enriched. In total, 224 DEGs coexisted in the two genistein groups, and the most significant function of these was the cell cycle. The number and the fold change of expression values of the DEGs in the 10 µmol/l genistein group were significantly higher compared with that of the 3 µmol/l genistein group. The most significant function and pathway of the DEGs in the overlapping network was the cell cycle involving several genes, including GLIPR1, CDC20, BUB1, MCM2 and CCNB1. Thus, genistein stimulation resulted in gene expression changes in breast cancer cell lines and discrepancies increased with higher doses of genistein. The DEGs were most significantly associated with cell cycle regulation.
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Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society.
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Antitumor action of a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, YF479, in breast cancer.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Accumulating evidence demonstrates important roles for histone deacetylase in tumorigenesis (HDACs), highlighting them as attractive targets for antitumor drug development. Histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACIs), which have shown favorable anti-tumor activity with low toxicity in clinical investigations, are a promising class of anticancer therapeutics. Here, we screened our compound library to explore small molecules that possess anti-HDAC activity and identified a novel HDACI, YF479. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), which was the first approved HDAC inhibitor for clinical treatment by the FDA, was as positive control in our experiments. We further demonstrated YF479 abated cell viability, suppressed colony formation and tumor cell motility in vitro. To investigate YF479 with superior pharmacodynamic properties, we developed spontaneous and experimental breast cancer animal models. Our results showed YF479 significantly inhibited breast tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Further study indicated YF479 suppressed both early and end stages of metastatic progression. Subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy animal experiment revealed the elimination of local-regional recurrence (LRR) and distant metastasis by YF479. More important, YF479 remarkably prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Intriguingly, YF479 displayed more potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with SAHA. Together, our results suggest that YF479, a novel HDACI, inhibits breast tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. In light of these results, YF479 may be an effective therapeutic option in clinical trials for patients burdened by breast cancer.
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Efficient secretion of inulin fructotransferase in Pichia pastoris using the formaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 promoter.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) has received considerable attention due to its ability to catalyse inulin hydrolysis to difructose anhydride (DFA III), a natural low-calorie functional sweetener. In the present study, for the first time, we describe the expression of IFTase in Pichia pastoris under the control of the formaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 promoter (PFLD1). Using this system, we achieved efficient secretion with four substrate fed-batch strategies in a 3-L fermenter. The co-feeding induction strategy with methylamine hydrochloride and methanol achieved the maximum extracellular IFTase activity of 62.72 U mL(-1), which was 3.2-fold higher than that obtained with the wild-type strain. In addition to methanol, carbon sources such as glucose and glycerol could also be utilised by PFLD1-controlled P. pastoris for IFTase production using methylamine hydrochloride induction. However, we found that glycerol and glucose should be strictly controlled at low concentrations of 0.5-1.5 % (v/v) and 1-1.5 % (w/v), respectively. The use of glycerol and glucose demonstrated that P. pastoris was also attractive for IFTase production via methanol-free cultivation strategies. This study may provide the basis for the industrial use of this recombinant IFTase for the production of DFA III.
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Relationship between the Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Metabolic Syndrome in the Iodine-Adequate Area of Hangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional and Cohort Study.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Objective. The association between thyroid nodule (TN) prevalence and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has only rarely been examined in iodine-adequate areas and needs further clarification. We investigated correlations between MetS and TN prevalence in the iodine-adequate area of Hangzhou, China. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study that screened and recruited individuals for cohort research 3 years later. The 13522 subjects (8926 men, 4596 women) were screened in 2009 for all MetS components, thyroid ultrasound (US), and thyroid function. Cohort research recruited 1610 subjects who were screened in both 2009 and 2012, of whom 1061 underwent follow-up research. Results. The prevalence of TN was higher in the MetS (+) group than in the MetS (-) group (? (2) = 69.63, P < 0.001) and higher in women than in men (? (2) = 11.65, P = 0.001). Waist circumference (WC) was positively related to the prevalence of TN (OR = 1.022, P < 0.001). Individuals with greater WC in 2009 were more likely to suffer from TN in 2012 (RR = 1.434, P = 0.024). Elevated triglyceride level was a risk factor for developing new TN (RR = 1.001, P = 0.035). Conclusion. Both greater WC and elevated triglycerides are risk factors for new TN in this iodine-adequate area in China.
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Biocompatible Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high-Zr-content: Compositional optimization for potential biomedical applications.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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The present study designs and prepares Ni-free Zr60+xTi2.5Al10Fe12.5-xCu10Ag5 (at.%, x=0, 2.5, 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by copper mold casting for potential biomedical application. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs are evaluated by investigating mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior, and cellular responses. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high notch toughness. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The bio-corrosion resistance of BMGs is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. Regular cell responses of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells, including cell adhesion and proliferation, are observed on the Zr-Ti-Al-Fe-Cu-Ag BMGs, which reveals their general biosafety. The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit a higher cell proliferation activity in comparison with that of pure Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs.
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A case study on the treatment of protein SIRAS data.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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A case study has been made on the treatment of the SIRAS (single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering) data of the originally unknown protein LegC3N. An alternative treatment has been proposed which led to improved results in this particular test case. The treatment involves iterative direct-method SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing and direct-method-aided model completion, both of which are implanted in the IPCAS (Iterative Protein Crystal-structure Automatic Solution) pipeline. Apart from the experimental data, a simulated SIRAS data set for LegC3N with the derivative data truncated to 5.0?Å resolution has also been tested. SAD phasing and phase/model extension in PHENIX without direct methods failed to solve the structure using these simulated SIRAS data. However, the procedure proposed here involving direct methods in both SAD phasing and phase/model extension led to a nearly complete structure model. This shows the potential ability of treating SIRAS data with a derivative diffracting to lower resolution.
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Differences between non-suicidal self injury and suicide attempt in Chinese adolescents.
Asian J Psychiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Self-harm behaviors are predominant health risks among adolescents. This study aimed to elucidate the lifetime prevalence and differences in social psychological factors between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) among Chinese adolescents.
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Analysis of allergens in tubeimu saponin extracts by using rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell-based affinity chromatography coupled to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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An affinity two-dimensional chromatography method was developed for the recognition, separation, and identification of allergic components from tubeimu saponin extracts, a preparation often injected to treat various conditions as indicated by traditional Chinese medicine. Rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cell membranes were used as the stationary phase of a membrane affinity chromatography column to capture components with affinity for mast cells that could be involved in a degranulation reaction. The retained components were enriched and analyzed by membrane affinity chromatography with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry via a port switch valve. Suitability and reliability of the method was investigated using appropriate standards, and then, the method was applied to identify components retained from tubeimu saponin extracts. Tubeimoside A was identified in this way as a potential allergen, and degranulation assays confirmed that tubeimoside A induces RBL-2H3 cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in Ca(2+) influx indicated that degranulation induced by tubeimoside A is likely Ca(2+) dependent. Coupled with the degranulation assay, RBL-2H3 cell-based affinity chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry is an effective method for screening and identifying allergic components from tubeimu saponin extracts.
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Development of maize starch with a slow digestion property using maltogenic ?-amylase.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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In this study, maltogenic ?-amylolysis was used to modulate the fine structure of starch responsible for the slow digestion property. The normal maize starch was treated using maltogenic ?-amylase for 6h and showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 11.1% to 19.6%. Compared to the control starch, the iodine binding analysis showed that the wavelength of maximum absorption and the absorbance was substantially reduced with initial maltogenic ?-amylase treatment. The maltogenic ?-amylolysis decreased in molecular weight from 32.5 × 10(7) to 9.0 × 10(4)g/mol and increased in the number of shorter chains (DP<13) from 25.5% to 44.8%, which was also accompanied by a reduction of longer chains (DP>13). The increase in the amount of shorter chains was attributed to the slow digestion property of starch. These results suggest that the normal maize starches modified with partial maltogenic ?-amylolysis produced new, fine structures with slow digestible characteristics.
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Profiling human protein degradome delineates cellular responses to proteasomal inhibition and reveals a feedback mechanism in regulating proteasome homeostasis.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Global change in protein turnover (protein degradome) constitutes a central part of cellular responses to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. However, profiling protein degradome remains technically challenging. Recently, inhibition of the proteasome, e.g., by using bortezomib (BTZ), has emerged as a major chemotherapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma and other human malignancies, but systematic understanding of the mechanisms for BTZ drug action and tumor drug resistance is yet to be achieved. Here we developed and applied a dual-fluorescence-based Protein Turnover Assay (ProTA) to quantitatively profile global changes in human protein degradome upon BTZ-induced proteasomal inhibition. ProTA and subsequent network analyses delineate potential molecular basis for BTZ action and tumor drug resistance in BTZ chemotherapy. Finally, combined use of BTZ with drugs targeting the ProTA-identified key genes or pathways in BTZ action reduced BTZ resistance in multiple myeloma cells. Remarkably, BTZ stabilizes proteasome subunit PSMC1 and proteasome assembly factor PSMD10, suggesting a previously under-appreciated mechanism for regulating proteasome homeostasis. Therefore, ProTA is a novel tool for profiling human protein degradome to elucidate potential mechanisms of drug action and resistance, which might facilitate therapeutic development targeting proteostasis to treat human disorders.
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Improved the slow digestion property of maize starch using partially ?-amylolysis.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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In this study, partial ?-amylolysis was used to modulate the starch fine structure responsible for the slow digestion property of starch. Normal maize starch modified using ?-amylase for 2 h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 11.16% to 24.38%. The ?-amylase treatment increased the amylose content from 28.4% to 32.5%, decreased the molecular weight from 32.5×10(7) to 3.8×10(5) g/mol and increased the number of shorter chains (DP<13) from 25.5% to 41.1%, accompanied by a reduction of longer chains (DP>13). (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of ?-1,6 linkages from 7.4% to 10.1% in the enzyme treated starches. Both the increase in the amount of shorter chains and the increase in ?-1,6 linkages were attributed to the slow digestion property of starch. These results suggest that starches treated with partial ?-amylolysis retain a branched structure and slow digestibility.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.