JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Satellite-ground quantum key distribution has embarked on the stage of engineering implementation, and a global quantum-secured network is imminent in the foreseeable future. As one payload of the quantum-science satellite which will be ready before the end of 2015, we report our recent work of the space-bound decoy-state optical source. Specialized 850 nm laser diodes have been manufactured and the integrated optical source has gotten accomplished based on these LDs. The weak coherent pulses produced by our optical source feature a high clock rate of 100 MHz, intensity stability of 99.5%, high polarization fidelity of 99.7% and phase randomization. A series of space environment tests have been conducted to verify the optical source's performance and the results are satisfactory. The emulated final secure keys are about 120 kbits during one usable pass of the low Earth orbit satellite. This work takes a significant step forward towards satellite-ground QKD and the global quantum-secured network.
Related JoVE Video
The Helicobacter pylori L-form: Formation and Isolation in the Human bile Cultures in vitro and in the Gallbladders of Patients with Biliary Diseases.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Helicobacter pylori is considered the important causative agent causing biliary diseases, but the H. pylori can be isolated from very few gallbladder specimens with diseases. We studied the formation of H. pylori L-forms in bile in vitro and isolated the H. pylori L-forms from gallbladder of patients with biliary diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Isolation of the Molecular Species of Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols from Brown Edible Seaweed Sargassum horneri and Their Inhibitory Effects on Triglyceride Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chemical composition of monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) from brown alga Sargassum horneri and their inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation were investigated in this study. A total of 10 molecular species of MGDGs were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance, alkaline hydrolysis, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Individual molecular species of MGDGs, including (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-palmitoleoyl-3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1), (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-linoleyl-3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (3), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-linolenoyl-3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (5), (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-oleyl-3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (7), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-palmitoleoyl-3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (8), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-linoleyl-3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (9), and (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleyl-3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (10), were then furnished using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their inhibitory effects on triglyceride (TG) accumulation and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated. Compounds 3 and 9 showed inhibitory effects on TG and FFA accumulation, with TG levels of 1.568 ± 0.2808 and 1.701 ± 0.1460 ?mol/L and FFA levels of 0.149 ± 0.0258 and 0.198 ± 0.0229 mequiv/L, respectively, which were more effective than other compounds. The primary structure-activity relationship suggested that linoleyl [18:2(?-6)] in the sn-2 position played an important role on triglyceride accumulation inhibition.
Related JoVE Video
Notch3 Activation Is Sufficient but Not Required for Inducing Human T-Lineage Specification.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the role for the individual Notch receptors in early hematopoiesis have been thoroughly investigated in mouse, studies in human have been mostly limited to the use of pan-Notch inhibitors. However, such studies in human are important to predict potential side effects of specific Notch receptor blocking reagents because these are currently being considered as therapeutic tools to treat various Notch-dependent diseases. In this study, we studied the individual roles of Notch1 and Notch3 in early human hematopoietic lineage decisions, particularly during T-lineage specification. Although this process in mice is solely dependent on Notch1 activation, we recently reported Notch3 expression in human uncommitted thymocytes, raising the possibility that Notch3 mediates human T-lineage specification. Although expression of a constitutive activated form of Notch3 (ICN3) results in the induction of T-lineage specification in human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells, similar to ICN1 overexpression, loss-of-function studies using blocking Abs reveal that only Notch1, but not Notch3, is critical in this process. Blocking of Notch1 activation in OP9-DLL4 cocultures resulted in a complete block in T-lineage specification and induced monocytic and plasmacytoid dendritic cell differentiation instead. In fetal thymus organ cultures, impeded Notch1 activation resulted in B and dendritic cell development. In contrast, Notch3 blocking Abs only marginally affected T-lineage specification and hematopoietic differentiation with a slight increase in monocyte development. No induction of B or dendritic cell development was observed. Thus, our results unambiguously reveal a nonredundant role for Notch1 in human T-lineage specification, despite the expression of other Notch receptors.
Related JoVE Video
A Phase II Trial of Capecitabine Concomitantly With Whole-Brain Radiotherapy Followed by Capecitabine and Sunitinib for Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Author Summary BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis from breast cancer presents a significant threat to women's health and quality of life. Capecitabine and sunitinib have shown some activity in this setting; therefore, we conducted a single-arm phase II trial with these agents.
Related JoVE Video
Structures and energies of Cu clusters on Fe and Fe3C surfaces from density functional theory computation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spin-polarized density functional theory computations have been carried out to study the stable adsorption configurations of Cun (n = 1-7, 13) on Fe and Fe3C surfaces for understanding the initial stages of copper promotion in catalysis. At low coverage, two-dimensional aggregation is more preferred over dispersion and three-dimensional aggregation on the Fe(110) and Fe(100) surfaces as well as the metallic Fe3C(010) surfaces, while dispersion is more favorable over aggregation on the Fe(111) surface. On the Fe3C(001) and Fe3C(100) surfaces with exposed iron and carbon atoms, the adsorbed Cu atoms prefer dispersion at low coverage, while aggregation along the iron regions at high coverage. On the iron surfaces, the adsorption energies of Cun (n = 2-7) are highest on Fe(111), medium on Fe(100) and lowest on Fe(110). On the Fe3C surfaces, the adsorption energies of Cun (n = 1-3) are highest on Fe3C(100), medium on Fe3C(010) and lowest on Fe3C(001), while, for n = 4-7 and 13, Fe3C(010) has stronger adsorption than Fe3C(100). On the basis of their differences in electronegativity, the adsorbed Cu atoms can oxidize the metallic Fe(110), Fe(100) and Fe3C(010) surfaces and become negatively charged. On the Fe3C(001) and Fe3C(100) surfaces with exposed iron and carbon atoms, the adsorbed Cu atoms interacting with surface carbon atoms are oxidized and positively charged. Unlike the most stable Fe(110) and Fe3C(001) surfaces, where the Fe(110) surface has stronger Cu affinity than the Fe3C(001) surface, which is in agreement with the experimental finding, the less and least stable Fe3C(010) and Fe3C(100) surfaces have stronger Cu affinities than the Fe(110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Since less stable facets are not preferably formed thermodynamically, it is crucial to prepare such surfaces to explore Cu adsorption and promotion, and this provides challenges to surface sciences.
Related JoVE Video
Using Insulin Lispro with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion is Safe and Effective in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Trial of Insulin Lispro Versus Insulin Aspart.
Endocr Pract
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: This study provides clinical information relating to use of insulin lispro versus insulin aspart in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).Methods: After a 2-week lead-in period, 122 subjects treated with CSII therapy were randomized to 32 weeks treatment in a two, 16-week treatment period (TP), 2-sequence crossover beginning with insulin lispro (n=60) or insulin aspart (n=62). Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total daily insulin dose, and weight were recorded at the end of TP1 and TP2. Adverse events (AEs) and hypoglycemic events (overall, documented symptomatic, nocturnal, or severe) were recorded throughout the TPs. Data were analyzed using statistical methods that accounted for repeated measurements.Results: One hundred seven subjects completed the study; 7 discontinued in TP1 and 8 discontinued in TP2. Insulin lispro was noninferior to insulin aspart in endpoint (weeks 16 and 32) HbA1c over TP1 andTP2 combined. Total daily insulin dose, weight change, and incidence and rates of hypoglycemia did not statistically significantly differ between treatments. One case of severe hypoglycemia and 1 of diabetic ketoacidosis was observed with insulin aspart. One case of severe infusion site abscess was noted with insulin lispro. Overall, both insulin lispro and insulin aspart were well tolerated with similar AEs reported.Conclusion: Insulin lispro and insulin aspart performed similarly after 16 weeks of treatment, with noninferiority for HbA1c and no significant difference in parameters measured, demonstrating insulin lispro and insulin aspart can both be used safely and effectively in patients with T2D using CSII.
Related JoVE Video
Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) promotes M2 macrophage polarization in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in NAD biosynthesis. In the extracellular compartment it exhibits cytokine/adipokine-like properties, suggesting that it stands at the crossroad between metabolism and inflammation. Here we show that both intracellular and extracellular NAMPT levels are increased cells and plasma of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. The extracellular form (eNAMPT) is produced by CLL lymphocytes upon B-cell receptor, toll-like receptor and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. eNAMPT is important for differentiation of resting monocytes, polarizing them towards tumor-supporting M2 macrophages. These cells express high levels of CD163, CD206 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and secrete immunosuppressive (IL-10, CCL18) and tumor-promoting (IL-6, IL-8) cytokines. NAMPT-primed M2 macrophages activate ERK1/2, STAT3 and NF-kB signaling, promote leukemic cell survival and reduce T cell responses. These effects are independent of the enzymatic activity of NAMPT, as inferred from the use of an enzymatically inactive mutant. Overall, these results reveal that eNAMPT is a critical element in the induction of an immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting microenvironment of CLL.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of lentivirus-mediated epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 silencing on proliferation and invasion of human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) gene silencing on the proliferation and invasion ablity of laryngeal carcinoma cells.
Related JoVE Video
Oil-based formulation as a sustained-released injection for a novel synthetic peptide.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, sustained-released injections in which therapeutic peptides were solubilized in oils were developed and their releasing characteristics in vitro and in vivo were investigated. As the presence interaction of cationic charged peptide LXT-101 with negative charged phospholipid, phospholipid-peptide complex formed which displayed altered solubility properties of LXT-101. The technology process involved steps that aqueous solution of LXT-101 and empty SUV (small unilamellar liposomes) containing EPC (phosphatidylcholine) and DPPG (1, 2-dipalmitog-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol) were mixed at appropriate ratio and subsequently lyophilized, then upon addition of oil, the lyophilizes formed a clear oily solution containing solubilized peptide. By the method of atomic force microscopy combined with Langmuir-Blodgett technology, the morphology of particles in oily solution were examined which exhibited oval-shaped and mean particle size of 150 nm. In vitro behavior in the medium of pure water at 37? showed that 70~90 % of LXT-101 was released slowly from the oily formulation over 7 days. The data indicated that an effectively sustained suppression of testosterone could be achieved over a period of seven days in vivo after LXT-101 oily formulation administration by i.m. at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg (2 mg/ml), while aqueous solution maintained only one day. It was also found interestingly that when the concentration of peptide LXT-101 was up to or over 10 mg/ml in aqueous solution, there was no significant difference between the oily formulation and aqueous solution, which meant that LXT-101 itself could maintain sustained release in vivo due to the peptide LXT-101 self-assembly into nanofibers.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of hydration and nutrition status on the Watson formula in ritoneal dialysis patients.
Adv Perit Dial
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Urea clearance (Kt/V urea), adjusted for total body water (TBW) using the Watson formula (TBW(Watson)), is widely used to guide peritoneal dialysis (PD) prescription and to ensure dialysis adequacy. The impact of body composition on the determination of TBW(Watson) is well established, but the effect of hydration and nutrition status on TBW(Watson) is not understood. We therefore studied the effects of hydration and nutrition status on TBW(Watson) in PD patients. Our study enrolled 195 PD patients and 33 healthy control subjects. Multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (MF-BIS) was used to measure TBW and the result was compared with TBW(Watson). Patients were divided into three groups according to their degree of overhydration [deltahydration status (OH) in liters]: normally hydrated group (OH: < 2.0 L), mildly overhydrated group (OH: 2.0 - 4.0 L), and severely overhydrated group (OH: > 4.0 L). Compared with MF-BIS, the Watson formula overestimated TBW in normally hydrated patients, but underestimated TBW in severely overhydrated patients. In addition, of the normally hydrated patients, 22 were malnourished by subjective global assessment, and the TBW(Watson) overestimation was much greater in them than in the well-nourished patients. Our study suggests that hydration and nutrition status both strongly affect TBW(Watson) in PD patients.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety of solifenacin plus tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a meta-analysis.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We performed a meta-analysis to compare treatment with a combination of solifenacin plus tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (TOCAS) with placebo or TOCAS monotherapy. The aim of the meta-analysis was to clarify the efficacy and safety of the combination treatments method for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We searched for trials of men with LUTS that were randomized to combination treatment compared with TOCAS monotherapy or placebo. We pooled data from three placebo-controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria. Primary outcomes of interest included changes in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and urinary frequency. We also assessed postvoid residual, maximum urinary ?ow rate, incidence of urinary retention (UR), adverse events. Data were pooled using random or fixed effect models for continuous outcomes and the Mantel-Haenszel method to generate risk ratio. Reductions in IPSS storage subscore and total urgency and frequency score (TUFS) were observed with solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS compared with placebo (P< 0.0001 and P< 0.0001, respectively). Reductions in IPSS storage subscore and TUFS were observed with solifenacin 9 mg plus TOCAS compared with placebo (P = 0.003 and P= 0.0006, respectively). Reductions in TUFS was observed with solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS compared with TOCAS (P = 0.01). Both combination treatments were well tolerated, with low incidence of UR. Solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS significantly improved total IPSS, storage and voiding symptoms compared with placebo. Solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS also improved storage symptoms compared with TOCAS alone. There was no additional benefit of solifenacin 9 mg compared with 6 mg when used in combination with TOCAS.
Related JoVE Video
Cation-specific conformational behavior of polyelectrolyte brushes: from aqueous to nonaqueous solvent.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have investigated changes in the cation-specific conformational behavior of poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS) brushes as the solvent changes from water to methanol using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). A solvation to desolvation transition of the grafted chains accompanied by swelling to the collapse transition of the brushes is observed for Na(+). In the case of Cs(+), the brushes undergo solvation to desolvation to resolvation accompanied by swelling to collapse to reswelling transitions. The resolvation and reswelling transitions for Cs(+) are induced by the charge inversion of the brushes via van der Waals interactions between Cs(+) and the brushes. All of the transitions for monovalent cations become less obvious as the methanol content increases. For divalent Ca(2+) and trivalent La(3+), a solvation to desolvation to resolvation transition of the grafted chains accompanied by a swelling to collapse to reswelling transition of the brushes can be observed. The resolvation and reswelling of the brushes for the multivalent cations are induced by the charge inversion of the brushes via charge-image charge interactions. The extent of the transitions for the PSS brushes in the presence of multivalent cations is only slightly influenced by the methanol content.
Related JoVE Video
Regulator of G Protein Signalling 5 protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, during which "vulnerable plaques" have been recognised as the underlying risk factor for coronary disease. Regulator of G Protein Signalling (RGS) 5 has been demonstrated to regulate endothelial cells functions and inflammation. In this study, we explored the effect of RGS5 on atherosclerosis and the potential mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
[Long-term efficacy of laser peripheral iridotomy in preventing progression in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the long-term efficacy of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in preventing deterioration in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS).
Related JoVE Video
PPARD rs2016520 Polymorphism Affects Repaglinide Response in Chinese Han Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Repaglinide is a short-acting insulin secretagogue, which often results in considerable inter-individual variability in therapeutic efficacy when widely used in clinical setting. Among various reasons under discussion is genetic polymorphism, especially the genes related to insulin secretion and resistance. Recent studies have described the importance of PPARD in regulating the secretion and resistance of insulin. However, little is known as to the impacts of PPARD genetic polymorphism on the efficacy of repaglinide. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the associations of PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism with T2DM susceptibility and repaglinide therapeutic efficacy in Chinese Han T2DM patients. A total of 338 T2DM patients and 200 healthy subjects were genotyped for PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Eighty-four patients with the same genotypes of CYP2C8*3 139Arg and OATP1B1 521TT were randomized to orally take repaglinide for eight weeks. Then the pharmacodynamic parameters of repaglinide and biochemical indicators were determined before and after repaglinide treatment. No significant difference was found in either allelic frequency (P = 0.298) or genotype distribution (P = 0.151) of PPARD rs2016520 between T2DM patients and healthy subjects. But T2DM patients carrying genotype TC exhibited a significantly lower increase in PINS (mU/l) than those with wild-type TT (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism may influence the therapeutic effect of repaglinide rather than T2DM susceptibility in Chinese Han T2DM patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
Tailored synthesis of hierarchical spinous hollow titania hexagonal prisms via a self-template route.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novel hierarchical spinous hollow titania hexagonal prisms are prepared through a facile fluorine-free self-template route using Ti2O3(H2O)2(C2O4)·H2O (TC) hexagonal prisms as a precursor. The hollowing transformation can be elucidated by the template-free Kirkendall effect, and diverse nanostructures can also be synthesized during the conversion process, such as the spinous core-shell and yolk-shell nanocomposites. The hierarchical hollow microparticles are composed of ultrathin nanobelts of 50-100 nm in length and about 10 nm in thickness, and possess a higher surface area of up to 163 m(2) g(-1) compared with solid microparticles (49 m(2) g(-1)). This type of morphology is of great interest for lithium-ion batteries because of its shorter length for Li(+) transport and better electrode-electrolyte contact.
Related JoVE Video
[Questionnaires on male sexual dysfunction and their clinical application].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the increasing incidence and prevalence of male sexual dysfunction, andrologists are more and more in need of accurate and efficient tools to assess therapeutic efficacy and patients' satisfaction and to help patients achieve satisfactory treatment results. This article summarizes some of the most commonly used questionnaires for the diagnosis and assessment of the treatment of male sexual dysfunction, including International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Erection Hardness Score (EHS), Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ), Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS), Treatment Satisfaction Scale (TSS), Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE), Arabic Index of Premature Ejaculation (AIPE), Aging Male Symptoms Scale (AMS), Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM), and Symptomatic Inventory for Screening Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Males (SILOH), and presents an overview on their clinical application.
Related JoVE Video
The Effect of Early and Late Tracheotomy on Outcomes in Patients: A Systematic Review and Cumulative Meta-analysis.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effect of early tracheotomy (ET) and late tracheotomy (LT) on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence and short-term mortality in critically ill patients who received mechanical ventilation.
Related JoVE Video
CAMK2N1 inhibits prostate cancer progression through androgen receptor-dependent signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Castration resistance is a major obstacle to hormonal therapy for prostate cancer patients. Although androgen independence of prostate cancer growth is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of androgen receptor deregulation in endocrine resistance is still poorly understood. Herein, the CAMK2N1 was shown to contribute to the human prostate cancer cell growth and survival through AR-dependent signaling. Reduced expression of CAMK2N1 was correlated to recurrence-free survival of prostate cancer patients with high levels of AR expression in their tumor. CAMK2N1 and AR signaling form an auto-regulatory negative feedback loop: CAMK2N1 expression was down-regulated by AR activation; while CAMK2N1 inhibited AR expression and transactivation through CAMKII and AKT pathways. Knockdown of CAMK2N1 in prostate cancer cells alleviated Casodex inhibition of cell growth, while re-expression of CAMK2N1 in castration-resistant cells sensitized the cells to Casodex treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that CAMK2N1 plays a tumor suppressive role and serves as a crucial determinant of the resistance of prostate cancer to endocrine therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Association between bone marrow dosimetric parameters and acute hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy: comparison of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compare different dosimetric parameters in cervical cancer patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and explore the incidence of hematological toxicity (HT) in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Anatomical characteristics of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia and their taxonomic significance].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anatomical features of the lamina and petiole of 11 species of Salvia had been compared. The microstructures of 11 species of Salvia were observed by paraffin method, and indexes such as the epidermis, xylems and phloems were measured. The data set was analyzed by principal components analysis method and cluster analysis method. The results indicated that the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were bifacial leaf, and the surface of laminae and petioles were covered with villous. The upper epidermis and lower epidermis of the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were constituted by a dense cuticular layer without stratum corneum. Differences existed in the structure of cross sectio mn of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia. Among them, upper epidermal thickness of nine different micromorphological characters could serve as one of the criteria to identify species of taxonomic Salvia. The identification of genetic relationship of these characters in Salvia were discussed in the paper to provide an evidence of anatomy in Salvia.
Related JoVE Video
ASCL1 is a lineage oncogene providing therapeutic targets for high-grade neuroendocrine lung cancers.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aggressive neuroendocrine lung cancers, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), represent an understudied tumor subset that accounts for approximately 40,000 new lung cancer cases per year in the United States. No targeted therapy exists for these tumors. We determined that achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1), a transcription factor required for proper development of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, is essential for the survival of a majority of lung cancers (both SCLC and NSCLC) with neuroendocrine features. By combining whole-genome microarray expression analysis performed on lung cancer cell lines with ChIP-Seq data designed to identify conserved transcriptional targets of ASCL1, we discovered an ASCL1 target 72-gene expression signature that (i) identifies neuroendocrine differentiation in NSCLC cell lines, (ii) is predictive of poor prognosis in resected NSCLC specimens from three datasets, and (iii) represents novel "druggable" targets. Among these druggable targets is B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2, which when pharmacologically inhibited stops ASCL1-dependent tumor growth in vitro and in vivo and represents a proof-of-principle ASCL1 downstream target gene. Analysis of downstream targets of ASCL1 represents an important advance in the development of targeted therapy for the neuroendocrine class of lung cancers, providing a significant step forward in the understanding and therapeutic targeting of the molecular vulnerabilities of neuroendocrine lung cancer.
Related JoVE Video
PCN Pincer Palladium(II) Complex Catalyzed Enantioselective Hydrophosphination of Enones: Synthesis of Pyridine-Functionalized Chiral Phosphine Oxides as NCsp(3)O Pincer Preligands.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of chiral PCN pincer Pd(II) complexes VI-XIII with aryl-based aminophosphine-imidazoline or phosphinite-imidazoline ligands were synthesized and characterized. They were examined as enantioselective catalysts for the hydrophosphination of enones. Among them, complex IX, which features a Ph2PO donor as well as an imidazoline donor with (4S)-phenyl and N-Tol-p groups, was found to be the optimal catalyst. Thus, in the presence of 2-5 mol % of complex IX a wide variety of enones reacted smoothly with diarylphosphines to give the corresponding chiral phosphine derivatives in high yields with enantioselectivities of up to 98% ee. In particular, heteroaryl species such as 2-thienyl-, 2-furyl-, and 2-pyridinyl-containing enones that have a strong coordination ability to the Pd center were also appropriate substrates for the current catalytic system. For example, hydrophosphination of 2-alkenoylpyridines with diphenylphosphine followed by oxidation with H2O2 afforded the corresponding pyridine-functionalized chiral phosphine oxides in good yields with good to excellent enantioselectivities (10 examples, up to 95% ee). Furthermore, it had been demonstrated that the obtained pyridine-containing phosphine oxide acted as a tridentate ligand in the reaction with PdCl2 to form an intriguing NCsp(3)O pincer Pd(II) complex via Csp(3)-H bond activation, which to our knowledge is the first example of a chiral DCsp(3)D' Pd pincer (D ? D'; D and D' denote donor atoms such as P, N, etc.).
Related JoVE Video
Identification of biomarkers for radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) in cervical cancer patients by serum protein profiling.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) are the most frequent complication of radiotherapy that causes great pain and limits the treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to identify serum biomarkers of RIAISs in cervical cancer patients by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples were collected from 66 cervical cancer patients prior to pelvic radiotherapy. In our study, RIAISs occurred in 11 patients. An additional 11 patients without RIAISs were selected as controls, whose age, stage, histological type and treatment methods were matched to RIAISs patients. The 22 sera were subsequently analyzed by SELDI-TOF MS, and the resulting protein profiles were evaluated to identify biomarkers using appropriate bioinformatics tools. Comparing the protein profiles of serum samples from the RIAIS group and the control group, it was found that 22 protein peaks were significantly different (P < 0.05), and six of these peaks with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 7514.9, 4603.94, 6887.41, 2769.21, 3839.72 and 4215.7 were successfully identified. A decision tree model of biomarkers was constructed based on three biomarkers (m/z 1270.88, 1503.23 and 7514.90), which separated RIAIS-affected patients from the control group with an accuracy of 81%. This study suggests that serum proteomic analysis by SELDI-TOF MS can identify cervical cancer patients that are susceptible to RIAISs prior to pelvic radiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Abdominal Paracentesis Drainage Ahead of Percutaneous Catheter Drainage Benefits Patients Attacked by Acute Pancreatitis With Fluid Collections: A Retrospective Clinical Cohort Study.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided abdominal paracentesis drainage ahead of percutaneous catheter drainage as the new second step of a step-up approach are evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Paclitaxel-loaded PEG-PE-based micellar nanopreparations targeted with tumor specific landscape phage fusion protein enhance apoptosis and efficiently reduce tumors.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In an effort to improve the therapeutic index of cancer chemotherapy, we developed an advanced nanopreparation based on the combination of landscape phage display to obtain new targeting ligands with micellar nanoparticles for tumor targeting of water-insoluble neoplastic agents. With paclitaxel as a drug, this self-assembled nanopreparation composed of MCF-7-specific phage protein and polyethylene glycol-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles showed selective toxicity to target cancer cells rather than non-target, non-cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, the targeted phage-micelles triggered a dramatic tumor reduction and extensive necrosis as a result of improved tumor delivery of paclitaxel. The enhanced anticancer effect was also verified by an enhanced apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation following the treatment with the targeted micellar paclitaxel both in vitro and in vivo. The absence of hepatotoxicity and pathological changes in tissue sections of vital organs, together with maintenance of overall health of mice following the treatment, further support its translational potential as an effective and safe chemotherapy for improved breast cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanism of the reactions of alcohols with o-benzynes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have studied reactions of secondary and primary alcohols with benzynes generated by the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction. These alcohols undergo competitive addition vs dihydrogen transfer to produce aryl ethers vs reduced benzenoid products, respectively. During the latter process, an equivalent amount of oxidized ketone (or aldehyde) is formed. Using deuterium labeling studies, we determined that (i) it is the carbinol C-H and adjacent O-H hydrogen atoms that are transferred during this process and (ii) the mechanism is consistent with a hydride-like transfer of the C-H. Substrates bearing an internal trap attached to the reactive, HDDA-derived benzyne intermediate were used to probe the kinetic order of the alcohol trapping agent in the H2-transfer as well as in the alcohol addition process. The H2-transfer reaction is first order in alcohol. Our results are suggestive of a concerted H2-transfer process, which is further supported by density functional theory (DFT) computational studies and results of a kinetic isotope effect experiment. In contrast, alcohol addition to the benzyne is second order in alcohol, a previously unrecognized phenomenon. Additional DFT studies were used to further probe the mechanistic aspects of the alcohol addition process.
Related JoVE Video
Apoptosis in the kidneys of rats that experienced intrauterine growth restriction.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can affect kidney development, leading to reduction in glomerular number. However, the associated cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated cell apoptosis and Bcl-2 and Bax expression in the kidney of IUGR pups.
Related JoVE Video
Rebamipide plus proton pump inhibitor versus proton pump inhibitor alone in the treatment of endoscopic submucosal dissection-induced gastric ulcer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was the main prescription for gastric ulcer after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Some randomized controlled trials showed that a combination of rebamipide and PPI appears to be more efficient than PPI alone for the treatment of ESD-induced gastric ulcer. However, the sample sizes in these trials were limited and the conclusions were underpowered.This meta-analysis was conducted with 5 randomized controlled trials using the combination of rebamipide and PPI for healing ESD-induced ulcer compared with PPI monotherapy. Relevant studies were searched via MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases by using terms such as "rebamipide," "proton pump inhibitor," "endoscopic submucosal dissection," "drug therapy," and "gastric ulcer or artificial ulcer."Five studies were included in this meta-analysis. The number of total patients was 626, with 317 patients in the combination group and 309 patients in the PPI alone group. The heterogeneity among these 5 studies was low (I?=?22%, P?=?0.28). All 5 studies considered scarring stage 1 rate as a primary endpoint, and the scarring stage 1 rate in combination group (115/317) was higher than that in PPI alone group (63/309) (odds ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76-3.88). The mean difference of initial ulcer size between 2 groups was -4.46 (95% CI -266.61 to -257.69, P?=?0.97), but it enlarged to 68.38 (95% CI 35.72-101.05, P?
Related JoVE Video
Aidi injection combined with FOLFOX4 chemotherapy regimen in the treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this retrospectively study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Aidi injection (ADI) combined with FOLFOX4 chemothreapy regimen in the treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
[An expression analysis of miR-200a in serum and liver tissue during the process of liver cancer development in rats].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore whether microRNA-200a (miR-200a) could be used as a novel biomarker of liver cancer using a rat model system.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical treatment for idiopathic intervertebral disc calcification in a child: case report and review of the literature.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intervertebral disc calcification (IDC) is rare in children. Conservative treatment has been recommended for the majority of cases. We describe surgical treatment of a case of IDC with progressive neurological impairment and review the literature relevant to this rare entity and its management.
Related JoVE Video
Myricetin exerts anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, and pro-apoptotic effects on esophageal carcinoma EC9706 and KYSE30 cells via RSK2.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables and is used as a health food supplement based on its anti-tumor properties. However, the effect and mechanisms of myricetin in esophageal carcinoma are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated the effect of myricetin on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of the esophageal carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and KYSE30 and explored the underlying mechanism and target protein(s) of myricetin. CCK-8 assay, transwell invasion assay, wound-healing assay, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assay were used to evaluate the effects of myricetin on cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis. Nude mouse tumor xenograft model was built to understand the interaction between myricetin and NTD RSK2. Pull-down assay was used to verify molecular mechanism. Myricetin inhibited proliferation and invasion and induced apoptosis of EC9706 and KYSE30 cells. Moreover, myricetin was shown to bind RSK2 through the NH2-terminal kinase domain. Finally, myricetin inhibited EC9706 and KYSE30 cell proliferation through Mad1 and induced cell apoptosis via Bad. Myricetin inhibits the proliferation and invasion and induces apoptosis in EC9706 and KYSE30 cells via RSK2. Myricetin exerts anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, and pro-apoptotic effects on esophageal carcinoma EC9706 and KYSE30 cells via RSK2. Our results provide novel insight into myricetin as a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of esophageal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen binds DNA polymerase-? and mediates 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neuronal death.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms leading to dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) remain poorly understood. We recently reported that aberrant DNA replication mediated by DNA polymerase-? (DNA pol-?) plays a causal role in the death of postmitotic neurons in an in vitro model of PD. In the present study, we show that both proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and DNA pol-? are required for MPP(+)-induced neuronal death. PCNA binds to the catalytic domain of DNA pol-? in MPP(+)-treated neurons and in post-mortem brain tissues of PD patients. The PCNA-DNA pol-? complex is loaded into DNA replication forks and mediates DNA replication in postmitotic neurons. The aberrant DNA replication mediated by the PCNA-DNA pol-? complex induces p53-dependent neuronal cell death. Our results indicate that the interaction of PCNA and DNA pol-? contributes to neuronal death in PD.
Related JoVE Video
Hypoglycemic effect of catalpol on high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside, exists in the root of Radix Rehmanniae. Some studies have shown that catalpol has a remarkable hypoglycemic effect in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic model, but the underlying mechanism for this effect has not been fully elucidated. Because mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the pathology of diabetes and because improving mitochondrial function may offer a new approach for the treatment of diabetes, this study was designed. Catalpol was orally administered together with metformin to high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced diabetic mice daily for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW), fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, and glucose disposal (IPGTT) were measured during or after the treatment. The results showed a dose-dependent reduction of FBG level with no apparent changes in BW through four successive weeks of catalpol administration. Catalpol treatment substantially reduced serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the diabetic mice. In addition, catalpol efficiently increased mitochondrial ATP production and reversed the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and mtDNA copy number in skeletal muscle tissue. Furthermore, catalpol (200 mg/kg) rescued mitochondrial ultrastructure in skeletal muscle, as detected with transmission electron microscopy. The relative mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC1) ? was significantly decreased in muscle tissue of diabetic mice, while this effect was reversed by catalpol, resulting in a dose-dependent up-regulation. Taken together, we found that catalpol was capable of lowering FBG level via improving mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice.
Related JoVE Video
On the use of an explicit chemical mechanism to dissect peroxy acetyl nitrate formation.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) is a key component of photochemical smog and plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Though it has been known that PAN is produced via reactions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), it is difficult to quantify the contributions of individual precursor species. Here we use an explicit photochemical model - Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) model - to dissect PAN formation and identify principal precursors, by analyzing measurements made in Beijing in summer 2008. PAN production was sensitive to both NOx and VOCs. Isoprene was the predominant VOC precursor at suburb with biogenic impact, whilst anthropogenic hydrocarbons dominated at downtown. PAN production was attributable to a relatively small class of compounds including NOx, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, trans/cis-2-butenes, toluene, and propene. MCM can advance understanding of PAN photochemistry to a species level, and provide more relevant recommendations for mitigating photochemical pollution in large cities.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient photochemical oxygen generation from water by phosphorus-doped H2MoO5.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Efficient photochemical oxygen generation is achieved using phosphorus-doped H2MoO5 under visible light illumination. Under optimized conditions, an extremely high apparent quantum yield of 94% is obtained under 410 nm light illumination.
Related JoVE Video
New maltol glycosides from Flos Sophorae.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three new maltol glycosides, designated soyamalosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with eight known compounds (4-11), were obtained from a 70 % EtOH extract of Flos Sophorae. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Of the known compounds, this is the first report of 4-6, 9, and 11 in the Sophora genus. Compounds 2, 3, and 10 showed significant protective effects against antimycin A-induced L6 cell injury.
Related JoVE Video
Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats.
Behav Brain Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes.
Related JoVE Video
Terazosin activates Pgk1 and Hsp90 to promote stress resistance.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Drugs that can protect against organ damage are urgently needed, especially for diseases such as sepsis and brain stroke. We discovered that terazosin (TZ), a widely marketed ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, alleviated organ damage and improved survival in rodent models of stroke and sepsis. Through combined studies of enzymology and X-ray crystallography, we discovered that TZ binds a new target, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1), and activates its enzymatic activity, probably through 2,4-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline's ability to promote ATP release from Pgk1. Mechanistically, the ATP generated from Pgk1 may enhance the chaperone activity of Hsp90, an ATPase known to associate with Pgk1. Upon activation, Hsp90 promotes multistress resistance. Our studies demonstrate that TZ has a new protein target, Pgk1, and reveal its corresponding biological effect. As a clinical drug, TZ may be quickly translated into treatments for diseases including stroke and sepsis.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanistic insights of sulfur mustard-induced acute tracheal injury in rats.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sulfur mustard (SM) is believed to be a major threat to civilian populations because of the persistent asymmetric threat by nonstate actors, such as terrorist groups, the ease of synthesis and handling, and the risk of theft from stockpiles. The purpose of this study was to establish mechanisms of acute tracheal injury in rats induced by SM using histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical parameters. Male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were anesthetized, intratracheally intubated, and exposed to 2 mg/kg of SM. Animals were euthanized 6-, 24-, 48-, and 72-hour postexposure, and intracavitary blood samples from the heart and tracheal tissues were collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid tracheal injury, including tracheal epithelial cell shedding, focal ulceration, and abundant lymphocyte invasion of the submucosa. There was also evidence of a large number of apoptotic cells in the epithelium and submucosa, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1? (IL) 1?, IL-6, and ?-glutamyl transferase peaked at 24 hours, and the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance peaked at 6 hours. The SM exposure also resulted in a loss of the cellular membrane, leakage of cytoplasm, fuzzy mitochondrial cristae, medullary changes in ciliated and goblet cells, and the nuclear chromatin appeared marginated in basal cells and fibroblasts. The results in the propylene glycol group were the same as the control group. These data demonstrated the histologic changes, inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage following SM (2 mg/kg)-induced acute tracheal injury; the severity of changes was time dependent.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of total flavonoid C-glycosides from Abrus mollis extracts.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of the total flavonoid C-glycosides isolated from Abrus mollis extracts (AME). In the anti-inflammatory tests, xylene-induced ear edema model in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats were applied. The hepatoprotective effects of AME were evaluated with various in vivo models of acute and chronic liver injury, including carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatitis in mice, D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced hepatitis in rats, as well as CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. In the acute inflammation experiment, AME significantly suppressed xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema, respectively. In the acute hepatitis tests, AME significantly attenuated the excessive release of ALT and AST induced by CCl4 and D-GalN. In CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis model, AME alleviated liver injury induced by CCl4 shown by histopathological sections of livers and improved liver function as indicated by decreased liver index, serum ALT, AST, TBIL, and ALP levels and hydroxyproline contents in liver tissues, and increased serum ALB and GLU levels. These results indicated that AME possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation models and hepatoprotective activity in both acute and chronic liver injury models. In conclusion, AME is a potential anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective agent and a viable candidate for treating inflammation, hepatitis, and hepatic fibrosis.
Related JoVE Video
Human cytomegalovirus immediate early protein 2 enhances myocardin-mediated survival of rat aortic smooth muscle cells.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may increase the incidence of restenosis and predispose to atherosclerosis. The lesions of restenosis and atherosclerosis often contain smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with high rates of proliferation and apoptosis. One of the immediate early (IE) gene products of HCMV-IE2 affects transcriptional activities of some cellular factors in SMCs, including myocardin. In this study, we studied the effects of IE2 and myocardin on PI3K pathway inducer wortmannin induced apoptosis in rat aortic SMCs. We show that the transcriptional activity of myocardin on Mcl-1 promoter is enhanced by co-expression of HCMV IE2 in rat aortic SMCs; and the expressions of mRNA and protein of antiapoptotic genes-Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 are upregulated by IE2 alone and co-transfection of myocardin and IE2, but decreased by myocardin-specific shRNA in rat aortic SMCs. We further demonstrate that co-expression of myocardin and HCMV IE2 declines apoptotic cell numbers and caspase-3 activities induced by serum starvation plus wortmannin in rat aortic SMCs. The results suggest that HCMV IE2 enhances myocardin-mediated survival of rat aortic SMCs under serum deprivation and PI3-kinase inhibition, partly via activation of Mcl-1's antiapoptosis effect. Our study connects HCMV IE2 to myocardin-induced transcriptional program for rat aortic SMCs survival and proliferation, involving in HCMV related restenosis and atherosclerosis.
Related JoVE Video
Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Copper Nanoparticle@Carbon Nanocomposites as Peroxidase Mimics for Colorimetric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as very fascinating functional materials due to their diversity nature. A nanocomposite consisting of copper nanoparticles dispersed within a carbon matrix (Cu?NPs@C) is prepared through a one-pot thermolysis of copper-based metal-organic framework precursors. Cu?NPs@C can catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to form a colored product in the presence of H2 O2 . As a peroxidase mimic, Cu?NPs@C not only has the advantages of low cost, high stability, and easy preparation, but also follows Michaelis-Menten behaviors and shows strong affinity to H2 O2 . As the Cu?NPs' surfaces are free from stabilizing agent, Cu?NPs@C exhibited a higher affinity to H2 O2 than horseradish peroxidase. On the basis of the inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on oxidation of TMB, this system serves as a colorimetric method for the detection of AA, suggesting that the present work would expand the potential applications of MOF-derived nanocomposites in biomedical fields.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular and physiological evidences for the role in appetite regulation of apelin and its receptor APJ in Ya-fish (Schizothorax prenanti).
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apelin is a recently discovered peptide produced by several tissues with diverse physiological actions mediated by its receptor APJ. In order to better understand the role of apelin in the regulation of appetite in fish, we cloned the cDNAs encoding apelin and APJ, and investigated their mRNA distributions in Ya-fish (Schizothorax prenanti) tissues. We also assessed the effects of different nutritional status on apelin and APJ mRNAs abundance. Apelin and APJ mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested, relatively high expression levels were detected in the heart, spleen, hypothalamus and kidney. Short-term fasting significant increased APJ mRNA expression, but no significant difference between fasted fish and fed control on 5- and 7-day. Meanwhile, apelin mRNA expression consistently increased during the 7-day food deprivation. In order to further characterize apelin in fish, we performed intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of apelin-13 and examined food intake of the injected fish. Apelin injected at a dose of 100?ng/g body weight induced a significant increase in food intake compared to saline injected fish. Our results suggest that apelin acts as an orexigenic factor in Ya-fish. Their widespread distributions also suggest that apelin and APJ might play multiple physiological regulating roles in fish.
Related JoVE Video
Emodin Ameliorates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury, Involving the Inactivation of NF-?B in Mice.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute lung injury (ALI) and its severe manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are well-known illnesses. Uncontrolled and self-amplified pulmonary inflammation lies at the center of the pathology of this disease. Emodin, the bio-active coxund of herb Radix rhizoma Rhei, shows potent anti-inflammatory properties through inactivation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of emodin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice, and its potential bio-mechanism. In our study, BALB/c mice were stimulated with LPS to induce ALI. After 72 h of LPS stimulation, pulmonary pathological changes, lung injury scores, pulmonary edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and MCP-1 and E-selectin expression were notably attenuated by emodin in mice. Meanwhile, our data also revealed that emodin significantly inhibited the LPS-enhanced the phosphorylation of NF-?B p65 and NF-?B p65 DNA binding activity in lung. Our data indicates that emodin potently inhibits LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema and MCP-1 and E-selectin expression, and that these effects were very likely mediated by inactivation of NF-?B in mice. These results suggest a therapeutic potential of emodin as an anti-inflammatory agent for ALI/ARDS treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Post-Transcriptional Up-Regulation of PDGF-C by HuR in Advanced and Stressed Breast Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple genetic alterations leading to the activation of growth factor signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation. Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is overexpressed in various malignancies; however, the involvement of PDGF-C in breast cancers and the mechanisms underlying PDGF-C deregulation remain unclear. Here, we show that PDGF-C is overexpressed in clinical breast cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. PDGF-C up-regulation was mediated by the human embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR, which stabilizes the PDGF-C transcript by binding to two predicted AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). HuR is up-regulated in hydrogen peroxide-treated or ultraviolet-irradiated breast cancer cells. Clinically, HuR levels are correlated with PDGF-C expression and histological grade or pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying HuR-mediated breast cancer progression, and suggest that HuR and PDGF-C are potential molecular candidates for targeted therapy of breast cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit D2 gene polymorphisms are associated with Parkinson's disease: a Han Chinese study.
Genome
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have indicated that non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit D2 (NCAPD2), an important protein in chromosome condensation, gene polymorphisms are associated with Alzheimer's disease. But no study has shown the relationship between NCAPD2 polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease. Here, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the relationship between NCAPD2 polymorphisms and the risk of Parkinson's disease in a Han Chinese population. Two single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) of NCAPD2 (rs7311174 and rs2072374) showed significant p values (p = 0.046 and p = 0.043, respectively) in 265 patients and 267 controls. Further analysis showed an effect of age and gender on the relationship between the two SNPs and the risk for Parkinson's disease. The A allele of rs7311174 and the T allele of rs2072374 were protective in the male patients (p = 0.016 and p = 0.019, respectively). The frequencies of the T allele of rs7311174 and the C allele of rs2072374 were significantly associated with late-onset Parkinson's disease (p = 0.048 and p = 0.044, respectively). This research demonstrates a positive relationship between the NCAPD2 gene and the risk for Parkinson's disease in a Han Chinese population and provides a potential genetic marker for sporadic Parkinson's disease.
Related JoVE Video
Interaction of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated fused-in-sarcoma with proteins involved in metabolic and protein degradation pathways.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fused-in-sarcoma (FUS) is a nuclear protein linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Under pathologic conditions, FUS frequently is accumulated in cytosoplasm, but how this altered distribution affects the protein interaction pattern of FUS is unclear. Using dual-tag affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we compared the interactome of the wild-type FUS and the P525 L mutant, which causes juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with the most severe phenotypes. The mutant FUS retained the ability to bind proteins involved in RNA metabolism. We found significant increased binding of P525 L to many metabolic enzymes. Furthermore, we identified and confirmed some novel interactions between FUS and proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases and/or ubiquitin proteasome pathway, such as VCP/p97, PSF, UBA 1, and 26S proteosome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 12 (PSMD12/Rpn5). Accordingly, we have observed significantly reduced ATP levels and increased accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins in cells with FUS accumulation. Therefore, our study suggested new mechanisms whereby FUS accumulation leads to defective energy metabolism and protein degradation by directly interacting with key regulators in these pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Non-Viral Methods For Generating Integration-Free, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were created from mouse fibroblasts by induced expression of Yamanaka factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. This technique has quickly resulted in an exponential increase in the amount of pluripotency studies, and has provided a valuable tool in regenerative medicine. At the same time, many methodologies to generate iPS cells have been reported, and are comprised mainly of viral methods and non-viral methods. Although viral methods may not be applicable for clinical applications, various non-viral methods have been reported in recent years, including DNA vector-based approaches, transfection of mRNA, transduction of reprogramming proteins, and use of small molecule compounds. This review summarizes and evaluates these non-viral methods.
Related JoVE Video
New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A1 (1), A2 (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F1 (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time.
Related JoVE Video
A Review of Recent Research Progress on the Astragalus Genus.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for "qi deficiency" syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.
Related JoVE Video
Excretion of tectoridin metabolites in rat urine and bile orally administrated at different dosages and their inhibitory activity against aldose reductase.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the urinary and biliary excretion of tectoridin, a major active isoflavonoid found in the flowers of Pueraria thomsonii Benth. and the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. Using UHPLC/Q-TOFMS, seven glucuronides and/or sulfated metabolites and four Phase I metabolites were simultaneously quantified in rat urine after oral administration of tectoridin at 100 and 200mg/kg. Over a 72-h period, 14.2% and 14.7% of the tectoridin were excreted as eleven metabolites in urine, among which, two major metabolites tectorigenin-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (Te-7G) and tectorigenin accounted for 5.5-5.5% and 4.3-4.4%. Furthermore, the cumulative excretion of four glucuronides and sulfated metabolites in bile accounted for 7.3% and 3.9% of the dose within 60h, among which, Te-7G and tectorigenin-7-O-glucuronide-4'-O-sulfate (Te-7G-4'S) accounted for 2.3-3.0% and 1.4-3.9%, respectively. The results indicate that the urine was the primary elimination route, and glucuronidation after deglycosylation at C-7 position was the major metabolic pathway of tectoridin in vivo. Moreover, the inhibitory activities of tectoridin and its five metabolites on rat lens aldose reductase were confirmed (IC50: 1.4-15.5?M), whereas irisolidone-7-O-glucuronide (Ir-7G) and irisolidone showed little activity.
Related JoVE Video
A comparative analysis of characteristic floral scent compounds in Prunus mume and related species.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to investigate the difference in their characteristic floral scents between Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc. and the related Prunus species, their headspace volatiles and endogenous extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The efficiency of substrate utilization of the flowers was studied by incubating them with different alcohol substrates. Our results indicated that benzyl acetate is a dominant compound influencing the characteristic floral scent of P. mume. An alcohol substrate concentration of 4 mmol L(-1) and a reaction time of 2 h were constituted the reaction condition for catalysis of exogenous alcohol substrates by the flowers. Under these conditions, Prunus sibirica exhibited the highest utilization efficiency for benzyl alcohol substrate while the utilization efficiency of Prunus persica was the lowest. Comparative analysis of several alcohol substrates indicated that the flowers of the tested species had selective specificity for benzyl alcohol substrates.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis of Highly Substituted N-(Furan-3-ylmethylene)benzenesulfonamides by a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Oxidation/1,2-Alkynyl Migration/Cyclization Cascade.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A variety of N-(furan-3-ylmethylene)benzenesulfonamides were obtained by a gold(I)-catalyzed cascade reaction from easily accessible starting materials. The reaction pathway involves a rarely observed 1,2-alkynyl migration onto a gold carbenoid. This observation further enriches gold carbenoid chemistry with regard to group migration.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for a weakening relationship between interannual temperature variability and northern vegetation activity.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a proxy of vegetation productivity, is known to be correlated with temperature in northern ecosystems. This relationship, however, may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Here we show that above 30°N, the strength of the relationship between the interannual variability of growing season NDVI and temperature (partial correlation coefficient RNDVI-GT) declined substantially between 1982 and 2011. This decrease in RNDVI-GT is mainly observed in temperate and arctic ecosystems, and is also partly reproduced by process-based ecosystem model results. In the temperate ecosystem, the decrease in RNDVI-GT coincides with an increase in drought. In the arctic ecosystem, it may be related to a nonlinear response of photosynthesis to temperature, increase of hot extreme days and shrub expansion over grass-dominated tundra. Our results caution the use of results from interannual time scales to constrain the decadal response of plants to ongoing warming.
Related JoVE Video
An Integrated Use of Topography with RSI in Gully Mapping, Shandong Peninsula, China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Taking the Quickbird optical satellite imagery of the small watershed of Beiyanzigou valley of Qixia city, Shandong province, as the study data, we proposed a new method by using a fused image of topography with remote sensing imagery (RSI) to achieve a high precision interpretation of gully edge lines. The technique first transformed remote sensing imagery into HSV color space from RGB color space. Then the slope threshold values of gully edge line and gully thalweg were gained through field survey and the slope data were segmented using thresholding, respectively. Based on the fused image in combination with gully thalweg thresholding vectors, the gully thalweg thresholding vectors were amended. Lastly, the gully edge line might be interpreted based on the amended gully thalweg vectors, fused image, gully edge line thresholding vectors, and slope data. A testing region was selected in the study area to assess the accuracy. Then accuracy assessment of the gully information interpreted by both interpreting remote sensing imagery only and the fused image was performed using the deviation, kappa coefficient, and overall accuracy of error matrix. Compared with interpreting remote sensing imagery only, the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient are increased by 24.080% and 264.364%, respectively. The average deviations of gully head and gully edge line are reduced by 60.448% and 67.406%, respectively. The test results show the thematic and the positional accuracy of gully interpreted by new method are significantly higher. Finally, the error sources for interpretation accuracy by the two methods were analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
Constructing a high-density linkage map for Gossypium Hirsutum?×?G. barbadense and identifying QTLs for lint percentage.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To introgress the good fiber quality and yield from Gossypium barbadense into a commercial Upland cotton variety, a high-density simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic linkage map was developed from a BC1 F1 population of G. hirsutum?×?G. barbadense. The map comprised 2,292 loci and covered 5,115.16 centiMorgan (cM) of the cotton AD genome, with an average marker interval of 2.23 cM. 90.36% of the marker order for 1,577 common loci on this new map agrees well with the marker order on the D genome sequence genetic map. Compared with five published high-density SSR genetic maps, 53.14% of marker loci were newly discovered in this map. Twenty-six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lint percentage were identified on nine chromosomes. Nine stable or common QTLs could be used for marker-assisted selection. 50% of the QTLs were from G. barbadense and increased lint percentage by 1.07-2.41%. These results indicated that the map could be used for screening chromosome substitution segments from G. barbadense in the Upland cotton background, identifying QTLs or genes from G. barbadense, and further developing the gene pyramiding effect for improving fiber yield and quality.
Related JoVE Video
Metformin decreases IL-22 secretion to suppress tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological, preclinical and cellular studies in the last 5 years have shown that metformin exerts anti-tumoral properties, but its mode of action in cancer remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of metformin on a mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model and tumor-associated T cell immune responses. Oral metformin administration led to a significant reduction of tumor growth, which was accompanied by decreased interleukin-22 (IL-22). Meanwhile, IL-22-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and up-regulation of downstream genes Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 were inhibited by metformin. At the cellular level, metformin attenuated Th1- and Th17-derived IL-22 production. Furthermore, metformin inhibited de novo generation of Th1 and Th17 cells from naive CD4(+) cells. These observations were further supported by the fact that metformin treatment inhibited CD3/CD28-induced IFN-? and IL-17A expression along with the transcription factors that drive their expression (T-bet (Th1) and ROR-?t (Th17), respectively). The effects of metformin on T cell differentiation were mediated by down-regulated STAT3 and STAT4 phosphorylation via the AMPK-mTORC1 pathway. Notably, metformin led to a reduction in glucose transporter Glut1 expression, resulting in less glucose uptake, which is critical to regulate CD4(+) T cell fate. Taken together, these ?ndings provide evidence for the growth-inhibitory and immune-modulatory effects of metformin in HCC and thus, broaden our understanding about the action of metformin in liver cancer treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
A Disulfide Intercalator Toolbox for the Site-Directed Modification of Polypeptides.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A disulfide intercalator toolbox was developed for site-specific attachment of a broad variety of functional groups to proteins or peptides under mild, physiological conditions. The peptide hormone somatostatin (SST) served as model compound for intercalation into the available disulfide functionalization schemes starting from the intercalator or the reactive SST precursor before or after bioconjugation. A tetrazole-SST derivative was obtained that undergoes photoinduced cycloaddition in mammalian cells, which was monitored by live-cell imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Modeling and parameters identification of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid fed-batch fermentation.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article presents a modeling approach for industrial 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KGA) fed-batch fermentation by the mixed culture of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare (K. vulgare) and Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium). A macrokinetic model of K. vulgare is constructed based on the simplified metabolic pathways. The reaction rates obtained from the macrokinetic model are then coupled into a bioreactor model such that the relationship between substrate feeding rates and the main state variables, e.g., the concentrations of the biomass, substrate and product, is constructed. A differential evolution algorithm using the Lozi map as the random number generator is utilized to perform the model parameters identification, with the industrial data of 2-KGA fed-batch fermentation. Validation results demonstrate that the model simulations of substrate and product concentrations are well in coincidence with the measurements. Furthermore, the model simulations of biomass concentrations reflect principally the growth kinetics of the two microbes in the mixed culture.
Related JoVE Video
Acute and long-term toxicity of mango leaves extract in mice and rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The acute toxicity of mango leaves extract (MLE) at the maximal dose (18.4?g/kg) was studied in ICR mice and no abnormalities were detected during the experiment. The long-term studies at various doses of MLE (100?mg/kg, 300?mg/kg, and 900?mg/kg) in SD rats for 3 consecutive months revealed that, compared with the control group, rats in MLE treated groups showed slight body weight increase and higher fat weight; the serum TG and CHOL levels and the epididymis weight of male rats were a little higher; the serum K(+) level of female rats was on the low side but the weights of liver, kidney, and adrenal gland were on the high side. In addition to this, no other obvious abnormalities were detected.
Related JoVE Video
Protein-protein interaction analysis of distinct molecular pathways in two subtypes of colorectal carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the molecular events that distinguish serrated colorectal carcinoma (SCRC) from conventional colorectal carcinoma (CCRC) through differential gene expression, pathway and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. The GSE4045 and GSE8671 microarray datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We identified the genes that are differentially expressed between SCRC and normal colon tissues, CCRC and healthy tissues, and between SCRC and CCRC using Student's t-tests and Benjamini?Hochberg (BH) multiple testing corrections. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were then mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and their enrichment for specific pathways was investigated using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) tool with a significance threshold of 0.1. Analysis of the potential interactions between the protein products of 220 DEGs (between CCRC and SCRC) was performed by constructing a PPI network using data from the high performance RDF database (P<0.1). The interaction between pathways was also analyzed in CCRC based on the PPI network. Our study identified thousands of genes differentially expressed in SCRC and CCRC compared to healthy tissues. The DEGs in SCRC and CCRC were enriched in cell cycle, DNA replication, and base excision repair pathways. The proteasome pathway was significantly enriched in SCRC but not in CCRC after BH adjustment. The PPI network showed that tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and atrophin 1 (ATN1) were the most central genes in the network, with respective degrees of node predicted at 90 and 88. In conclusion, the preoteasome pathway was shown to be specifically enriched in SCRC. Furthermore, TRAF6 and ATN1 may be promising biomarkers for the distinction between serrated and conventional CRC.
Related JoVE Video
GABP?2 expression during osteogenic differentiation from human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.
Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation. Whether GA-binding protein ?2 (GABP?2), a member of the ETS family, is involved in osteogenic differentiation has not been previously reported. In the present study, directed differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells was induced and validated by examining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, presence of mineralized nodule and other phenotypic characteristics of the cells on days 0, 3, 6 and 9, thus establishing their osteogenic potential. Real-time PCR revealed that similarly to the bone-specific transcription factor Runx2, the expression of Gabpb2 in Saos-2 cells also peaked on day 3 and was significantly reduced on days 6 and 9. Immunocytochemical staining showed that changes in the immunoreactivity of GABP?2 also exhibited a similar trend to that of Runx2. Initially, Runx2 was predominantly localized in the nuclei, while GABP?2 was relatively diffuse. Both exhibited a significant increase in immunoreactivity on day 3, with presence in both the nuclei and cytoplasm. By day 6, both showed a significant decrease in immunoreactivity and were mainly localized in the nuclei. Therefore, we surmise that GABP?2, as an ETS family member, may play a regulatory role in early osteoblastic differentiation and potentially act in synergy with Runx2.
Related JoVE Video
Serum uric acid levels are associated with polymorphisms in the SLC2A9, SF1, and GCKR genes in a Chinese population.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genome-wide association studies have identified several novel loci associated with serum uric acid concentrations in individuals of European descent. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the associations between these loci and serum uric acid concentrations in a Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of immune cells and function of the residual spleen after subtotal splenectomy due to splenomegaly in cirrhotic patients.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundThe spleen is thought to be central in regulating the immune system, a metabolic asset involved in endocrine function. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection leads to a mortality rate of up to 50%. However, there is still controversy on performing subtotal splenectomy as treatment of splenomegaly due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. In the present study, immunocytes and the indexes of splenic size, hemodynamics, hematology and immunology in the residual spleen were analyzed to support subtotal splenectomy due to splenomegaly.ResultsIn residual spleen, T lymphocytes mainly were focal aggregation in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. While B lymphocytes densely distributed in splenic corpuscle. In red pulp, macrophages were equally distributed in the splenic cord and adhered to the wall of splenic sinus with high density. The number of unit area T and B lymphocytes of splenic corpuscle and marginal zone as well as macrophages of red pulp were obviously increased in the residual spleen, while the number of macrophages didn¿t be changed among the three groups in white pulp. While there were some beneficial changes (i.e., Counts of platelet and leucocyte as well as serum proportion of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells were increased markedly; serum levels of M-CSF and GM-CSF were decreased significantly; The proportion of granulocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte in bone marrow were changed obviously; But serum IgA, IgM, IgG, Tuftsin level, there was no significant difference; splenic artery flow volume, portal venous diameter and portal venous flow volume, a significant difference was observed in residual spleen) in the clinical indices.ConclusionAfter subtotal splenectomy with splenomegaly due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients, the number of unit area T and B lymphocytes, and MØ in red pulp of residual spleen increased significantly. However, whether increase of T, B lymphocytes and MØs in residual splenic tissue can enhance the immune function of the spleen, still need further research to confirm.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated autocrine EDIL3 protects hepatocellular carcinoma from anoikis through RGD-mediated integrin activation.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A remolded microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by abnormally expressed matricellular proteins could promote HCC progression. The cell-matrix interactions mediated by integrins play an important role in tumor microenvironment. Epidermal Growth Factor-like repeats and Discoidin I-Like Domains 3 (EDIL3), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein with angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, is abnormally highly expressed in HCC. Here we aim to analyze its expression in liver and HCC tissues, investigate the underlined mechanisms accounted for HCC progression.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.