Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by diverse clinical manifestations, few early warning signs and a resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although several clinical trials have investigated potential effective therapeutic strategies for RCC, the chemoresistance of RCC has not yet been overcome. An endogenous ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), was shown to induce apoptosis in RCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergistic effects of carcinostatics on the antitumor activity of 15d-PGJ2 in the Caki-2 human RCC cell line with the MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that the topoisomerase-II inhibitor etoposide (VP-16) exhibited cytotoxic effects synergistically with 15d-PGJ2. Furthermore, the presence of the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 did not protect Caki-2 cells against 15d-PGJ2-induced cytotoxicity. Additionally, it was observed that the combined treatment of VP-16 and 15d-PGJ2 activated caspase-3 more efficiently compared to each treatment alone. Therefore, the combined treatment with 15d-PGJ2 and VP-16 exhibited synergistic antitumor activity independently of PPAR?.
Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2s) are small secreted proteins (14-18 kDa) and require submillimolar levels of Ca(2+) for liberating arachidonic acid from cell membrane lipids. In addition to the enzymatic function, sPLA2 can exert various biological responses by binding to specific receptors. Physiologically, sPLA2s play important roles on the neurotransmission in the central nervous system and the neuritogenesis in the peripheral nervous system. Pathologically, sPLA2s are involved in the neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimers disease) and cerebrovascular diseases (e.g., stoke). The common pathology (e.g., neuronal apoptosis) of Alzheimers disease and stroke coexists in the mixed dementia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms of the two neurological diseases. Among mammalian sPLA2s, sPLA2-IB and sPLA2-IIA induce neuronal apoptosis in rat cortical neurons. The excess influx of calcium into neurons via L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels mediates the two sPLA2-induced apoptosis. The elevated concentration of intracellular calcium activates PKC, MAPK and cytosolic PLA2. Moreover, it is linked with the production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis through activation of the superoxide producing enzyme NADPH oxidase. NADPH oxidase is involved in the neurotoxicity of amyloid ? peptide, which impairs synaptic plasticity long before its deposition in the form of amyloid plaques of Alzheimers disease. In turn, reactive oxygen species from NADPH oxidase can stimulate ERK1/2 phosphorylation and activation of cPLA2 and result in a release of arachidonic acid. sPLA2 is up-regulated in both Alzheimers disease and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting the involvement of sPLA2 in the common pathogenic mechanisms of the two diseases. Thus, our review presents evidences for pathophysiological roles of sPLA2 in the central nervous system and neurological diseases.
In the ischemic brain, leukotrienes (LTs) are increased and their receptor antagonists protect neurons. However, it has not yet been sufficiently clarified how antagonists for LT receptors exhibit neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we evaluated protective effects of receptor antagonists for LTB4 (LY293111) and cysteinyl LTs (ONO-1078) in the primary culture of rat cortical neurons. The group IB secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IB)-induced neuronal cell death had been established as the in vitro model for cerebral ischemia. sPLA2-IB triggered the influx of Ca(2+) into neurons via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC). Subsequently, the enzyme produced eicosanoids including LTB4 before neuronal cell death. Neither administration of LTB4 nor cysteinyl LTs such as LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 killed neurons. However, both LY293111 and ONO-1078 significantly prevented neurons from the neurotoxicity of sPLA2-IB, suggesting that the two LT receptor blockers protected neurons through alternative pathways beside LT receptors. An L-VDCC blocker does not only inhibit the influx of Ca(2+) into neurons but also rescues neurons from the sPLA2-IB-induced neuronal cell death. The two LT receptor antagonists also blocked the sPLA2-IB-induced Ca(2+) influx significantly. Thus, LTs exhibited no neurotoxicity, but their receptor antagonists protected neurons directly in the in vitro ischemic model. Furthermore, the suppression of L-VDCC appeared to be involved in the neuroprotective effects of LY293111 and ONO-1078 independent of blocking their receptors.
Snake venom group IA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IA) is known as a neurotoxin. Snake venom sPLA2s are neurotoxic in vivo and in vitro, causing synergistic neurotoxicity to cortical cultures when applied with toxic concentrations of glutamate. However, it has not yet been cleared sufficiently how sPLA2-IA exerts neurotoxicity. Here, we found sPLA2-IA induced neuronal cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. This death was a delayed response requiring a latent time for 6h. sPLA2-IA-induced neuronal cell death was accompanied with apoptotic blebbing, condensed chromatin, and fragmented DNA, exhibiting apoptotic features. NMDA receptor blockers suppressed the neurotoxicity of sPLA2-IA, but an AMPA receptor blocker did not. Interestingly, L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC) blocker significantly protected neurons from the sPLA2-IA-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, neither N-VDCC blockers nor P/Q-VDCC blocker did. In conclusion, we demonstrated that sPLA2-IA induced neuronal cell death via apoptosis. Furthermore, the present study suggests that not only NMDA receptor but also L-VDCC contributed to the neurotoxicity of snake venom sPLA2-IA.
The ability to detect harmful chemicals rapidly is essential for the survival of all animals. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), repellents trigger an avoidance response, causing animals to move away from repellents. Dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) is a water-soluble repellent and nonflavonoid catecholic compound that can be found in plant products. Using a Xenopus laevis (X. laevis) oocyte expression system, we identified a candidate dihydrocaffeic acid receptor (DCAR), DCAR-1. DCAR-1 is a novel seven-transmembrane protein that is expressed in the ASH avoidance sensory neurons of C. elegans. dcar-1 mutant animals are defective in avoidance response to DHCA, and cell-specific expression of dcar-1 in the ASH neurons of dcar-1 mutant animals rescued the defect in avoidance response to DHCA. Our findings identify DCAR-1 as the first seven-transmembrane receptor required for avoidance of a water-soluble repellent, DHCA, in C. elegans.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is chemoresistant cancer. Although several clinical trials were conducted to explore effective medications, the chemoresistance of RCC has not yet been conquered. An endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), induces apoptosis in RCC. Here, we examined synergistic effects of several carcinostatics on the anti-tumor activity of 15d-PGJ(2) in Caki-2 cell line by MTT assay. A topoisomerase-I inhibitor, camptothecin (CPT), exhibited synergistically toxicity with 15d-PGJ(2), but neither 5-fluorouracil nor cisplatin did. The combination of 15d-PGJ(2) and a topoisomerase-II inhibitor, doxorubicine, did not cause synergistic cell growth inhibition. The synergistic effect of topoisomerase-I and II inhibitors was not also detected. A PPAR? antagonist, GW9662, did not prevent Caki-2 from undergoing 15d-PGJ(2)-induced cytotoxicity. The treatment of CPT combined with 15d-PGJ(2) activated caspase-3 more than the separate treatment. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) exhibited the anti-tumor activity synergistically with CPT independent of topoisomerase-II and PPAR?.
Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) have been examined as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. The aim was to investigate the cytotoxicity of troglitazone (TGZ) and its mechanisms in terms of PPAR? dependency and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in three human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines, 786-O, Caki-2 and ACHN cells. TGZ induced apoptosis and exerted cytotoxicity in a PPAR?-independent manner. We demonstrated that TGZ activated the p38 MAPK pathway and was involved in the cytotoxicity of TGZ. It was also revealed that TGZ induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest through activation of p38 MAPK.
15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) is one of factors contributed to the neurotoxicity of amyloid ? (A?), a causative protein of Alzheimers disease. Type 2 receptor for prostaglandin D(2) (DP2) and peroxysome-proliferator activated receptor? (PPAR?) are identified as the membrane receptor and the nuclear receptor for 15d-PGJ(2), respectively. Previously, we reported that the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ(2) was independent of DP2 and PPAR?, and suggested that 15d-PGJ(2) induced apoptosis through the novel specific binding sites of 15d-PGJ(2) different from DP2 and PPAR?. To relate the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ(2) to amyloidoses, we performed binding assay [(3)H]15d-PGJ(2) and specified targets for 15d-PGJ(2) associated with cytotoxicity. In the various cell lines, there was a close correlation between the susceptibilities to 15d-PGJ(2) and fibrillar A?. Specific binding sites of [(3)H]15d-PGJ(2) were detected in rat cortical neurons and human bronchial smooth muscle cells. When the binding assay was performed in subcellular fractions of neurons, the specific binding sites of [(3)H]15d-PGJ(2) were detected in plasma membrane, nuclear and cytosol, but not in microsome. A proteomic approach was used to identify protein targets for 15d-PGJ(2) in the plasma membrane. By using biotinylated 15d-PGJ(2), eleven proteins were identified as biotin-positive spots and classified into three different functional proteins: glycolytic enzymes (Enolase2, pyruvate kinase M1 (PKM1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)), molecular chaperones (heat shock protein 8 and T-complex protein 1 subunit ?), cytoskeletal proteins (Actin ?, F-actin-capping protein, Tubulin ? and Internexin ?). GAPDH, PKM1 and Tubulin ? are A?-interacting proteins. Thus, the present study suggested that 15d-PGJ(2) plays an important role in amyloidoses not only in the central nervous system but also in the peripheral tissues.
In the central nervous system, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is known to have important functions in cell survival and differentiation. In addition to its roles as a neurotrophic factor, we found that FGF2 caused cell death in the early primary culture of cortical neurons. FGF2-induced neuronal cell death showed apoptotic characters, e.g., chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. The ultrastructural morphology of FGF2-treated neurons indicated apoptotic features such as progressive cell shrinkage, blebbing of the plasma membrane, loss of cytosolic organelles, clumping of chromatin, and fragmentation of DNA. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors significantly rescued neurons from FGF2-induced apoptosis. FGF2 potentiated a marked influx of Ca(2+) into neurons before apoptosis. Both a calcium chelator and L-type voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel (L-VSCC) blockers attenuated FGF2-induced apoptosis, whereas other blockers of VSCCs such as N-type and P/Q-types did not. Blockers of L-VSCCs significantly suppressed FGF2-enhanced Ca(2+) influx into neurons. Moreover, FGF2 also generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) before apoptosis. Radical scavengers reduced not only the FGF2-generated ROS, but also the FGF2-induced Ca(2+) influx and apoptosis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FGF2 caused apoptosis via L-VSCCs in the early neuronal culture.
Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) have been examined as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. The aim was to investigate the cytotoxicity and action mechanisms of 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), one of endogenous ligands for PPAR?, in terms of PPAR?-dependency and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathway in three human renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-derived cell lines.
Adverse experiences in early life profoundly influence the developing nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, and also affect human behaviour during adult life and are considered in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Numerous studies have provided evidence that maternal deprivation in the middle of a stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP) causes multiple behavioural and physiological abnormalities that mimic positive symptoms of schizophrenia in humans. To investigate the neurochemical characteristics of maternal deprivation in the middle of the SHRP in the context of a possible animal model of the symptoms of schizophrenia, we examined calcineurin expression in the hippocampus of maternally deprived rats. To investigate other behavioural characteristics, we behaviourally phenotyped the rats by applying a comprehensive behavioural test battery. The results indicate that maternal deprivation in the middle of the SHRP has no effects on general health, neurological reflexes, sensory function, or motor function, but does have sex-specific effects on a type of anxiety-related behaviour in the open field test and male-specific effects on hippocampal calcineurin expression, social behaviour, and objective memory function. An interpretation of our results and previous studies in the context of the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that maternal deprivation in the middle of the SHRP in rats models some positive and negative aspects of schizophrenia. The findings regarding the sex-specific effects of maternal deprivation in the middle of the SHRP may become a strong tool for investigating sex differences in the pathogenesis and pathology of schizophrenia in humans.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been shown to be resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In order to examine the potential of zoledronate (ZOL), a bisphosphonate, as an anticancer agent, we investigated the effects of ZOL on RCC cells and the involvement of the mevalonate pathway in antiproliferative effects, as well as the effects of ZOL administration on mice inoculated with RCC. ACHN cells were used and cell viability was measured via intra-cellular reductase activity. Chromatin condensation was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining. Proteins were detected by western blot analysis. Tumor volume was measured bidimensionally in mice inoculated with ACHN cells after vehicle or ZOL subcutaneous administration. ZOL exhibited antiproliferative effects with an IC50 value of 2.29±0.53 µM in ACHN cells and chromatin condensation was observed when treated with ZOL. Farnesol (FOH) and geranylgeraniol (GGOH), precursors of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, exhibited potency to rescue cells treated with ZOL. Additionally, Ras and RhoA proteins located in the membrane fraction decreased when treated with ZOL and recovered by FOH or GGOH treatment, suggesting that ZOL inhibited the mevalonate pathway, thereby suppressing the translocation of prenylated Ras and RhoA proteins to membrane fractions. An in vivo study showed the inhibitory potential of ZOL on tumor growth in mice without changes in body weight. Our study showed that ZOL could be useful as an anticancer agent for the treatment of RCC, and the mevalonate pathway could be an efficient target for novel therapeutic agents against RCC.
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