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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Counteracting antibiotic resistance: breaking barriers among antibacterial strategies.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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To fight against antibiotic resistance, prevention-only is no longer an acceptable strategy. The old concept 'one-infection, one-bug, one-drug', genocentrism in antibiotic discovery, and lack of integration between different antimicrobial strategies have probably contributed to current weaknesses in confronting antibiotic resistance. Resistance should be combatted in all fronts simultaneously, in the patient (complex therapy), the group (where resistance is maintained), and the significant environment (polluted by resistance).
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Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N?=?1635) and Salmonella spp. (N?=?901) but also including Escherichia coli (N?=?368), Candida albicans (N?=?200), Klebsiella pneumoniae (N?=?60), Enterobacter spp. (N?=?54), Enterococcus faecium (N?=?53), and Enterococcus faecalis (N?=?56). From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs) and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC), E. coli (MBC and MIC) and S. aureus (MBC and MIC). There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.
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Co-transfer of resistance to high concentrations of copper and first-line antibiotics among Enterococcus from different origins (humans, animals, the environment and foods) and clonal lineages.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2013
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We studied the occurrence of diverse copper (Cu) tolerance genes from Gram-positive bacteria and their co-transfer with antibiotic resistance genes among Enterococcus from diverse sources.
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Spread of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus to animals and humans: an underestimated role for the pig farm environment.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The aim of this study was to discover the potential role of the pig farm environment in the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus strains, including high-risk clones, to animals and humans.
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Multiclonal dispersal of KPC genes following the emergence of non-ST258 KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in Madrid, Spain.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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To analyse the ongoing epidemiology of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae after a non-ST258 KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in a university hospital in Madrid, Spain.
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Antibiotic resistant enterococci-tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Enterococci have been recognized as important hospital-acquired pathogens in recent years, and isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are the third- to fourth-most prevalent nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Acquired resistances, especially against penicilin/ampicillin, aminoglycosides (high-level) and glycopeptides are therapeutically important and reported in increasing numbers. On the other hand, isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are commensals of the intestines of humans, many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and may also constitute an active part of the plant flora. Certain enterococcal isolates are used as starter cultures or supplements in food fermentation and food preservation. Due to their preferred intestinal habitat, their wide occurrence, robustness and ease of cultivation, enterococci are used as indicators for fecal pollution assessing hygiene standards for fresh- and bathing water and they serve as important key indicator bacteria for various veterinary and human resistance surveillance systems. Enterococci are widely prevalent and genetically capable of acquiring, conserving and disseminating genetic traits including resistance determinants among enterococci and related Gram-positive bacteria. In the present review we aimed at summarizing recent advances in the current understanding of the population biology of enterococci, the role mobile genetic elements including plasmids play in shaping the population structure and spreading resistance. We explain how these elements could be classified and discuss mechanisms of plasmid transfer and regulation and the role and cross-talk of enterococcal isolates from food and food animals to humans.
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Diversity and biofilm-production ability among isolates of Escherichia coli phylogroup D belonging to ST69, ST393 and ST405 clonal groups.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Phylogenetic group D Escherichia coli clones (ST69, ST393, ST405) are increasingly reported as multidrug resistant strains causing extra-intestinal infections. We aim to characterize inter- and intraclonal diversity of a broad sample (isolates from different geographic locations and origins with variable antibiotic resistance profiles, 1980-2010) and their ability to adhere and form biofilm by both a modified quantitative biofilm producing assay and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM).
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Microevolutionary events involving narrow host plasmids influences local fixation of vancomycin-resistance in Enterococcus populations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE) is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm) and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs) human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA) is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs) from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996-2008) was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA) by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1) and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHT?-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive) plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30-150 kb) with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1), and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like). TAs of Inc18 (?-?-?) and pRUM (Axe-Txe) plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full exploration of the local adaptive landscape, which might assure long-term maintenance of resistant clones and eventually fixation of Tn1546 in particular geographic areas.
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Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent "population biologies." Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of "clinical" antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi-level population biology of bacteria.
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Commensal Enterobacteriaceae as reservoirs of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, integrons, and sul genes in Portugal.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Bacteria colonizing the human intestine have a relevant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans from Portugal and analyzed the distribution of sul genes and class 1 and 2 integrons. Faecal samples (n = 113) were recovered from healthy persons (North/Centre of Portugal, 2001-2004) and plated on MacConkey agar with and without ceftazidime (1 mg/L) or cefotaxime (1 mg/L). Isolates representing different morphotypes/plate and antibiotic susceptibility patterns (n = 201) were selected. Isolates resistant to sulfonamides and/or streptomycin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim were screened (PCR and sequencing) for sul genes (sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integrons. Presence of ESBLs was inferred using the double disk synergy test (DDST) and further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. ESBL producers were selected for clonal analysis, plasmid characterization and conjugation assays by standard methods. ESBL-producing isolates were found in 1.8% (2/113) of samples, corresponding to Escherichia coli of phylogroups A (n = 1) and B1 (n = 1) carrying transferable bla CTX-M-14 and the new bla TEM-153, respectively. A 80kb IncK plasmid bearing bla CTX-M-14 was found, being highly related to that widely spread among CTX-M-14 producers of humans and animals from Portugal and other European countries. sul genes were found in 88% (22/25; sul2-60%, sul1-48%, sul3-4%) of the sulfonamide resistant isolates. Class 1 integrons were more frequently found than class 2 (7%, 14/201 vs. 3%, 6/201). Interestingly, gene cassette arrangements within these platforms were identical to those commonly observed among Enterobacteriaceae from Portuguese food-producing animals, although aadA13 is here firstly described in Morganella morganii. These results reinforce the relevance of human commensal flora as reservoir of clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes including bla ESBLs, and highly transferable genetic platforms as IncK epidemic plasmids.
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Insight into antimicrobial susceptibility and population structure of contemporary human Enterococcus faecalis isolates from Europe.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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To investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal relatedness of Enterococcus faecalis human isolates recovered recently (2006-09) in six European countries.
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Dissemination of blaKPC-2 by the spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae clonal complex 258 clones (ST258, ST11, ST437) and plasmids (IncFII, IncN, IncL/M) among Enterobacteriaceae species in Brazil.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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This article reports the spread of bla(KPC-2) in the Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states, facilitated by globally spread K. pneumoniae clonal complex 258 (CC258) clones (ST258, ST11, and ST437) and a diversity of plasmids (IncFII, IncN, and IncL/M, two untypeable plasmids carrying Tn4401a or Tn4401b) successfully disseminated among species of the Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii). It also constitutes the first description of sequence type 258 (ST258) in Brazil, which was associated with a nosocomial hospital outbreak in Ribeirao Preto city.
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Ecology and evolution as targets: the need for novel eco-evo drugs and strategies to fight antibiotic resistance.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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In recent years, the explosive spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic, commensal, and environmental bacteria has reached a global dimension. Classical measures trying to contain or slow locally the progress of antibiotic resistance in patients on the basis of better antibiotic prescribing policies have clearly become insufficient at the global level. Urgent measures are needed to directly confront the processes influencing antibiotic resistance pollution in the microbiosphere. Recent interdisciplinary research indicates that new eco-evo drugs and strategies, which take ecology and evolution into account, have a promising role in resistance prevention, decontamination, and the eventual restoration of antibiotic susceptibility. This minireview summarizes what is known and what should be further investigated to find drugs and strategies aiming to counteract the "four Ps," penetration, promiscuity, plasticity, and persistence of rapidly spreading bacterial clones, mobile genetic elements, or resistance genes. The term "drug" is used in this eco-evo perspective as a tool to fight resistance that is able to prevent, cure, or decrease potential damage caused by antibiotic resistance, not necessarily only at the individual level (the patient) but also at the ecological and evolutionary levels. This view offers a wealth of research opportunities for science and technology and also represents a large adaptive challenge for regulatory agencies and public health officers. Eco-evo drugs and interventions constitute a new avenue for research that might influence not only antibiotic resistance but the maintenance of a healthy interaction between humans and microbial systems in a rapidly changing biosphere.
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Non-susceptibility to tigecycline in enterococci from hospitalised patients, food products and community sources.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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In this study, the in vitro activity of tigecycline against 1140 enterococci collected from humans, food products, animals and the environment in Portugal (1996-2008) was analysed. Ten isolates (seven Enterococcus faecalis and three Enterococcus spp.) non-susceptible to tigecycline (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/L), which were also resistant to tetracycline and minocycline, were mostly observed in samples collected before the introduction of tigecycline in the therapeutic arsenal. The E. faecalis isolates were recovered from hospitalised patients (n=2; ST319/CC2 and ST34), healthy humans (n=2; ST21/CC21), chicken meat (n=1; ST260) as well as from two swine samples. The remaining isolates were also recovered from chicken meat (n=1; Enterococcus gallinarum) and swine (n=2; Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus spp.). Recovery of enterococcal isolates with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline amongst different reservoirs, including animals for food consumption, suggests that selection of tigecycline-resistant isolates by antibiotics other than tigecycline might occur in non-clinical settings.
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Association of composite IS26-sul3 elements with highly transmissible IncI1 plasmids in extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli clones from humans.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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The association of an IS440-sul3 platform with Tn21 class 1 integrons carried by IncI1 plasmids encoding extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs; mainly SHV-12 and CTX-M-14) among worldwide Escherichia coli clones of phylogroups A (ST10, ST23, and ST46), B1 (ST155, ST351, and ST359), and D/B2 (ST131) is reported. An in silico comparative analysis of sul3 elements available in the GenBank database shows the evolution of sul3 platforms by hosting different transposable elements facilitating the potential genesis of IS26 composite transposons and further insertion element-mediated promoted arrangements.
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Human and swine hosts share vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium CC17 and CC5 and Enterococcus faecalis CC2 clonal clusters harboring Tn1546 on indistinguishable plasmids.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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VRE isolates from pigs (n = 29) and healthy persons (n = 12) recovered during wide surveillance studies performed in Portugal, Denmark, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States (1995 to 2008) were compared with outbreak/prevalent VRE clinical strains (n = 190; 23 countries; 1986 to 2009). Thirty clonally related Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 5 (CC5) isolates (17 sequence type 6 [ST6], 6 ST5, 5 ST185, 1 ST147, and 1 ST493) were obtained from feces of swine and healthy humans. This collection included isolates widespread among pigs of European Union (EU) countries since the mid-1990s. Each ST comprised isolates showing similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns (?6 bands difference; >82% similarity). Some CC5 PFGE subtype strains from swine were indistinguishable from hospital vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) causing infections. A truncated variant of Tn1546 (encoding resistance to vancomycin) and tcrB (coding for resistance to copper) were consistently located on 150- to 190-kb plasmids (rep(pLG1)). E. faecium CC17 (ST132) isolates from pig manure and two clinical samples showed identical PFGE profiles and contained a 60-kb mosaic plasmid (rep(Inc18) plus rep(pRUM)) carrying diverse Tn1546-IS1216 variants. The only Enterococcus faecalis isolate obtained from pigs (CC2-ST6) corresponded to a multidrug-resistant clone widely disseminated in hospitals in Italy, Portugal, and Spain, and both animal and human isolates harbored an indistinguishable 100-kb mosaic plasmid (rep(pRE25) plus rep(pCF10)) containing the whole Tn1546 backbone. The results indicate a current intra- and international spread of E. faecium and E. faecalis clones and their plasmids among swine and humans.
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Host range of enterococcal vanA plasmids among Gram-positive intestinal bacteria.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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The most prevalent type of acquired glycopeptide resistance is encoded by the vanA transposon Tn1546 located mainly on transferable plasmids in Enterococcus faecium. The limited occurrence in other species could be due to the lack of inter-species transferability and/or stability of Tn1546-containing plasmids in other species. We investigated the in vitro transferability of 14 pre-characterized vanA-containing plasmids hosted by E. faecium (n = 9), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 4) and Enterococcus raffinosus (n = 1) into several enterococcal, lactobacterial, lactococcal and bifidobacterial recipients.
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Emergence of an IncI? plasmid encoding CMY-2 ß-lactamase associated with the international ST19 OXA-30-producing ß-lactamase Salmonella Typhimurium multidrug-resistant clone.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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To analyse the genetic environment of the bla(CMY-2) gene in a multidrug-resistant isolate belonging to the OXA-30-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium clone widespread in European countries.
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Emergence of bla KPC-3-Tn4401a associated with a pKPN3/4-like plasmid within ST384 and ST388 Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in Spain.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2010
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KPC carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates have been increasingly detected in Europe. We report the first KPC-producing isolates characterized in Madrid, Spain.
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Population analysis and epidemiological features of inhibitor-resistant-TEM-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from both community and hospital settings in Madrid, Spain.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Punctual mutations in the TEM-1 or TEM-2 gene may lead to inhibitor-resistant-TEM (IRT) beta-lactamases with resistance to beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and susceptibility to cephalosporins. The aim of this work was to analyze the current epidemiology of IRT beta-lactamases in contemporary clinical Escherichia coli. Isolates were prospectively collected in our hospital (2007 and 2008) from both outpatients (59.8%) and hospitalized patients (40.2%). The genetic relationships of the isolates were determined by XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and phylogenetic group analysis. IRT genes were sequenced and located by hybridization, and the incompatibility group of the plasmids was determined. From a total of 3,556 E. coli isolates recovered during the study period, 152 (4.3%) showed reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanate, with 18 of them producing IRT enzymes (0.5%). These were mostly recovered from urine (77.8%). A high degree of IRT diversity was detected (TEM-30, -32, -33, -34, -36, -37, -40, and -54), and the isolates were clonally unrelated but were mostly associated with phylogenetic group B2 (55.5%). In 12 out of 16 (75%) isolates, the bla(IRT) gene was plasmid located and transferred by conjugation in 9 of them, whereas chromosomal localization was demonstrated in 4 isolates (25%). The sizes of the plasmids ranged from 40 kb (IncN) to 100 kb (IncFII, IncFI/FIIA), and they showed different restriction patterns by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Unlike extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers, the frequency of IRT producers remains low in both community and hospital settings, with most of them causing urinary tract infections. Although bla(IRT) genes are mainly associated with plasmids, they can be also located in the chromosome. Despite this situation, clonal expansion and/or gene dispersion was not observed, denoting the independent emergence of these enzymes.
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A multiresistance megaplasmid pLG1 bearing a hylEfm genomic island in hospital Enterococcus faecium isolates.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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Enterococcus faecium is considered to be a nosocomial pathogen with increasing medical importance. The putative virulence factor, hyl(Efm), encoding a putative hyaluronidase, is enriched among the hospital-associated polyclonal subpopulation of E. faecium.. The hyl(Efm) gene is described to be part of a genomic island and was recently identified to be plasmid-located. Here, we present a description of the structure, localization, and distribution of the putative pathogenicity factor hyl(Efm) and its putative island among 39 clinical isolates and elucidate the composition and host range of pLG1, a hyl(Efm) multiresistance plasmid of approximately 281.02kb. The hyl(Efm) gene was located within a 17,824-bp element highly similar to the putative genomic island (GI) structure that had been previously described. This genomic region was conserved among 39 hyl(Efm)-positive strains with variation in a specific region downstream of hyl(Efm) in 18 strains. The putative hyl(Efm) was located on large plasmids (150-350kb) in 37 strains. pLG1 could be horizontally transferred into four different E. faecium recipient strains (n=4) but not into E. faecalis (n=3). Sequencing of pLG1 resolved putative plasmid replication, conjugation, and maintenance determinants as well as a pilin gene cluster, carbon uptake and utilization genes, heavy metal and antibiotic resistance clusters. The hyl(Efm) transferable plasmid pLG1 bears additional putative pathogenicity factors and antibiotic resistance genes. These findings suggest horizontal gene transfer of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance gene clusters by a single genetic event (conjugative transfer) which might be triggered by heavy antibiotic use common in health care units where E. faecium is increasingly prevalent.
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Global spread of the hyl(Efm) colonization-virulence gene in megaplasmids of the Enterococcus faecium CC17 polyclonal subcluster.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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Enterococcus faecium has increasingly been reported as a nosocomial pathogen since the early 1990s, presumptively associated with the expansion of a human-associated Enterococcus faecium polyclonal subcluster known as clonal complex 17 (CC17) that has progressively acquired different antibiotic resistance (ampicillin and vancomycin) and virulence (esp(Efm), hyl(Efm), and fms) traits. We analyzed the presence and the location of a putative glycoside hydrolase hyl(Efm) gene among E. faecium strains obtained from hospitalized patients (255 patients; outbreak, bacteremic, and/or disseminated isolates from 23 countries and five continents; 1986 to 2009) and from nonclinical origins (isolates obtained from healthy humans [25 isolates], poultry [30], swine [90], and the environment [55]; 1999 to 2007). Clonal relatedness was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Plasmid analysis included determination of content and size (S1-PFGE), transferability (filter mating), screening of Rep initiator proteins (PCR), and location of vanA, vanB, ermB, and hyl(Efm) genes (S1/I-CeuI hybridization). Most E. faecium isolates contained large plasmids (>150 kb) and showed variable contents of van, hyl(Efm), or esp(Efm). The hyl(Efm) gene was associated with megaplasmids (170 to 375 kb) of worldwide spread (ST16, ST17, and ST18) or locally predominant (ST192, ST203, ST280, and ST412) ampicillin-resistant CC17 clones collected in the five continents since the early 1990s. All but one hyl(Efm)-positive isolate belonged to the CC17 polyclonal subcluster. The presence of hyl(Efm) megaplasmids among CC17 from Europe, Australia, Asia, and Africa since at least the mid-1990s was documented. This study further demonstrates the pandemic expansion of particular CC17 clones before acquisition of vancomycin resistance and putative virulence traits and describes the presence of megaplasmids in most of the contemporary E. faecium isolates with different origins.
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Assessment of prevalence and changing epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae fecal carriers using a chromogenic medium.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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Five hundred fecal samples from 462 patients (68.4% ambulatory) (February-April, 2007) from Madrid (Spain) were screened for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers using ceftazidime and cefotaxime (1 mg/L) MacConkey (MAC) agar plates and a chromogenic media (chromID ESBL; bioMérieux, Marcy-lEtoile, France). bla(ESBL), qnr, aac(6)Ib-cr, and 16S rRNA methylase genes were assessed. A prevalence of 8.2% of ESBL fecal carriers was observed (8.9% hospitalized, 7.9% nonhospitalized patients), higher than that previously observed (1991, 0.6%; 2003, 7.0%). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicted values were 100%, 94.8%, 63%, and 100% for chromID ESBL and 87.8%, 89.8%, 43.4%, and 98.9% for MAC, respectively. ESBL distribution was as follows: CTX-M-9-group, 40% (mainly CTX-M-14); CTX-M-1-group, 26.6% (mainly CTX-M-15); SHV-type, 29% (mainly SHV-12); and TEM-type, 4.4%. These enzymes were found in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis nonclonally related Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Transferable quinolone resistance was confirmed in CTX-M-9 (qnrS1), CTX-M-15 [aac(6)Ib-cr, qnrS1], and SHV-12 (qnrB7, qnrS1) producers but not 16S rRNA methylase genes. The chromID ESBL medium was reliable to screen ESBL fecal carriers with a general decrease in the laboratory workload. Time-to-time monitoring of ESBL fecal carriers is useful to ascertain current trend of ESBL epidemiology.
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Evolutionary trajectories of beta-lactamase CTX-M-1 cluster enzymes: predicting antibiotic resistance.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) constitute a key antibiotic-resistance mechanism affecting Gram-negative bacteria, and also an excellent model for studying evolution in real time. A shift in the epidemiology of ESBLs is being observed, which is characterized by the explosive diversification and increase in frequency of the CTX-M-type beta-lactamases in different settings. This provides a unique opportunity for studying a protein evolutionary radiation by the sequential acquisition of specific mutations enhancing protein efficiency and fitness concomitantly. The existence of driver antibiotic molecules favoring protein divergence has been investigated by combining evolutionary analyses and experimental site-specific mutagenesis. Phylogenetic reconstruction with all the CTX-M variants described so far provided a hypothetical evolutionary scenario showing at least three diversification events. CTX-M-3 was likely the enzyme at the origin of the diversification in the CTX-M-1 cluster, which was coincident with positive selection acting on several amino acid positions. Sixty-three CTX-M-3 derivatives containing all combinations of mutations under positively selected positions were constructed, and their phenotypic efficiency was evaluated. The CTX-M-3 diversification process can only be explained in a complex selective landscape with at least two antibiotics (cefotaxime and ceftazidime), indicating the need to invoke mixtures of selective drivers in order to understand the final evolutionary outcome. Under this hypothesis, we found congruent results between the in silico and in vitro analyses of evolutionary trajectories. Three pathways driving the diversification of CTX-M-3 towards the most complex and efficient variants were identified. Whereas the P167S pathway has limited possibilities of further diversification, the D240G route shows a robust diversification network. In the third route, drift may have played a role in the early stages of CTX-M-3 evolution. Antimicrobial agents should not be considered only as selectors for efficient mechanisms of resistance but also as diversifying agents of the evolutionary trajectories. Different trajectories were identified using a combination of phylogenetic reconstructions and directed mutagenesis analyses, indicating that such an approach might be useful to fulfill the desirable goal of predicting evolutionary trajectories in antimicrobial resistance.
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International spread and persistence of TEM-24 is caused by the confluence of highly penetrating enterobacteriaceae clones and an IncA/C2 plasmid containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2009
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TEM-24 remains one of the most widespread TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae. To analyze the reasons influencing its spread and persistence, a multilevel population genetics study was carried out on 28 representative TEM-24 producers from Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain (13 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, 6 Escherichia coli isolates, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 2 Proteus mirabilis isolates, and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, from 1998 to 2004). Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and E. coli phylogroups) and antibiotic susceptibility were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid analysis included determination of the incompatibility group (by PCR, hybridization, and/or sequencing) and comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Characterization of genetic elements conferring antibiotic resistance included integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) and transposons (Tn3, Tn21, and Tn402). Similar PFGE patterns were identified among E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, while E. coli strains were diverse (phylogenetic groups A, B2, and D). Highly related 180-kb IncA/C2 plasmids conferring resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides were identified. Each plasmid contained defective In0-Tn402 (dfrA1-aadA1, aacA4, or aacA4-aacC1-orfE-aadA2-cmlA1) and In4-Tn402 (aacA4 or dfrA1-aadA1) variants. These integrons were located within Tn21, Tn1696, or hybrids of these transposons, with IS5075 interrupting their IRtnp and IRmer. In all cases, blaTEM-24 was part of an IS5075-DeltaTn1 transposon within tnp1696, mimicking other genetic elements containing blaTEM-2 and blaTEM-3 variants. The international dissemination of TEM-24 is fuelled by an IncA/C2 plasmid acquired by different enterobacterial clones which seem to evolve by gaining diverse genetic elements. This work highlights the risks of a confluence between highly penetrating clones and highly promiscuous plasmids in the spread of antibiotic resistance, and it contributes to the elucidation of the origin and evolution of TEM-2 ESBL derivatives.
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Dispersal of carbapenemase blaVIM-1 gene associated with different Tn402 variants, mercury transposons, and conjugative plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2009
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The emergence of bla(VIM-1) within four different genetic platforms from distinct Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in an area with a low prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase producers is reported. Forty-three VIM-1-producing isolates (including 19 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 Escherichia coli, and 2 P. aeruginosa isolates, 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate, and 2 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate) recovered from 2005 to 2007 and corresponding to 15 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were studied. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates corresponded to a hospital outbreak, and the P. aeruginosa isolates were sporadically recovered. The genetic context of the integrons carrying bla(VIM-1) (arbitrarily designated types A, B, C, and D) was characterized by PCR mapping based on known Tn402 and mercury transposons and further sequencing. Among Enterobacteriaceae isolates, bla(VIM-1) was part of integrons located either in an In2-Tn402 element linked to Tn21 (type A; In110-bla(VIM-1)-aacA4-aadA1) or in a Tn402 transposon lacking the whole tni module [type B; In113-bla(VIM-1)-aacA4-dhfrII (also called dfrB1)-aadA1-catB2] and the transposon was associated with an IncHI2 or IncI1 plasmid, respectively. Among P. aeruginosa isolates, bla(VIM-1) was part of a new gene cassette array located in a defective Tn402 transposon carrying either tniBDelta3 and tniA (type C; bla(VIM-1)-aadA1) or tniC and DeltatniQ (type D; bla(VIM-1)-aadB), and both Tn402 variants were associated with conjugative plasmids of 30 kb. The dissemination of bla(VIM-1) was associated with different genetic structures and bacterial hosts, depicting a complex emergence and evolutionary network scenario in our facility, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Knowledge of the complex epidemiology of bla(VIM-1) is necessary to control this emerging threat.
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Spread of bla(CTX-M-14) is driven mainly by IncK plasmids disseminated among Escherichia coli phylogroups A, B1, and D in Spain.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2009
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Since its first description in 2000, CTX-M-14 has become one of the most widespread extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Spain. In the present Escherichia coli multilevel population genetic study involving the characterization of phylogroups, clones, plasmids, and genetic platforms, 61 isolates from 16 hospitalized patients and 40 outpatients and healthy volunteers recovered from 2000 to 2005 were analyzed. Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] type, phylogenetic group, multilocus sequence type [MLST]) was established by standard methods. Analysis of transferred plasmids (I-CeuI; S1 nuclease; restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; and analysis of RNA interference, replicase, and relaxase) was performed by PCR, sequencing, and hybridization. The genetic environment of bla(CTX-M-14) was characterized by PCR on the basis of known associated structures (ISEcp1, IS903, ISCR1). The isolates were mainly recovered from patients in the community (73.8%; 45/61) with urinary tract infections (62.2%; 28/45). They were clonally unrelated by PFGE and corresponded to phylogenetic groups A (36.1%), D (34.4%), and B1 (29.5%). MLST revealed a high degree of sequence type (ST) diversity among phylogroup D isolates and the overrepresentation of the ST10 complex among phylogroup A isolates and ST359/ST155 among phylogroup B1 isolates. Two variants of bla(CTX-M-14) previously designated bla(CTX-M-14a) (n = 59/61) and bla(CTX-M-14b) (n = 2/61) were detected. bla(CTX-M-14a) was associated with either ISEcp1 within IncK plasmids (n = 27), ISCR1 linked to an IncHI2 plasmid (n = 1), or ISCR1 linked to IncI-like plasmids (n = 3). The bla(CTX-M-14b) identified was associated with an ISCR1 element located in an IncHI2 plasmid (n = 1) or with ISEcp1 located in IncK (n = 1). The CTX-M-14-producing E. coli isolates in our geographic area are frequent causes of community-acquired urinary tract infections. The increase in the incidence of such isolates is mostly due to the dissemination of IncK plasmids among E. coli isolates of phylogroups A, B1, and D.
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[Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a hospital in northern Spain. Molecular characterization and clinical epidemiology].
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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Glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus spp. is a clinical problem because of the rapid dissemination of these microorganisms, possible transfer of vancomycin resistance to more virulent pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, and the limited therapeutic possibilities for the infections they cause. In this study, 10 strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from 10 different patients in our hospital during 2004 to 2005 were characterized.
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Dispersion of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to major clonal complexes in different Portuguese settings.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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The population structure of 56 Enterococcus faecium isolates selected from a collection of enterococci from humans, animals, and the environment in Portugal (1997 to 2007) was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. We identified 41 sequence types clustering into CC17, CC5, CC9, CC22 and CC94, all clonal lineages comprising isolates from different hosts. Our findings highlight the role of community-associated hosts as reservoirs of enterococci able to cause human infections.
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Clonal expansion within clonal complex 2 and spread of vancomycin-resistant plasmids among different genetic lineages of Enterococcus faecalis from Portugal.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of Enterococcus faecalis populations recovered in different regions of Portugal during the last decade (1996-2007) and to analyse their genetic elements associated with vancomycin resistance.
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Longer intestinal persistence of Enterococcus faecalis compared to Enterococcus faecium clones in intensive-care-unit patients.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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The dynamics of intestinal colonization with enterococcal clones in intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients was evaluated. Eight patients admitted directly to the neurosurgical ICU at the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) from the community and with no overlapping stay during a 10-month period in 2006 were studied. Rectal swab specimens were collected on admission and daily until the patients were discharged. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Clonal colonization dynamics were estimated by using two new parameters: the clonal diversity per patient per day (CDPD) and the clonal persistence ratio (CPR). Enterococcus faecalis isolates (n = 123) and Enterococcus faecium isolates (n = 66) were resolved into 13 and 15 clones, respectively. The CDPD of E. faecalis steadily increased during admission, and E. faecalis showed a higher (P = 0.001) CPR value than E. faecium (0.86 and 0.42, respectively). E. faecium, with the exception of an ampicillin-resistant clone belonging to clonal complex 17, frequently appeared as a short-term colonizer, even though the E. faecalis clones had significantly (P = 0.03) more days under antibiotic exposure than E. faecium (77.5 and 65 days/100 colonization days, respectively). E. faecalis had a longer persistence than E. faecium, except for the CC17 ampicillin-resistant clone, and E. faecalis showed a cumulative increase in CDPD, whereas E. faecium did not. CDPD and CPR were useful for measuring the dynamics of intestinal colonization with enterococcal clones.
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Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Spain belong to a large variety of multilocus sequence typing types, including ST10 complex/A, ST23 complex/A and ST131/B2.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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In this study, we investigated the population structure of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in Spain and determined possible associations between specific multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types and ESBL types. Ninety-two ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from 11 Spanish hospitals were studied. The predominant ESBLs in this collection were CTX-M-14 (45.7%), SHV-12 (21.7%) and CTX-M-9 (20.6%). Phylogenetic groups and MLST types were studied. Thirty-seven isolates (40.2%) belonged to phylogroup A, 26 (28.3%) to group B1, 13 (14.1%) to group B2 and 16 (17.4%) to group D. Fifty-six sequence types (STs) were identified, but ST131 (eight isolates) and ST167 (five isolates) were the most prevalent. The most common ST complexes were ST10 (13 isolates; 14.3%) and ST23 (10 isolates; 11%). Escherichia coli ST131 carried six different ESBLs (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-10, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-15 and SHV-12), E. coli ST10 complex carried five ESBLs and E. coli ST23 complex carried four ESBLs. A great diversity of MLST types was observed among Spanish ESBL-producing E. coli isolates.
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Large clonal outbreak of multidrug-resistant CC17 ST17 Enterococcus faecium containing Tn5382 in a Spanish hospital.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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A large clonal outbreak of multidrug-resistant CC17 ST17 Enterococcus faecium containing Tn5382 in a hospital in the north of Spain is described.
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Characterization of plasmids encoding blaESBL and surrounding genes in Spanish clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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The aim of the study was to characterize plasmids that harbour blaESBL genes and their genetic environment in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clones circulating in Spain.
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Public health risks of enterobacterial isolates producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or AmpC ?-lactamases in food and food-producing animals: an EU perspective of epidemiology, analytical methods, risk factors, and control options.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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The blaESBL and blaAmpC genes in Enterobacteriaceae are spread by plasmid-mediated integrons, insertion sequences, and transposons, some of which are homologous in bacteria from food animals, foods, and humans. These genes have been frequently identified in Escherichia coli and Salmonella from food animals, the most common being blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCMY-2. Identification of risk factors for their occurrence in food animals is complex. In addition to generic antimicrobial use, cephalosporin usage is an important risk factor for selection and spread of these genes. Extensive international trade of animals is a further risk factor. There are no data on the effectiveness of individual control options in reducing public health risks. A highly effective option would be to stop or restrict cephalosporin usage in food animals. Decreasing total antimicrobial use is also of high priority. Implementation of measures to limit strain dissemination (increasing farm biosecurity, controls in animal trade, and other general postharvest controls) are also important.
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Different genetic supports for the tet(S) gene in Enterococci.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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The diversity of tet(S) genetic contexts of 13 enterococci from human, animal, and environmental samples from different geographical areas is reported. The tet(S) gene was linked to either CTn6000 variants of chromosomal location or composite platforms flanked by IS1216 located on plasmids (?40 to 115 kb). The comparative analysis of all tet(S) genetic elements available in the GenBank databases suggests that CTn6000 might be the origin of a variety of tet(S)-carrying platforms that were mobilized to different plasmids.
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Characterization of globally spread Escherichia coli ST131 isolates (1991 to 2010).
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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The characterization of a broad representative sample of ST131 Escherichia coli isolates from different origins and settings (1991 to 2010) revealed that this clonal group has likely diversified recently and that the expansion of particular variants has probably been favored by the capture of diverse, multidrug-resistant IncFII plasmids (pC15-1a, pEK499, pKF3-140-like). The low ability to adhere and to grow as biofilm that was detected in this study suggests unknown mechanisms for the persistence of this clonal group which need to be further explored.
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Fecal carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: a hidden reservoir in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Fecal carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has not been extensively investigated, except in the cases of selected patients at risk, mostly during outbreaks. A total of 1,100 fecal samples randomly collected in our institution in two different periods in 2006 (n = 600) and 2009-2010 (n = 500) from hospitalized (26.8%) and nonhospitalized (73.2%) patients were screened for CPE. The first period coincided with an outbreak of VIM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the second one coincided with the emergence of KPC enzymes in our hospital. Diluted samples in saline were cultured in Luria-Bertani broth with 1 ?g/ml imipenem and subcultured in MacConkey agar plates with 4 ?g/ml ceftazidime. Growing colonies were screened for CPE (modified Hodge test and EDTA and boronic acid synergy tests). Carbapenemase genes, plasmids in which they are located, and clonal relatedness were determined. Individuals who exhibited fecal carriage of CPE (11/1,043, 1.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 1.88) included 8 hospitalized (carriage rate, 2.9%; 95% CI, 1.24 to 5.55) and 3 nonhospitalized patients (carriage rate, 0.4%; 95% CI, 0.08 to 1.14), the latter being identified in 2009. Eighty-two percent of colonized patients were not infected with CPE. Isolates harboring bla(VIM-1) with or without bla(SHV-12) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 8; ST39, ST688, ST253, and ST163), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 3; two pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] types), Escherichia coli (n = 2; ST155 and ST2441), and Citrobacter freundii (n = 1). Some of these lineages had previously been detected in our institution. The bla(VIM-1) gene was a member of the class 1 integrons In110 (bla(VIM-1)-aacA4-aadA1) and In113 (bla(VIM-1)-aacA4-dhfrII) located on plasmids IncN (n = 11; 30 to 50 kb) and IncHI2 (n = 3; 300 kb), respectively. Dissemination of bla(VIM-1) class-1 integrons within highly transferable plasmids in a polyclonal population has potentially contributed to the maintenance and spread of CPE.
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Contribution of IncFII and broad-host IncA/C and IncN plasmids to the local expansion and diversification of phylogroup B2 Escherichia coli ST131 clones carrying blaCTX-M-15 and qnrS1 genes.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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The recent increase of CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolates in our institution was caused by diverse clonal backgrounds, including mainly B2 sequence type 131 (ST131) clones presenting variable virulence profiles but also A(1) (ST617, ST410), B1, and D(1) (ST405) clones. Besides IncFII-pC15-1a, we detected multidrug-resistant IncA/C(2) and IncN plasmids carrying bla(CTX-M-15) and/or qnrS1. Our study highlights the diversification of highly transmissible resistant and virulent clones and the recombinogenic potential of broad-host plasmids contributing to the expansion of genetic regions coding for multidrug resistance to other bacterial lineages.
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Clonal outbreak of ST17 multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium harbouring an Inc18-like::Tn1546 plasmid in a haemo-oncology ward of a Spanish hospital.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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To report a clonal outbreak of ST17 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) carrying Tn1546 (vanA) in a haemo-oncology ward of a tertiary teaching hospital in the south of Spain (January-September 2009).
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