TP53 mutations in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be associated with worse survival but their prognostic role in advanced NSCLC is controversial. In addition, it remains unclear whether mutated patients represent a clinically homogeneous group.
Vorinostat or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with demonstrated antiproliferative effects due to drug-induced accumulation of acetylated proteins, including the heat shock protein 90. We prospectively studied the activity of vorinostat plus erlotinib in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients with progression to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations (G719X, exon 19 deletions/insertions, L858R, and L861Q) predict favorable responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations (~10% of all EGFR mutations) are generally associated with insensitivity to available TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib). The basis of this primary resistance is poorly understood. We studied a broad subset of exon 20 insertion mutations, comparing in vitro TKI sensitivity with responses to gefitinib and erlotinib in NSCLC patients, and found that most are resistant to EGFR TKIs. The crystal structure of a representative TKI-insensitive mutant (D770_N771insNPG) reveals an unaltered adenosine triphosphate-binding pocket, and the inserted residues form a wedge at the end of the C helix that promotes the active kinase conformation. Unlike EGFR-L858R, D770_N771insNPG activates EGFR without increasing its affinity for EGFR TKIs. Unexpectedly, we find that EGFR-A763_Y764insFQEA is highly sensitive to EGFR TKIs in vitro, and patients whose NSCLCs harbor this mutation respond to erlotinib. Analysis of the A763_Y764insFQEA mutant indicates that the inserted residues shift the register of the C helix in the N-terminal direction, altering the structure in the region that is also affected by the TKI-sensitive EGFR-L858R. Our studies reveal intricate differences between EGFR mutations, their biology, and their response to EGFR TKIs.
We sought to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients with lung cancer harboring NRAS mutations. We used preclinical models to identify targeted therapies likely to be of benefit against NRAS-mutant lung cancer cells.
Lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR activating mutations attain improved progression-free survival (PFS) with treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, patients ultimately relapse, indicating that other genetic factors could influence outcome in such patients. We hypothesized that PFS could be influenced by the expression of genes in DNA repair pathways.
The optimal schedule and regimen of chemotherapy (CT) in association with chemoradiation has not been established in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have compared three schedules of non-platinum-based CT plus either radiotherapy or chemoradiation. From May 2001 to June 2006, 158 patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC were enrolled in a randomized phase II trial with overall response rate (ORR) as the primary endpoint. The initial design included three arms: sequential CT followed by thoracic radiation (TRT); concurrent CT/TRT followed by consolidation CT; and induction CT followed by concurrent CT/TRT. However, based on the preliminary results of the RTOG 9410 trial, the sequential arm was closed when 19 patients had been enrolled. All patients received two cycles of docetaxel 40 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8 plus gemcitabine 1200 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8, as either induction or consolidation therapy. Concurrent CT/TRT consisted of docetaxel 20 mg/m(2) and carboplatin AUC 2 weekly plus 60 Gy TRT. No differences were found in ORR between the two arms (56% and 57%). Hematological toxicity was mild but significantly superior with consolidation CT; the esophagitis rate was similar in both arms (16% and 15%). With a median follow-up of 57 months, no differences were found in median survival (13.07 and 13.8 months) or 5-year survival (16.4% and 22%). This regimen cannot be recommended as an alternative to platinum-based CT/TRT although it has an acceptable toxicity profile and encouraging long-term survival data (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01652820).
Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has a central role in chemotherapy-induced DNA damage response. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family of proteins, PIAS1 and PIAS4, are also necessary for adequate DNA damage repair. To further understand the role of BRCA1 in DNA repair, we examined the mRNA expression of these genes in 133 advanced (stage III-IV) gastric cancer patients using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. All P values were two-sided. The median overall survival was 12.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.8 to 13.4 months). Among 59 patients receiving second-line docetaxel, the median overall survival was 25.8 months (95% CI = 9.2 to 42.4 months) for patients with high BRCA1 expression, 19.1 months (95% CI = 3.4 to 34.8 months) for those with intermediate expression, and 9.5 months (95% CI = 8.7 to 10.2 months) for those with low expression (P = .0062). The risk of mortality was higher in patients with low BRCA1 levels compared with high BRCA1 levels (hazard ratio of death = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.03 to 5.97, P = .037). Survival in patients receiving second-line docetaxel-based chemotherapy showed a similar trend with PIAS1 and PIAS4 mRNA expression levels, although the associations for PIAS4 were not statistically significant.
The host-cell reactivation assay (HCRA) is a functional assay that allows the identification of the genes responsible for DNA repair-deficient syndromes, such as Xeroderma pigmentosum, by cross-complementation experiments. It has also been used in molecular epidemiology studies to correlate the low nucleotide excision repair pathway function in peripheral blood lymphocytes with an increased risk of bladder, head and neck, skin and lung cancers. Herein, we present the technical validation of a newly modified HCRA, where nucleofection is used for the transfection of the pmaxGFP plasmid into cryopreserved peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) or lymphoblastoid cell lines. In each sample, 20-24h after transfection, the relative DNA repair capacity (DRC) was quantified by flow cytometry, comparing the transfection efficiency of nucleoporated cells with undamaged plasmid to those transfected with UV-light damaged plasmid in the seven cell lines that were characterized by different DNA repair phenotypes. Dead cells were excluded from the analysis. We observed a high reproducibility of the relative DRC, transfection efficiency and cell viability. The inter-experimental normalization of the flow cytometry resulted in an increased data accuracy and reproducibility. The amount of cells required for each transfection reaction was reduced fourfold, without affecting the final relative DRC. Furthermore, our HCRA demonstrated strong discrimination power in the UV-light dose-response, both in lymphoblastoid cell lines and cryopreserved PBLs. We also observed a strong correlation of the relative DRC data, when samples were measured against two independent batches of both damaged and undamaged plasmid DNA. The relative DRC variable shows a normal distribution when analyzed in the cryopreserved PBLs from a cohort of 35 lung cancer patients and a 5.59-fold variation in the relative DRC is identified among our patients. The mitotic dynamic was discarded as a confounding factor for the relative DRC measurement in this cohort of patients. The results indicate that our method is highly sensitive, reliable and reproducible, and thus, it suitable for population-based studies to quantify in vitro DNA-repair deficiencies.
National Health Service (NHS) mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce.
Although concurrent chemotherapy and radiation is the standard approach for good risk unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, there is no optimal concurrent chemotherapy regimen. Administration of chemotherapy at full dose with maximal activity against local and micrometastatic disease is highly desirable. This study tested the feasibility of 3 cycles of full dose cisplatin and pemetrexed concurrent with definitive thoracic radiotherapy followed by consolidation pemetrexed, without the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) exceeding 33% of the patients.
Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (deletion in exon 19 or L858R) show an impressive progression-free survival of 14 months when treated with erlotinib. However, the presence of EGFR mutations can only imperfectly predict outcome. We hypothesized that progression-free survival could be influenced both by the pretreatment EGFR T790M mutation and by components of DNA repair pathways.
Activating mutations in the form of deletions in exon 19 (del 19) or the missense mutation L858R in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) predict outcome to use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Pooled data from several phase II studies show that gefitinib and erlotinib induce responses in over 70% of NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations, with progression-free survival (PFS) ranging from 9 to 13 months. Two studies in Caucasian and Asian patients have confirmed that these subgroups of patients attain PFS up to 14 months. These landmark outcomes have been accompanied by new challenges, primarily the additional role of chemotherapy and the management of tumors with the secondary T790M mutation that confers resistance to EGFR TKIs. Mechanisms of resistance to reversible EGFR TKIs should be further clarified and could be related to modifications in DNA repair.
To address whether preoperative chemotherapy plus surgery or surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs disease-free survival compared with surgery alone among patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer.
The potential differential effect of first-line treatment and molecular mechanisms on survival to second-line chemotherapy or EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully investigated. In particular, CHFR is frequently methylated in NSCLC and may influence outcome. We analyzed the outcome of second-line chemotherapy or EGFR TKIs in 179 of 366 patients who had been treated in an ERCC1 mRNA-based customized cisplatin trial and correlated the results with CHFR methylation status. CHFR methylation in circulating DNA was examined by methylation-specific assay. A panel of seven human EGFR wild-type NSCLC cell lines was characterized for their sensitivity to sequential treatment with cisplatin and erlotinib, and the results were correlated with CHFR. Patients who had received first-line docetaxel/cisplatin attained an overall survival of 19.2 months when treated with second-line EGFR TKIs, in comparison with 10.7 months when treated with second-line chemotherapy (P = 0.0002). However, for patients who had received first-line docetaxel/gemcitabine, overall survival was 14.8 months with EGFR TKIs and 10.8 months with chemotherapy (P = 0.29). For patients with unmethylated CHFR overall survival to EGFR TKIs was 21.4 months, and 11.2 months for those with treated with chemotherapy (P = 0.0001). In the only lung tumor cell line not expressing CHFR, pretreatment with cisplatin was antagonistic to erlotinib, while it was synergistic in the other six lines. Second-line EGFR TKIs improved survival in patients receiving first-line cisplatin-based treatment. Unmethylated CHFR predicts increased survival to EGFR TKIs.
Key "driver" mutations have been discovered in specific subgroups of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Activating mutations in the form of deletions in exon 19 (del 19) or the missense mutation L858R in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) predict outcome to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Pooled data from several phase II studies show that gefitinib and erlotinib induce responses in over 70% of NSCLC patients harbouring EGFR mutations, with progression-free survival (PFS) ranging from 9 to 13 months and median survival of around 23 months. Two studies in Caucasian and Asian patients have confirmed that these subgroups of patients attain response rates of 70% with erlotinib and ge- fitinib, including complete responses, PFS up to 14 months and median survival up to 27 months. These landmark outcomes have been accompanied by new challenges: the additional role of chemotherapy and the management of tumours with the secondary T790M mutation that confers resistance to EGFR TKIs. Mechanisms of resistance to reversible EGFR TKIs should be further clarified and could be related to modifications in DNA repair. The presence of double mutations (T790M plus either L858R or del 19) at the time of diagnosis could be much more frequent than originally thought. The sensitivity to EGFR TKIs could be greatly influenced by the expression of genes involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining.
Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) confer hypersensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We evaluated the feasibility of large-scale screening for EGFR mutations in such patients and analyzed the association between the mutations and the outcome of erlotinib treatment.
Nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are associated with resistance to gemcitabine, cisplatin and paclitaxel in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CHRNA3, CHRNA5 and LOC123688 increase lung cancer risk. These SNPs may have influenced outcome in patients treated in our phase III trial. Stage IV NSCLC patients were treated with customized chemotherapy based on ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementing 1) mRNA expression. Patients in the control arm received docetaxel/cisplatin; patients in the genotypic arm with low levels of ERCC1 received docetaxel/cisplatin; patients in the genotypic arm with high levels of ERCC1 received docetaxel/gemcitabine. DNA was extracted from lymphocytes, and CHRNA3 (rs1051730), CHRNA5 (rs16969968) and LOC123688 (rs8034191) SNPs were genotyped with the Taqman allele discrimination assay. A significant interaction was found for CHRNA3 and PS (P=0.02). In patients with PS 0, CT patients had a better response than both CC (P=0.01) and TT (P=0.02) patients, and patients in the low genotypic group also had a better response (P=0.01). When the CHRNA3 genotype was added in the multivariate analysis for progression-free survival, an improvement was observed in the low genotypic group in PS 0 patients (P=0.02). PS 0 patients in the low genotypic group with the CT genotype attained an 84% response rate, 12.1-month progression-free survival, and 19-month median survival. CHRNA3 (rs1051730) genotyping can improve customized chemotherapy based on tumor assessment of ERCC1 mRNA in stage IV NSCLC with PS 0.
Median survival is 10 months and 2-year survival is 20% in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. A small fraction of non-squamous cell lung cancers harbor EGFR mutations, with improved outcome to gefitinib and erlotinib. Experimental evidence suggests that BRCA1 overexpression enhances sensitivity to docetaxel and resistance to cisplatin. RAP80 and Abraxas are interacting proteins that form complexes with BRCA1 and could modulate the effect of BRCA1. In order to further examine the effect of EGFR mutations and BRCA1 mRNA levels on outcome in advanced NSCLC, we performed a prospective non-randomized phase II clinical trial, testing the hypothesis that customized therapy would confer improved outcome over non-customized therapy. In an exploratory analysis, we also examined the effect of RAP80 and Abraxas mRNA levels.
Acquired resistance to EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is inevitable in metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancers. Here, we modeled disease progression using EGFR-mutant human tumor cell lines. Although five of six models displayed alterations already found in humans, one harbored an unexpected secondary NRAS Q61K mutation; resistant cells were sensitive to concurrent EGFR and MEK inhibition but to neither alone. Prompted by this finding and because RAS/RAF/MEK mutations are known mediators of acquired resistance in other solid tumors (colon cancers, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and melanomas) responsive to targeted therapies, we analyzed the frequency of secondary KRAS/NRAS/BRAF/MEK1 gene mutations in the largest collection to date of lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. No recurrent NRAS, KRAS, or MEK1 mutations were found in 212, 195, or 146 patient samples, respectively, but 2 of 195 (1%) were found to have mutations in BRAF (G469A and V600E). Ectopic expression of mutant NRAS or BRAF in drug-sensitive EGFR-mutant cells conferred resistance to EGFR TKIs that was overcome by addition of a MEK inhibitor. Collectively, these positive and negative results provide deeper insight into mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs in lung cancer and inform ongoing clinical trials designed to overcome resistance. In the context of emerging knowledge about mechanisms of acquired resistance to targeted therapies in various cancers, our data highlight the notion that, even though solid tumors share common signaling cascades, mediators of acquired resistance must be elucidated for each disease separately in the context of treatment.
Erlotinib has been shown to improve progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy when given as first-line treatment for Asian patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating EGFR mutations. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of erlotinib compared with standard chemotherapy for first-line treatment of European patients with advanced EGFR-mutation positive NSCLC.
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